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1 V 



LATINE REDDENDA: 

EXERCISES FROM 

rHE BEGINNER'S bAYlN BeeKi 



THE authors of the " Beginner's Latin Book " are of the 
opinion that a separate edition of the exercises for 
turning English into Latin will be a great convenience to 
teachers. 

After the exercises have been done once with the help 
of the special vocabularies and under the direction and 
criticism of the teacher, it will be found useful to review 
them again arid again, sometimes orally, sometimes in 
writing, with all helps in the way of rules, special vocabu- 
laries, and model sentences removed. The pupil is thus 
left to depend entirely upon his previous study and faith- 
ful attention to his teacher's instructions. 

It is believed also that teachers who use other elemen- 
tary Latin books will be glad to have, in cheap and con- 
venient form, a set of exercises which they can use as 
supplementary to their regular work. For such, an edition 
is published with an English-Latin vocabular)^. 

Both editions have the Ghssarium Grammaticum for 
the aid of those who wish to conduct recitations in Latin. 



INTRODUCTION PRICES. 
Edition with Glossarium Grammaticum (bound in paper), 20 cents. 
Edition with Glossarium Grammaticum and English-Latin Vocabulary 
(bound tn cloth), 30 cents. 

|{| ^ 



THE 



BEGINNER'8 LATIN BOOK. 



BT 



WILLIAM C. COLLAR, A.M., 

Hbad-Mastbb Roxbury Latin School, 



AND 



M. GRANT DANIELL, A.M.. 

Principal Chaunoy-Hall School, Boston. 



Longum iter est per praecepta, breve et efficax per exempla. 

Seneca 



Boston, U.S.A., and London: 

PUBLISHED BY GINN & COMPANY. 

1894. 



V- u^'i '". 18. •^'••i.>' '■ 



Harvard 

UNiVERsirrl 

LIBRARY 



Entbbbd at Stationebs' Haul. 



coptbight, 1886, bt 
William C. Oollab and M. Gbant Dahibll. 



All Rights Besebybd. 



Ttpoqbapht by J. S. Gushing & Co., Boston, U.S.A. 
Pbesswobk bt Ginn & Co., Boston, U.S.A. 



PREFAOR 



THE aim of this book is to serve as a preparation for 
reading, writing, and, to a less degree, for speaking 
Latin. It is designed primarily for boys and girls who 
are to begin the study of Latin at an early age; but as 
all who would get from Latin the best mental discipline, 
or lay a broad and firm foundation for Latin scholarship, 
must traverse pretty much the same road, and as Latin is 
begun in this country by most learners before any other 
foreign language is studied, a beginner's Latin book for 
those who take up the study at the age of ten or twelve 
need not be essentially different from one designed for 
learners of fourteen or fifteen. The most important dif- 
ference would lie in the knowledge of the terminology and 
principles of English grammar that might be deemed an in- 
dispensable prerequisite. As a matter of fact, children come 
to the study of Latin with all degrees of ignorance of Eng- 
lish grammar, and the minimum of necessary knowledge for 
the beginner is unquestionably very small. What minimum is 
considered essential for those who use this book, is indicated 
on page 6. It is hoped, therefore, that the contents of the 
book will justify its title ; that it does not assume too much, 
and is not too difiScult for the least mature who are likely to 
use it, and that it will not be found too much simplified, — 
too juvenile, for those who begin Latin in high schools and 
academies. Simplicity, clearness, and directness have been 
studied throughout. The system of inflected forms, which 
is seldom mastered, but the mastery of which is an indis- 



IV PREFACE. 



pensable condition of further pleasant, Buccessful, and profit- 
able study, is slowly but very fully developed, with the 
addition of abundant and varied exercises. For conven- 
ience, as well as on educational grounds, the paradigm of 
the verb \» given in one block, instead of in fragments de- 
tached and dispersed, and everywhere the active and passive 
forms are placed side b}' side, to be compared, and learned 
as they are treated, simultaneously. 

The idea underlying and controlling the plan is the maxi- 
mum of practice with the minimum of theory, on the princi- 
ple that the thorough acquisition of the elements of Latin 
must be more of art than science, — more the work of 
observation, comparison, and imitation, than the mechanical 
following of rules, or the exercise of analysis and conscious 
inductive reasoning. 

The book contains : — 

1. A brief introduction explaining the Roman and Eng- 
lish methods of pronunciation, the necessary paradigms, an 
outline of the most important principles of syntax, and a 
large number of exercises for translation into English and 
into Latin, accompanied by short explanatory notes. 

2. About twenty-five simple Latin dialogues, added to as 
many chapters. Some of these are on subjects of the 
lessons, and include a good many grammatical terms ; some 
are on various topics of school and holiday life ; and others 
on subjects historical and mythological. 

3. Easy selections for translation, consisting besides a 
number of fables, of extracts from Viri Romae, Nepos, Ovid, 
Catullus, CfiBsar, and Cicero, some interspersed with the 
lessons, others added at the end of the book. 

Those who seek in a first Latin book a complete presenta- 
tion of the facts and principles of the Latin language, will 
not be satisfied with this volume. But, in the opinion of the 
authors, there is no error in elementary instruction in Latin 
more common and more deplorable than that of failing to 



PBBFACB. 



discriminate between the relatively important and unimpor- 
tant ; between what is suited to the beginning and what to 
the more advanced stages of the study. It is not too much 
to say that a very great part of the barrenness and futility of 
the teaching and study of Latin in schools is due to this lack 
of discrimination, and to a false conception of thoroughness. 
It is not intended to imply that a hard and fast line can be 
drawn, still less is this book offered as a realization in this 
respect of the ideal. The ideal is never realized. But 
it has been the constant aim to make just this distinction : 
to determine ever}^ where, in the light of much observation 
and reflection and of long experience, what should be made 
the subject of immediate study, and what should be post- 
poned ; what is entitled to prominence, and what ought to be 
subordinated. Some excellent teachers think that the sub- 
junctive mood should have no place in a preparatory Latin 
book ; and undoubtedly the syntax of the subjunctive does 
involve too many and too great diflSculties for such a work, 
if anything more than an outline of some commoner uses is 
attempted. On the other hand, the learner can hardly read 
any Latin without encountering forms of the subjunctive. 
The best way then seems to be to construct a large number 
of very short sentences for practice on the forms, which 
shall exhibit, in the briefest compass, some important and 
most frequently recurring uses of the mood, more especially 
because the ways of translating the subjunctive cannot be 
illustrated from the isolated forms in the paradigms, as 
in the other moods. This idea has been worked out in 
part in Chapter LIV., the forms having been previously left 
untranslated. 

The coUoquia have been added, not as an integral and 
necessary part of the lessons, but to serve as an incentive to 
the moderate use of Latin orally in recitation, and to afford 
convenient exercises for training the ear and for enlarging 
the vocabulary of the learner. The grammatical terms have 



VI PREFACE. 



been drawn chiefly from the InstUutiones of Rudimann. 
The colloquium on page 5 has been borrowed from Dr. H. 
Meurer's Lateinisches Lesebuch^ and suggestions and parts 
of the materials for a very few others have been derived 
from the same source ; also two or three of the pas- 
sages for translation, and here and there some sentences 
in the exercises. Whoever examines these coUoquia with 
a critical eye, will find some words which are confined to 
the vocabularies of grammarians and commentators, and 
a very few others employed in senses for which it would 
be embarrassing to be required to cite classical authority. 
For example, the word pensum is used often in the sense 
of a schoolboy^s task^ something to be done or learned^ 
ajesson. This word doubtless meant strictly a spinner's 
task. But in classical Latin it had already approached the 
meaning ta^k in general, and it is but a very slight extension 
of its application to employ it as it is in the coUoquia, Such 
a moderate decanting of new wine into old bottles, it is 
hoped may be excused. Still if any teacher thinks that the 
Latinity of his pupils will be injured by the use of the coUo- 
quia^ it is optional with him to omit them altogether, without 
losing the continuity of the lessons. 

The complaint is very common, and its justice must 
be acknowledged, that first Latin books are often exces- 
sively and needlessly arid and wooden. Accordingly an 
effort has been made, while following a rigorously scientific 
method in the development of the successive subjects, to 
impart something of attractiveness, interest, freshness, and 
variety to the study of the elements of Latin by means of 
the coUoquia^ the choice of extracts for translation (intro- 
duced as early as possible) , and the mode of treatment in 
every part, extending even to the choice of Latin words, 
and to the construction of many of the exercises. 

Usage is not fixed in respect to the so-called principal 
parts of verbs, a few of the later school manuals giving the 



PBEFAOE. VU 



nominative masculine of the perfect participle, instead of the 
supine, except in the case of neuter or intransitive verbs. It 
has been thought better in this book to follow the prevailing 
practice, only to treat the form that has been called the 
supine in this connection, not as the supine, — which in most 
cases it is not and cannot be, since, as is well known, only 
about 230 verbs can be proved to have a supine, — but as the 
neuter of the perfect participle.^ Thus the learner is guarded 
against errors and is spared the perplexity of having to 
memorize now one, now another form. 

It is hoped that this book can be finished and reviewed by 
the average learner in a year, and that the transition then 
to Viri Romae, Nepos, or Caesar will not prove too difl3cult. 
More than two-thirds of the words used belong to the vocab- 
ulary of CfiBsar, and only a trifle less than two-thirds to that 
of Nepos. In the case of young pupils it may be advisable 
to omit the translation of the English exercises into Latin, 
beginning with Chapter LV., till after the selections for 
translation at the end of the book have been read. 

It remains to acknowledge the generous assistance of 
several scholars. Professor George M. Lane, of Harvard 
University, Professor George L. Kittredge, of Exeter 
Academy, N.H., George F. Forbes, A.M., and D. O. S. 
Lowell, A.M., both of the Roxbury Latin School, and Mar- 
shall W. Davis, A.B., of Thayer Academy, Braintree, read 
and criticised the work in manuscript. Mr. Forbes and Mr. 
Lowell also read the proof-sheets and made important sug- 
gestions and corrections. The authors feel especially in- 
debted to John Tetlow, A.M., Head-Master of the Boston 
Girls* High and Latin Schools, and author of Inductive Les- 
sons in Latin, for critically reading the proof-sheets, and for 
materially contributing to the improvement of the book by 

^ This plan has been followed by Dr. B. F. Leighton in his First 
&Up8 in Latin, 



Vm PBEFAGE. 

the correction of errors, and by the suggestions of his con- 
scientious and exact scholarship. 

Thanks are due to Mr. J. S. Gushing, under whose per- 
sonal direction the book has been printed, for the patience, 
care, and skill whicl: he has constantly exercised to make 
the work typographically as faultless as possible. 

WM. C. COLLAR. 

M. GRANT DANIELL. 

Boston, SepU 1, 1880. 

The autliors desire to express their grateful acknowledg- 
ments to Miss Caroline O. Stone, of the Roxbury Latin 
School, and to Professor E. M. Wallank, of Fort Worth, 
Texas, for the correction of errors that had been overlooked 
in the first editions. 

1889. 



OOlsrTEl^TS. 



CHAFTXB PAGE 

I. Introductory: Alphabet, Syllables, Quantity, Ac- 
cent, Cases, Gender 1-6 

II. First Declension. — Direct Object. -7 Possessive 

Dative. — Indirect Object 7-12 

III. Second Declension. — Words in ux and um, — Pre- 

dicate Noun 13-17 

IV. First and Second Declensions. — Agreement of 

Adjectives. — Colloquium, 58 17-19 

V. Second Declension. — Words in er. — Ablative of 

Agent 20-21 

VI. Second Declension. — Words in er. — Paradigms of 

Adjectives of First and Second Declensions . . 22-24 

Vn. The Verb Sum : Paradigm 25-26 

Vni. The Verb Sum: Present, Imperfect, and Future 
Indicative; Present Imperative and Infinitive. 
— Colloquium, 80 27-29 

IX. The Verb Sum: Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future 
Perfect Indicative ; Perfect Infinitive. — Collo- 
quium, 85 30-31 

X. First Conjugation : Paradigm of the Verb Am5 . 32-34 

XI. First Conjugation : Present, Imperfect, and Future 
Indicative; Present Imperative and Infinitive. — 
Ablative of Means. — Colloquium, 95 ... . 35-38 

XII. First Conjugation : Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future 

Perfect Indicative ; Perfect Infinitive .... 39-41 

Xni. Third Declension : Mute Stems. — Colloquium, 111 . 41-43 
XIV. Second Conjugation : Paradigm of the Verb MoneS 44-46 

XV. Second Conjugation : Present, Imperfect, and Future 

Indicative ; Present Imperative and Infinitive • 46-49 



CONTENTS, 



CHAPTEB PAGB 

XVI. Second Conjugation: Perfect, Pluperfect, and 
Future Perfect Indicative ; Perfect Infinitive. 
— Colloquium, 126 49-52 

XVII. Review of First and Second Conjugations. — 

Ablative of Separation. — Colloquium, 133 . 53-55 

XVIII. Third Declension : Liquid Stems. — Ablative of 

Time. — Colloquium, 139 56-58 

XIX. Third Declension : Sibilant Stems. — Ablative 

of Manner. — Colloquium, 148 59-62 

XX. Third Declension: Stems in i. — Apposition. — 

Colloquium, 1Q2 62-67 

XXI. Third Declension : Mixed Stems. — Rules of 

Gender. — Colloquium, 173 68-72 

XXU. Third Declension : Review 72-73 

XXIII. Third Conjugation : Paradigm of the Verb Rego, 74-76 

XXIV. Third Conjugation : Present, Imperfect, and Fu- 

ture Indicative; Present Imperative and Infini- 
tive. — Colloquium, 187. — Passage for Trans- - 
lation, 188 76-80 

XXV. Third Conjugation : Perfect, Pluperfect, and Fu- 
ture Perfect Indicative ; Perfect Infinitive. — 
Colloquium, 195 80-84 

XXVI. Review. — Passage for Translation, 199 . . . 84-86 

XXVII. Irregular Adjectives. — Colloquium, 204 . . . 86-89 

XXVIII. Comparison of Adjectives. — Declension of the 
Comparative. — Ablative with Comparatives. 
— Passage for Translation, 215 89-92 

XXIX. Formation and Comparison of Adverbs. — Col- 
loquium, 222 93-96 

XXX. Fourth Conjugation : Paradigm of the Verb 

AudiS 96-98 

XXXI. Fourth Conjugation: Present, Imperfect, and 
Future Indicative; Present Imperative and 
Infinitive 99-100 



CONTENTS. xi 



CHAPTXB PAGE 

XXXII. Fourth Conjugation : Perfect, Pluperfect, and 
Future Perfect Indicative ; Perfect Infini- 
tive.— CoZZo^mum, 234 101-103 

XXXin. Third Conjugation : Paradigm of the Verb 

CapiS 104-105 

XXXrV. Third Conjugation : Verbs in id, — Tenses of 
the Indicative ; Present Imperative ; Pres- 
ent and Perfect Infinitive 106-107 

XXXV. Review of the Four Conjugations. — Collo- 
quium, 242 108-110 

XXXVI. Fourth Declension 110-112 

XXXVII. Fifth Declension. — Ablative of Specifica- 
tion. — Colloquium, 2Q1 112-115 

XXXVIII. Special Paradigms.— Passage for Translation, 115-116 

XXXIX. Personal and Possessive Pronouns. — Collo- 
quium, 2Q0 117-119 

XL. Determinative Pronouns. — Colloquium, 274: . 120-122 

XLL Demonstrative Pronouns 123-125 

XLII. Relative, InteiTogative, and Indefinite Pro- 
nouns. — Agreement of Relative .... 126-130 

XLIII. Review of Pronouns. — Colloquium, 290. — 

Passage for Translation, 291 130-134 

XLrV. Compounds of Sum. — Dative 134-137 

XLV. Deponent Verbs : First and Second Conjuga- 
tions. — Colloquium, 302 137-140 

XL VI. Deponent Verbs: Third and Fourth Con- 
jugations. — Ablative with Utor, etc. — 
Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting . 140-142 
XL VII. Numerals. — Accusative of Extent . . . 143-146 

XLVIII. Irregular Verbs : Volo, N616, Maio. — Pas- 
sage for Translation, 320 146-149 

XLIX. Irregular Verbs : Far 6 and its compounds . 149-152 

L. Irregular Verbs : E6,PI6.— Co//oymwm, 332, 152-156 

LI. Prepositions. Expressions of Place. — Pas- 
sage for Translation, 339 156-160 



XU CONTENTS. 



CHAFTXB PAGB 

LII. Partitiye Genitive. — DescripUye Ablative and 
Genitive. — Dative with Intransitives. — Da- 
tive of Service 160-161 

162-164 



Reading Lessons: Letters. — Fables. — Caesar's Two 
Invasions of Britain. — Customs and Habits of the 

Britons 211-222 

Latin-English Vocabulary 223-259 

English-Latin Vocabulary 260-273 

Glossakium Grammaticum 274-276 






LIII. Derivation. — Comparison of Words . . . 

LIV. The Subjunctive : Sequence of Tenses. — Forms 

— Purpose Clauses with Ut and N6 . . . 164-171 

LV. The Subjunctive: Relative of Purpose . . . 171-172 

LVT. The Subjunctive: Result Clauses with Ut ; 

and NS 173-174 ; 

LVII. The Subjunctive: Cum Temporal; Cum Causal ' 

and Concessive. — Passage for Translation, 
878 175-178 

LVm. The Subjunctive : Indirect Questions • • • • 178-180 

LIX. The Subjunctive: Wishes and Conditions. — 

Colloquium, 888 180-184 

LX. The Subjunctive and Imperative. — Passage for 

Translation, 894 184-187 

LXI. The Infinitive 187-188 

LXn. Accusative and Infinitive: Indirect Discourse. 

— Passage for Translation, 407 ..... 189-194 

LXIII. Participles 194-196 

LXIV. Participles : Ablative Absolute 197-199 ! 

LXV. Impersonal Verbs : Miseret, etc. — Intransitive 
Verbs in Passive. — Passage for Translation^ 

421 200-S08 

LXVI. Periphrastic Conjugations : Dative of Agent • 204-207 
LXVII. Geruild. — Gerundive. — Supine 208-210 



It is suggested to teachers who are much pressed for time, that 
the following sections may be omitted without too serious loss : — 

93, II. ; 118, II. ; 124 ; 127 ; 143, II. ; 150 ; 171 ; 173 ; 178 ; 185, 
n.; 193,11.; 196; 197; 220, HI. ; 263; 274; 277,11.; 285; 288; 
330; 345; 394; 421; 428. 

Attention is also called to the note introductory to Chapter LV. 
Should it be necessary to curtail still more, it is recommended that 
it be done by occasionally omitting alternate sentences in 4he 
exercises to be translated into Latin. 

w. c. c. 

M. G. D. 

Boston, June, 1891. 



BEGINNEE'S LATIN BOOK. 

— -^:»«o€ — 

CHAPTER I. 
INTRODUCTORY. 

It Is snggested to teachers who are not experienced in teaching Latin 
that this chapter may, perhaps, be most profitably used for reference. 
Pupils will catch pronunciation quickly from the lips of the teacher ; and 
as they make mistakes, they will be interested in being referred to the 
rules of pronunciation. It is therefore advised that the teacher begin 
with the Colloquium^ page 5, pronouncing slowly each sentence, the pupils 
following successively, and then together. In the same way the teacher 
might then construe Uterally. 

% Alphabet. — The Latin alphabet has no w. 
Otherwise it is the same as the English. 

2. Vowels. — ^Vowels may be long (marked thus "), 
short (marked thus ^), or common^ (marked thus *). 
The long vowel occupies double the time of the short 
in pronouncing. 



3. Consonants. — Of the consonants 

The mutes are : F-mutes . . . p, b, f 

T-mutes 

K-mutes 
The liquids are • . . 
The sibilant is ... 
The double consonants are 



t, d 

k, c, g, q (u) 

1, m, n, r 

8 

X = OB,^ z = da. 



^ That is, sometimes long and ^ Also represents the combine 

sometimes short. tions hsy qiiSy gs, vs. 



2 pronunciation. 

4. Sounds of the Letters, Roman Method. 

VoweU. 
ft is sounded like the last a in papd^. 



& 


it 


tt 


the first a in pqpdf. 


« 


tt 


U 


e in they. 


8 


ti 


tt 


e in meL 


I 


(( 


tt 


i in machine* 


I 


(( 


u 


i in pin. 


5 


K 


tt 


in holy. 


6 


tt 


it 


in whdUy.^ 


na 


tt 


tt 


00 in hooL 


tt 


tt 


tt 


00 mfooL 



Diphthongs, 

ae is sounded like ai in aisle. 

au " " ou in our. 

ei " " ei in et^A/. 

oe " " 01 in boil, 

eu " " eu in feud, ^ 

ui " " we. 

Consonants. 

Consonants generally have the same sounds as in English. But 
observe the following : — 

o is sounded like c in come. 



6 


« 


tt 


9 in get. 


J 


tt 


it 


y in yes. 


8 


tt 


tt 


s in sun.^ 


t 


it 


tt 


t in time.^ 


V 


tt 


tt 


to in wine. 


ch 


tt 


tt 


k in Idte, 



1 That is, as the word is com- gu and su before a vowel, u is a 

monly pronounced ; the sound semi-vowel or consonant, and is 

heard in Ao7v> shortened. pronounced like w. 

s In quj and also commonly in ^ Never like z, ^ Never like sk. 



PEONUNCIATION. 8 



5. Syllables. 

1. A syllable consists of a vowel or diphthong with / 
or without one or more consonants. Hence a word ^ 
has as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs : 
ae-grn-tu'-ddy sickness. 

2. When a word is divided into syllables, a single con- (/ 
sonant is joined with the vowel following : arina'-bi-lis, 
amiable. 

8. If there are two or more consonants between two . 
vowels, as many are joined with the following vowel ^^ 
as can be pronounced at the beginning of a word or 
syllable: ina '-pro-bus, JacZ/ ho-spes, guest. 

4. But in compound words the division must show 
the component parts: ab'-est (ab, away; est, he is), 
he is away. 

6. The last syllable of a word is called the ultima; L 
the one next to the last, the penult ; the one before the 
penult, the antepenult. 

6. Quantity. 

1. A vowel is short before a vowel (with few excep- 
tions) or A, also probably before nt and nd : pd-e'-ma, 
poem; gra'-ti-ae, thanks; ni'-hil, nothing; a'-mant, 
they love; mo-nen'-dus, to he advised. 

2. Diphthongs, vowels representing diphthongs, vow- 
els resulting from contraction, and vowels followed by 
wf, w«, y, and commonly gn^ are long : in-i'-quus (inae- 
quus), unequal; c6 -go (cdago), collect; c6n'-fe-r6, bring 
together; men'-sa, table; hu'-jus, of him; ma'-grnus, ^rea^ 
In this book only long vowels are marked, unless foi 
some special reason. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



i/ 8. A syllable is long when it contains a long vowel 
or a diphthong : vo'-ces, voices ; ae'-des, temple. 

4, A syllable is long if it has a short vowel followed 
by two or more consonants (except a mute followed by 

• I or r), or by a; or 2 ; but the short vowel is still pro- 
nounced short: sunt,^ they are; tem'-planiy temple; 
duxy^ leader. 

5. A syllable is common if it has a short vowel fol- 
lowed by a mute with Z or r: te'-ne-brae, darkness. 
The vowel is pronounced short. 

The above statements are useful in determining the place of 
the accent. 

7. Accent. 

. ' 1. Words of two syllables have the accent on the 

first : tu'-ba, trumpet. 

2. Words of more than two syllables have the accent 
on the penult when the penult is long, otherwise on the 
^ antepenult: prae-di'-co, foretell; prae'-di-c6, declare; 
ille'-ce-brae, snares ; pa-tep'-iius,^ paternal. 

(1) Several words, called enclitics, of which the commonest are 
ne, the sign of a question, and que, and, are appended to other 
words, and such words are then accented on the syllable preceding 
the ne or que : axnat'-ne, does he love f dona'-que, and gifts, 

8. English Method of Pronunciation. — By this 
method the above rules relating to syllables (5) and 
accent (7) are observed, and words aj-e pronounced 
substantially as in English ; but final es is sounded as 
in English ease^ and final os (ace. plur.) as in dose. 

^ u pronounced like oo in foot. the penult is short, the syllable is 
^ Here, though the vowel of long by 6* 4. 



PRONUNCIATION. 



The following colloquium may be used, if the teacher wishes, for 
practice, and to illustrate the foregoing statements. See introduc- 
tory note, page 1. 



9. 



COLLOQUIUM. 



Augustus. Quid tibi vis? 

lulus. Teonm ambulare ye- 
lim. 

A. Ego 110I5 ; doml manSre 
male. 

I. Our mavis? 

A. Ego et frater yesperl 
cum patre ambtdare malu- 
mns. 

J. Onr mSoTim per silyas 
vagan non ynltis ? 

A. Quod yesperl amoeni- 
tate fml malnmns quam sOlis 
ard5re. 

I. At jam saepe mScnm 
ambtdare nSlnistl. 

A. NOn rSctS dlcis; tSm 
est causa cfbr tScnm ambtdare 
nSlim ; at ctim horttis avl satis 
ampins sit et lacnm silyamqtie 
contineati ibi mSltuntis Ifldere. 
Si yl8, nStoctim venL 



WhcU do you wish {for your* 
self) ? 

I should like to take a walk 
with you. 

I don't want to; I prefer to 
stay at home. 

Why dp you prefer (that) f 

My brother and I had rather 
take a walk at evening with our 
father. 

Why don't you want to roam 
with me through the woods? 

Because we had rather en^ 
joy the pleasantness of evening 
than the heat of the sun. 

But often before now you have 
not wanted to walk with me. 

What you say is not true; 
there is no reason why I should 
not want to walk with you; but 
since grandfather's garden is 
quite large, and has a pond and 
a grove, we had rather play 
there. If you like, come with us* 



10. Cases. ^ 

1. The names of the cases in Latin are : nominative, 
vocative, genitive, dative, accusative, ablative. 



CASE AND 6ENDEB. 



2. The vocative is the case of address, but it does 
not differ in form from the nominative, except in the 
singular of nouns and adjectives in U8 of the second 
declension, and hence is not elsewhere given separately 
in the paradigms. 

3. Another case, the locative^ which denotes the place 
of an action, is mostly confined to proper names, and 
has the form of the ablative (sometimes dative) singular 
or plural, or of the genitive singular. 

11. Gender. — The gender of Latin nouns is deter- 
mined partly, as in* English, by the meaning, but much 
oftener by the termination. 

1. Nouns denoting males are masculine: agricola, 
farmer; Cicero, Cicero. 

2. Nouns denoting females are feminine: regina, 
queen; TuUia, Tullia. 

3. Names of rivers, winds, and months are masculine : 
Padusy Po ; aquilo, north wind ; Janiiarius, January/, 

4. Names of countries, towns, islands, and trees, are 
feminine : Africa, Africa; Roma, Rome; Sicilia, Sicily; 
pirus, pear-tree. 

5. Indeclinable nouns are neuter: fas, right. 

Other rules of gender will be given under the several declensions. 



It is assumed that the learner knows the names and functions 
of the parts of speech in English, and the meanings of the common 
grammatical terms, such as subject and predicatey case, moody tense y 
voiccy declensiony conjugation, etc. So much knowledge is absolutely 
essential for entering upon the study of the following lessons. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 



CHAPTER II. 1. 

FIRST DECLENSION. 

12. The stem^ ends in a. 

13. Gender, — The gender is feminine; but see 
general rules, 11. 

14. PARADIGM. 

SINGULAR. PLUSiLL. 

N.V. tuba, a trumpet. N.V. tubae, trumpets, 

G. tvib^iet of a trumpet, G. tub arum, q/* ^rwmpete. 

D. tub ae, to or for a trumpet, D. tubw, to or for trumpets, 

Ac. ix]\>BXXit a trumpet, 'Ac. i\}b^f trumpets, 
Ab. tuba,^ with a trumpet, Ab. tub Is, with trumpets, 

1, For the reason why the vocative case is not given separately 
in the paradigm see 10. 2. 

2. Examples of the locative case (10. 3) in this declension are : 
Romae, at Rome; Atheuis, at Athens, 

16. Terminations. — These consist of case-endings, 
joined with the final letter of the stem. But sometimes 
the final letter of the stem is lost, and sometimes the 
case-ending. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N.V. a ae 

G. ae SLruxn 

D. ae b 

Ac. am as 

Ab. a Is 



^ The stem is the common base to 
which certain letters are added to 
express the relation of the word 
to other words. 

^ The ablative is variously ren- 



dered, according to its connection. 
It is therefore recommended that, 
in declining words, no translation 
of the ablative be given till its use 
has been illustrated. See p. 20, n. L 



8 



FIRST DECLENSION. 



16* Obsenre that the genitive and dative singular and nomina- 
tive plural are alike ; also the dative and ablative plural. 

17* In Latin there is no article: tuba may be translated 
a trumpet^ the trumpet, or trumpet. 

18» The pupil should commit to memory the table of termina- 
tions. 



19. 



2. 

VOCABULARY. 



NOUNS. 

aquilay f., eagle, 
cauday f., tail, 
columbay f., dove, 
niia»^ F., daughter, 
puellay F., girl, 
reg^JHAf T., queen, 
rosa,^ F., rose, 
via, F., road, street, way. 



esty (he, she, it) is, 
sunty (they) are. 



VERBS. 



ADJECTIVES,' 

albay white, 
bona, good. 
dnray hard, 
lata, wide, broad. 
longa, long, 
magna, large, 
mala, bad, 
parva, small, little, 

habet, (he, she, it) has, 
habent, (they) have. 



20. Observe that in the above verb-forms the singular ends 
in t, and the plural in nt. 



Nominative and Accusative. 
21. exercises. 

I.* 1. Viae latae. 2. Via lata. 3. Vias latas. 4. Viam 
latam. 5. Cauda longa. 6. Caudas longas. 7. Caudam 
loDgam. 8. Caudae longae. 9. Columbas parvas. 10. Co- 



^ Filia and dea, goddess, have 
a dative and ablative plural in 
-dbus, but this is mostly confined 
to legal and religious language. 

2 Caution : Do not pronounce 
s like z, if you use the Boman 
method. See page 2, note 3. 



8 The masculine and neuter of 
adjectives will be taken up in con- 
nection with nouns of the second 
declension. 

* Observe that the adjective 
takes the case and number of the 
noun to which it belongs. 



FIRST DECLENSION. 9 

lumbae parvae. 11. Columba parya. 12. Columbam par- 
vam. 13. Rosam albam. 14. Rosae albae. 15. Rosa alba. 
16. Rosas albas. 17. Regina mala. 18. Reginas malas. 

n. In like manner give the nominative and accusative in both 
numbers of the words meaning little gxrl^ great eagle, good queen, 
tvide street. Decline together rosa alba, via longai bona puella. 

3. 

22. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Via est longa. 2. Dura est via. 3. Paellae rosas 
habent. 4. Regina columbam babet. 5. Rosae sunt albae. 

6. Cauda est alba. 7. Caudae sunt longae. 8. Aquila cau- 
dam habet. 9. Fuellae tubas habent. 10. Aquilae sunt 
magnae. 

II. 1. Via dura est longa. 2. Puella bona rosam habet. 
3. Columba caudam parvam habet. 4. Reginae albas rosas 
habent. 5. Rosa parva est alba. 6. Aquila magna est alba. 

7. Tubae magnae sunt longae. 8. Puella tubam longam 
habet. 9. Filiae bonae columbas habent. 10. Aquila magna 
latam caudam habet. 

23. Notice the order of the words in the above sentences, and 
see wherein it differs from the order in English. You will find 
that — 

1. The adjective is more commonly placed after its noun. When 
placed before the noun it is often for emphasis. 

2. The verb commonly comes at the end of the sentence, but 
est and sunt are less frequently so placed. 

3. The object commonly comes before the verb. 

24* Observe that the subject is in the nominative case, and 
that the verb agrees with it in number, as in English. 

25. Observe that the verb habet (habent) is transitive, and 
has its object in the accusative. 

26. Rule of Syntax. — The direct object of a 
transitlTe verb is in the accusative case. 



10 FIEST DECLENSION. 

4. 
27. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. The roads are broad. 2. The streets are long. 
3. Queens have doves. 4. The girl has a rose. 5. Eagles 
have tails. 6. The dove is white. 7. The girl has a trumpet. 
8. The eagle is large. 9. The rose is white. 10. The girls 
are small. 

n. 1. The long way is hard. 2. Good girls have roses. 
3. Doves have small tails. 4. Great eagles have broad tails. 
5. The good queen has a dove. 6. The little girls have 
large trumpets. 7. The little dove is white. 8. The queen 
is good. 9. The good queen has a little daughter. 10. A 
little girl has a white rose. 

28. Answer the follomng in Latin :^ — 

1. Estne' via lata? 2. Habetne puella rosam? 3. Ha- 
bentne aquilae caudas longas? 4. Quid {what) habet regina 
bona? 5. Quid habent puellae bonae? 6. Habentne co- 
lumbae caudas? 

5. 

29. VOCABULARY. 



NOUNS. 




alay F., wing. 


Galba, m., Galba, 


Britannia, f., Britain, 


hora, F., hour. 


Cornelia, f., Cornelia, 


luna, F., moon. 


ADJECTIVES. 


VERBS. 


multa, much (pi. many). 


amat, {he, she, it) loves. 


plena, fuU, 


amant, (they) love. 


pTimOfJirst, 


dat, (he J she, it) gives. 


secunda, second. 


dant, (they) give. 


CONJUNCTION. 


ADVERB. 


et, and. 


non, not. 



1 Every answer should form a ^ The particle ne is appended 

complete sentence. To the ques- to some word in a sentence, often 
tion est-ne via longa ? the answer the verb, as a sign of a question, 
should be via est longa. and is not to be translated by any 

separate word. 



first declension. 11 

Genitive and Dative. 

aO. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Ltinae plenae. 2. Lunamm plenarum. 3. Ltinis 
plenis. 4. Horarum primarum. 5. Horis primls. 6. Fflia 
Galbae.^ 7. FUiis Corneliae. 8. Eosis albis. 9. Columbae 
parvae. 10. Aquilarum alarum. 

II. 1. The queen's daughter. 2. The queens' daughters. 
3. For the girl's rose. 4. Of the wings of the dove. 5. For 
Cornelia's daughter. 6. Of Britain. 7. For ieagles. 8. Of 
the long streets. 9. For the little girls. 10. To the small 
trumpet. 

6. 

31. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Puellae (dative) est rosa. 2. Puella rosam habet. 
3. Reginis sunt columbae. 4. Reginae columbas habent. 
5. Rosa puellae est alba. 6. Rosae puellarum- sunt albae. 
7. Galba filiae^ columbam dat. 8. Cornelia puellis rosas 
dat. 9. Galba Corneliae aquilam dat. 10. Galba et Cor- 
nelia filias habent. 

II. 1. Filiae Corneliae rosas albas habent. 2. Cornelia 
puellae parvae rosam magnam dat. 3. £st^ hora prima lunae 
plenae. 4. Hora est^ secunda et luna est plena. 5. Magna 
est rosa pnellae parvae. 6. Galba puellae tubam parvam 
dat. 7. Columbae albae sunt filiae bonae. 8. Multae et 
longae sunt Britanniae viae. 9. Britannia reginam bonam 
habet. 10. Galba filiis bonae reginae rosas mnltas dat. 

32. The first sentence in I. is literally translated to the girl is 
a rose. Evidently the meaning is the girl has a rose, the same as 
that of the second. The dative thus used with est or sunt is called 
the Dative of the FoBsesBor, or the FoBBesBive Dative. 

1 Galba's daughter. The geni- ^ Translate, his daughter, 

tive is often to be translated by * It is, 

the English possessive. 



■}i 



/ , 



12 FIBST DEGLEl^SIOK. 

33. Examine the seyenth sentence in I. The transitive verb 
dat had a direct object, columbam ; but it also has a dative limit- 
ing it, flliae. This dative is called an Indirect Object. Find 
other illustrations of the following : 

34. Rule of Syntax. — The indirect ooject is put 
in tlie dative. 

7. 

35. EXERCISES. 

1. Before turning the following sentences into Latin, translate 
mentally 2, 6, and 10, in 31. II., taking the words as they stand. 
Observe that the indirect object precedes the direct. 

2. In the following exercises try to cast each sentence into the 
Latin form before thinking of the Latin words. Thus, the sixth 
sentence will take the form, the girl to the queen a rose gives; and 
the eighth, to a girl little is a rose little, or a girl little a rose little has. 

I. 1. It ^ is the first hour. 2. There ^ is a full moon. 
3. The moon is full. 4. The dove is small. 5. The tail of 
the eagle is broad. 6. The girl gives the queen* a rose. 
7. The queen's roses are white. 8.* A little girl has a little 
rose. 9.^The first hour is a long one.^ 10. Galba gives the 
girls some^ roses. 

II. 1. The queen's daughter has a white rose. 2. The 
queen of Britain gives the girl a great rose. 3. It is the 
second hour of the full moon. 4. The daughters of Cornelia 
are small girls.* 5. The daughters of Cornelia are good 
little^ girls.* 6. The little dove's tail is a long one. 7. The 
wings of eagles are long and broad. 8. Eagles have long, 
broad^ wings. 9. The little dove has a white tail. 10.* Many 
doves have white tails. 

1 Omit. Compare 31. II. 3 and 4. * Translate in two ways, like 

2 Omit. 31. 1., 1 and 2, 8 and 4. 
* That is, to the queen. Compare ^ Nominative. 

31. 1. 7, 8, and 9; and 31. II. 2, ^ In Jj^tm, good and little. 

6, and 10. ^ Long and broad. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 



18 



CHAPTER III. 1. 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

36. The stem ends in o. 

87. Gender. — Nouns ending in um are neuter; 
most others are masculine; but see general rules for 
gender, 11. 4. 

38. PARADIGMS.^ 



Hortus, 


garden. 


Bellum, 


\DaT, 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


N.V. hortus, S 


horti 


N.V. beUum 


bell a 


G. hortI 


hort5ruxii 


G. beUl 


bell 5mm 


D. hortS 


hortis 


D. bell 6 


belllB 


Ac. hortum 


hort58 


Ac. beUum 


beUa - 


Ab. hort5 


hortXs 


Ab. beUd 


belllB 



39. The vocative singular of nouns in u% of this 

declension ends in e. 

1. As these are the only Latin nouns having a form for the 
vocative different from the nominative, this peculiarity is best 
regarded and treated as an exception. 

40. Examples of the locative case (10. 3) in this declension 
are : CorinthI, at Corinth ; ThilrilB, at Thuriu 

41. 





TERMINATIONS. 




SINGULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Mmc, 


Neui, 


M<UC. 


Neui, 


N.V. us, S 


um 


I 


a 


G. i 


I 


5rum 


5rum 


D. ej 


d 


Is 


Is 


Ac. um 


um 


58 


a 


Ab. ej 


5 


IB 


Is 



42. Although the stem ends in o, the o does not appear except 
in the dat. and abl. singular and in the gen. and ace. plural. 

^ For peculiarities of nouns in ius and turn see 79. 



14 



SECOND DBOLBNSION. 



2. 




43. VOCABULARY. 




NOUNS. 




Masculine, Neuter. 




AmlcuSfJriend, bracchiuniy arm. 


(79.) 


cihuSf food. donum, gift. 




dlscipuluSy pupil, Svuniy egg. 




dominusy lord, master, pilum, javelin. 




equusy horse, pSculuniy cup. 


. 


servusy slave or servant, vinum, wine. 





ADJECTIVES. 

defessusy -a, -urn, tired. 
duruSy -a, -urn, hard, 
gprStuBy -ay -umv pleasing, 
novuSy -ay -um, new. 



VERBS. 

laudat, (he, she, it) praises.^ 
laudanty (they) praise. 
portaty {he, she, it) carries. 
portanty (they) carry. 



44* Adjectives of the first and second declensions 
have three terminations to mark the different genders : 
bonus, masculine; bona, feminine; bonum, neuter. 
The feminine of the adjective is declined like tuba, the 
masculine like bortus, and the neuter like bellum. 
The full declension of bonus is given on page 24.^ 

1. Form the masculine and neater of all the adjectives in 19 
and 29. 



45. 



Nominative and Accusative, 
exercises. 

I. 1. Amlci bonl. 2. Amicus bonus. 3. Amicos bonos. 
4. Ajnicum bonum. 5. Poculum novum. 6. Pocula nova. 
7. Equusdefessus. 8. Equum defessum. 9. Equos defessds. 
10. EquidefessT. 11. Pocula magna. 12. Servos malos. 



^ Ijaudat may be translated 
praises, is praising, or does praise. 
So of the other verb-forms. 



2 In declining adjectives, it will 
be found advantageous to decline 
each gender separately. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 16 



n. 1. In like manner form the nominative and accusative in 
both numbers of the words meaning long^ javelin^ hard mastery 
small horse, good wine. Decline together bonus cibus, servua 
malus, vlnum novum. 

46. Examine the following sentences : — 

Galba est amicus, Galba is a friend. 

Gkdba et Cornfilia sunt amicl, Galba and Cornelia are friends. 

1. Observe in these examples that the subject and predicate 
nouns are in the same case, just as in English. 

47. Rule op Syntax. — A noun in the predicate 
referring: to the same person or thing as the subject 
is in the same case. 

a 

48. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Donum est gratom. 2. Servos bonus est defessus. 
d. Amicus pflum portat. 4. Discipulus ovum durum habet. 
5. Equus defessus cibum portat. 6. Dona sunt pocula 
pai*va. 7. Discipulus bracchia longa habet. 8. Domini 
servos laudant. 9. Dominus servum laudat. 10. Servl p5- 
cula parva portant. 11. Novum equum laudat. 12. Equos 
nov5s laudant. 

II. 1. The servant has the cup. 2. The servants have 
the cups. 3. The pupil has wine and eggs. 4. The master 
has good food. 5. The gifts are long javelins. 6. The 
master and the slave are good friends. 7. The little horses 
are tired. 8. The new pupil has a big^ cup. 9. They praise 
the second horse. 10. He is praising the good master. 
11. They have some 'good friends. 12. The slave carries 
the cups and wine. 

1 The adjective must be of the ^ See page 19, note 1. 

same gender as the noun. * Omit. 



16 SECOND DECLENSION. 

" ' ■■■■■■■» — ^^^  I  w^^^^ . ,1. , ,       I ^^^^^  M I   mmm^m^^^^^^^0 

4. 
Genitive and Dative. 
49. exercises. 

I. 1. Anucis bonis. 2. AidTc5 bono. 3. AmicI boni. 

4. Anucorum bondrum. 5. Poculo novo. 6. Poculorum 
novorum. 7. Poculls no vis. 8. EquT defessl. 9. Equis 
defessls. 10. Equorum defess5rum. 11. Equo defesso. 
12. Servis bonis. 

II. In like manner, form the genitive and dative in both num- 
bers of the words meaning long javelin^ hard master, small horse, 
good wine. Decline together bonus amicus, discipulus malus, 
ddnum gr&tum. 

5. 

50. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Donum amici boni est gratum. 2. Servi boni domi- 
norum malorum sunt defessi. 3. Amicis discipuli dat^ pila 
multa. 4. Amico bon5 discipuli sunt pila multa. 5. Amici 
bondrum discipulorum pila multa habent. 6. Equus defes- 
sus cibum domini portat. 7. Longa sunt bracchia servi 
boni. 8. Dona domini servis sunt grata. 9. Puellis parvis 
ova alba dant.^ 10. Servi reginis 5va aquilarum dant. 

n. 1. The gift is pleasing to the good friend. 2.^ The 
slave has the master's cup. 3.^ The servants have the 
masters' cups. 4. The master gives the slave ^ a hard egg. 

5. The food of the master is wine and eggs. 6. The mas- 
ter praises the little pupil's cup. 7. The tired horses are 
carrying gifts for the friend. 8. The girl has many new* 
friends. 9. The broad cup is pleasing to the new pupil. 
10. The eagle's eggs are gifts of the good servant. 

1 When there is no subject ex- 2 Translate in twc ' . '> -^*^ 

pressed in the sentence, how is the * Not accusative, 

verb to be rendered 1 * Many and new. 



FIRST AKD SECOND DEOLEKSIONS. 17 

6. 

61. Answer the follomng in Latin :^ — 

1. Quid portat Jacobus (Janies) ? 2. Portatne domino* 
vinum et ova? 3. N5nne* portat ova columbae albae? 
4. Laudatne caudam longam equi albi? 5. Quid, Jacobe, 
habet domini filia in (in) poculo ? 

Form and answer five other questions in Latin. 



HK>>»{< 



CHAPTER IV. 1. 
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 

52. VOCABULARY. 

NOUNS. ADJECTIVES. 

MasculineA clarus, -a, -um, /amoM*. 

agPlcola, -ae, farmer. ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ 

nauta. -ae, sailor, ^ x *. .^ r si 

^ ' quartusy -a, -lun^ fourth, 

poeta, -ae, poet. q„intu8, -a, -urn, fifth. 

camw, .l,w<yon. ^^^j,„^^ _^ _^^ ^^^^ 

remus. -i, oar, ,, , . . , 

' ' valldusy -a, -uiUy strong y sturdy, 

ventus, -iy wind, 

Neuter, pbeposition. 

framentum, -I, grain. in (with ablative), tn, on. 

pabulum, -iy fodder, in (with accusative), into, to. 

53. In the preceding exercises an adjective qualifying a noun 
has had the same termination as the noun. Now observe the 
following examples: agricola bonus, a good farmer; agricolae 
boni, of a good farmer; agricolae bono, to or for a good farmer, 
etc. Here the adjective has a different termination from the noun. 
Since agricola is masculine, the adjective that goes with it must 
have the masculine form, as well as the same number and case. 

^ See note 1, p. 10. note 2, p. 10. So in English, a 

.*^.'^wii>iiw^itHShe master, question asked with not expects 

^ vv nen ne is appended to non, the answer yes, 

the answer yes is expected. See ^ See 11. 1. 



18 FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 

64. Rule op Syntax. — Adjectives agrree with their 
nouns in grender, number, and case. 

55. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. A^ricolae validL 2. Agricolam validum. 3. Agri- 
colas validos. 4. Agrieola validos. 5. Agricolae yalido. 

6. Agrieolanim validorum. 7. Agrieola valide. 

n. 1. A skilful sailor (nom. and ace.). 2. Skilful sailors 
(nom. and a^x.). 3. Of a skilful sailor. 4. For a skilful 
sailor. 5. Skilful sailor (voc). 6. For skilful sailors. 

7. Of a famous poet. 8. Of famous poets. 9. Pleasing 
poets. 10. A pleasing poet (nom. and a^.). 

2. 

56. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Hortus agricolae magnus est. 2. Agrieola validus 
hortum magnum habet. 3.^ Agricolae {dat.) est hortus mag- 
nus. 4. Nautae remus longus est. 5. Poeta vinum bonum 
agricolae periti laudat. 6. Hora est quarta. 7.^ Luna est 
plena. 8. Pabulum equi albi est frumentum. 9. Dominus 
servum peritum laudat. 10.^ Nautae (dat.) grata sunt ova et 
vinum agricolae boni. 

n. 1. O* agrieola valide, carrus est plenus finimenti. 
2. Domine bone, secunda hora est, et discipulus est de- 
fessus. 3. Hortos agricolarum peritorum laudant. 4. Po- 
culum magnum est vini plenum. 5. Agrieola bonus equo 
valido dat pabulum. 

^ See 32. ' Translate this sentence with- 
2 We may translate, there is a out changing the order of the 
full moon, it is a full moon, or the words, and you will feel the em- 
moon 18 full. There is nothing in phasis imparted to naatae from 
Latin answering to our it and there its position, 
used in this way at the beginning * O sometimes accompanies the 
of a sentence. vocatire. 



FIBST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. 19 

3. 

57. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. The poet likes ^ the farmer's wine. 2.^ Farmers have 
large wagons and strong horses. 3. Skilful sailors like a 
good breeze. 4. In the garden there* are many roses. 5. The 
poet and his* daughter are in the wagon. 6. The horse 
carries the farmer's grain. 7. There is wine in the little 
girl's cup. 8. There are many* small girls in the street. 
9. Galba carries fodder for the horses. 10. The food of 
the little dove is grain. 

II. 1. My (0) good friend, the master's cup is full. 
2. The servant gives the queen^ a large cup. 3. The strong 
sailors are carrying javelins in their* arms. 4. In the strong 
wagon is good fodder for the farmer's horses. 5. In the 
poet's gardens there are many friends. 6. Farmers have 
horses, wagons, doves, eggs, and* wine. 

4. 

58. COLLOQUIUM. 

Datne" Carolus (Charles) amlco cymbam (boat) ? 

Carolus amlco cymbam et remos dat. 

Quid in cymba habet Carolus ? 

Carolus remum et pHum in cymba habet. 

Quota (what) h5ra est?' Hora est quinta. 

Quid in carro habet rusticus (countryman) validus ? 

Quid in poculo deslderat (wants) rusticus defessus ? 



1 Occasionally words occur in * Omit, 

the English exercises which are * Many and small, 

purposely not given as definitions *» Not accusative, 

in the vocabularies, but by a little « Remember that ne is append- 

thought the pupil will understand ed as the sign of a question, 

what Latin word is meant. 7 j^at time is it f or. What it 



^ Translate in two ways. the time of day 9 



20 SECOND DECLENSION. 

CHAPTER V. 1. 

SECOND DECLENSION. 
59. PARADIGM. 



Puer, bi 


oy. 


Terminations. 


SIN6ULAB. 


PLURAL. 


SING. 


PLUR. 


N.V. puer 


pueri 


— 


i 


G. pueri 


puer5rum 


i 


5rum 


D. puer 6 


puer IB 


5 


Is 


Ac. puerum 


puer OS 


um 


58 


Ab. puer 6 ^ 

o. 


puer Is 

VOCABULARY. 


5 


Is 



gener, -eri, m., son-Maw, tener, -era, -erum, tender, 

liberty -orum, (pi.) m., children, sextusy -a, -um, sixth, 

socer, -eri, M,,father-in4aw, g (^j^j^ p^^p ^ ^y^i^ ^^^ away from, 

vir, vlri, M., man, hero. 

amatur, {he, she, it) is loved, 

asper, -era, -erum, rough, amantur, {they) are loved, 

liber, -era, -eruniy^ free, laudatur, {he, she, it) is praised, 

miser, -era, -erum, poor, wretched, laudantur, {they) are praised. 

pueri, general word for children. 

liberi, children of free parents. 

61. The farmer is praised hy the queen would be 
expressed in Latin thus: Agrncola a (or ab) reg^na 
laudatur ; and The queen is praised hy the farmer^ thus: 
Begrina ab (not a) agrricola laudatur. 

Observe that in the first sentence, r6gin&, and in the second, 
agricolt, denotes the person by whom the thing is done (the 
agent) ; also, that these words are in the ablative, and are preceded 
by & or ab. The ablative thus used, together with the preposition, an- 
swers the question by whom f and is called the Ablative of Agent. 

1 To translate puero, "with, ^ Decline the masculine of 

from, by a boy," as is commonly adjectives in er in this lesson 

done, is wholly wrong. With a boy like puer. The full declension is 

would be cum puero ; from, or by given on p. 24. 
a boy, & puero. See p. 7, note 2. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 21 

62. Rule op Syntax. — The agrent with passive 
verbs is expressed by the ablative with d or a6, — 
ab before vowels or h^ d or db before consonants. 

63. Read again 53 and 54, then add the proper terminations 
of the adjectives, and translate the following: — 

I. 1. Generi bon-, gener bon- {nom. and voc). 2. Vir 
magn-, a viro magn-. 3. Ab agricola defess-, agricolae 
miser-. 4. A regina tener-. 5. Pueri asper-. 

II. 1. By the bad father-in-law. 2. By the rough sailor. 
3. By the children of the hero. 4. The free men (worn, and 
ace). 5. Of the wretched sons-in-law. 

2. 

64. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Gener viri servus est. 2. Puer bonus ab amicd 
laudatur. 3. Liberi a nauta aspero amantur. 4. Fuella 
tenera columbas parvas amat. 5. Columbae parvae a puella 
tenera amantur. 6. Miseri servi a domino bond laudantur. 
7.^ Lata in via sunt pueri multl et asperi. 8. Equi valid! 
agricolae a liberls laudantur. 9. Filia socerl est misera. 
10. Viri filias poetae laudant. 

II. 1. The sons-in-law of the men are farmers. 2. Good 
men are praised by their ^ friends. 3. The boy is loved by 
the rough sailors. 4. The sixth boy is a new one.* 5. The 
tired children are in the farmer's wagon. 6. The tender 
dove is loved by the little girl. 7. Poor slaves are not 
praised by their rough masters. 8. The strong man is in 
the poet's garden. 9. The heroes are praised by the pupils. 
10. They love the daughter of the poor sailor. 

1 Adjective, preposition, noun, the three are combined. What is 
18 often the order where, as here, the English order 1 ^ Omit, 



22 SECOND DECLENSION. 



CHAPTER VI. 1. ^ 
SECOND DECLENSION. 



65. 



t 


PARADIGM. 






Ager 


,fi£ld. 


Terminations. 


SINOULAB. 


PLURAL. 


SING. 


PLUR. 


N.V. ager 


agri 


— 


I 


G. agri 


agrorum 


I 


drum 


D. agro 


agrla 


5 


b 


Ac. agrum 


agros 


um 


58 


Ab. agro 


agriB 


6 


Is 



Observe that the above terminations are the same as those on 
page 20. Wherein does the declension of ager differ from that 
of puer? 

66. VOCABULARY. 

aper, aprl, h.> boar, aeger, aegra, aegrum,^ sick, 

ciilter, cultriy m., knife, nlger, nigra, nlgruniy black, 

faber, -bri, h., smith, pulcher, pulchra, pulchruniy 
liber^^ -bri^ m., book, beautiful, handsome, 

mag^ster, -tri, m., master, ruber, rubra, rubrum, red, 

minister, -tri, m., servant, Septimus, -a, -um, seventh. 

magister, a superior ^ director; hence, master of a school, etc. 
dominus (43), master of a household, slaves, etc. 
minister, an inferior , attendant, servant, 
Bervus (43), a serving man, slave, 

67* Most noons in er are declined like ager, and most adjec- 
tives in er like aeger. The most important nouns and adjectives 
that keep the e before r in all the cases were given in the vocabu- 
lary, 60, and should now be committed to memory. 

68. Decline together equus niger, bonus faber, aper asper, 
vir aeger. 



* Distinguish Uber, free, from liber, book» * See p. 24. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 23 



2. 

69. EXERCISES. 

' I. 1. Socer est faber. 2. Magister est discipuli amicus. 
3. Generi viri sunt mimstri. 4. Culter puero est gratus. 
5. Libri magistri diseipuUs sunt grati. 6. Yinum ixibrum 
a fabro defesso amatur. 7. LibrI poetae a magistro aman- 
tur. 8. Puellae pulchrae virls rosas rubras dant. ,,.jftr-Nauta 
cultrum longum habet. 10.^ Libros multos in bracchiis por- 
tat puer. 

II. 1. The fathers-in-law are smiths.* 2. The masters 
are loved by their pupils. 3. The man's son-in-law is a 
servant. 4. The knives are pleasing to the little boy. 
5. The pretty f cups are liked by the boys and girls. 6. A 
girl gives a man* a beautiful rose. 7. The sailors have many 
long knives. 8. The children of the master are carrying* 
the books An their arms. 9. The smith's son-in-law has 
children. 10. There is a rough boar in the farmer's field. 

70. Answer the following in Latin : — 

1. Quis {who) est amicus poetae? 2. Quis est socer 
Carol! ? 3. Ubi (where) sunt discipuli magistri? 4. Amantne 
hodie (to-day) pensum (task) ? 5. Nonne Carolus cdiumbae 
frumentum hodie dat? 6. Quae (whoj fern.) rosas rubras 
habet? 7. Quis bracchia longa habet? 8. Quis est vir liber? 
9. Ubi est equus rustici? 10. Quae puellas pulchras habet? 
Ill Reglnane puellas pulchras habet? 12. Ubi sunt Jacob! 
-amid? 

^ What is peculiar in the order and sunt ? Compare the first three 

of the words ? Translate as the sentences in I. See rule, 47. 
words stand, and see what word is * See p. 19, note 1. 

made emphatic by its position. ^ Not accusative. 

^ What case is used after est * JN'ot passive. See p. 14, note 1. 



24 



SECOin> DECLENSION. 



Adjectives: Fikst 


AND Second ] 


Declensions 


71. 


PARADIGMS. 
Bonus, good. 






MASCULINE. 


FEMININE. 


NEUTER. 


Sing. N.V. 


bonus, S 


bona 


bon um 


G. 


boni 


bonae 


bon I 


D. 


bonO 


bonae 


bonO 


Ac 


bonum 


bon am 


bonum 


Ab. 


bonO 


bon& 


bon 5 


Plur. N.V. 


bonI 


bonae 


bona 


6. 


bon 5rum 


bon Arum 


bon drum 


D. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 


Ac 


bonds 


bon&s 


bona 


Ab. 


bonis 


bonis 


bonis 




IStoeXtfree. 




Sing. N.V. 


liber 


libera 


liber um 


G. 


liber I 


liber ae 


liberl 


D. 


liber S 


liber ae 


liber d 


Ac 


liber um 


liber am 


liber um 


Ab. 


liber 6 


liber & 


liber 


Plur. N.V. 


liberl 


liber ae 


libera 


G. 


liber 5rum 


liber arum 


liber 5rum 


D. 


liberls 


liberls 


liberls 


Ac 


liber ds 


liber Ss 


libera 


Ab. 


liberls 


liberls 


liberto 




Aeger, sick. 




Sing. N.V. 


aeger 


aegra 


aegrum 


G. 


aegri 


aegrae 


aegrI 


D. 


aegrS 


aegrae 


aegr5 


Ac. 


aegrum 


aegram 


aegrum 


Ab. 


aegrd 


aegra 


aegrO 


Plur. N.V. 


aegrI 


aegrae 


aegra 


G. 


aegrorum 


aegr&rum 


aegrdrum 


D. 


aegrls 


aegrls 


aegrlii 


Ac. 


aegrds 


aegrSs 


aegra 


Ab. 


aegrls 


aegrlii 


aegrls 



THE VEBB Sum. 25 



CHAPTER VII. 
THE IRREGULAR VERB Sum (stems es, fu), I am. 

72. Pnncipal parts, sum^ esse^ fui. 

73* For convenience the inflection of stun is given in full. 
Directions will be given from time to time as to what parts are 
to be learned. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

SINOULAR. PLURAL. 

1. sum,^ /am. 8 umus, we are. 

2. es, thou art,^ estis, you are, 

3. est, he (she^ it) is. sunt, they are. 

Imperfect. 

1. eram,^ / was. erftmus, we were. 

2. erfta, thou wast, er&tis, you were. 

3. erat, he was. erant, they were. 

Future. 

1. er5,^ / shall be. erimus, we shall he. 

2. eris, thou wilt he. eritis, you will he. 

3. erit, he will he. erunt, they will he. 

Perfect. 

1. fuI, / have been, was. fuimus, we have heeriy were. 

2. fuistl, thou hast been, wast. fuistlB, you have been, were. 

3. fait, he has been, was. «} * 

1 fu6re, they have been, were. 

Pluperfect. 

1. fueram, / had been. fuerftmus, we had been. 

2. fu erfta, thou hadst been. fuerfttis, you had been. 

3. fuerat, he had been, fuerant, they had been. 

^ Sum for esuin. of the verb, if by you one person 

^ Or, you arty as in the plural. only is meant. 
But in translating into Latin be ^ Eram for esam. 

careful to use the singular form ^ Ero for e90» 



26 



THE YEBB Sum. 



Future Perfect. 



SINGULAR. 

1. fuerd, / shall have been. 

2. f u eris, thou tvilt have been. 

3. fuerit, he will have been. 



PLURAL.. 

f u erimus, we shall have been, 
fueritis, you will have been, 
fuerint, they will have been. 



SUBJUNCTIVE.* 



Present, 
sing. plur. 

1. sim simus 

2. sis sitds 

3. sit sint 

Perfect. 

1. fuerim fuerlmus 

2. fueria fueritis 

3. fuerit fuerint 



Imperfect, 
sing. plur. 

essem essSmus 

essSs essStis 

asset essent 

Pluperfect. 

f u issem f u issSmiis 
fuissSs fuissStis 

fuisset fuissent 



IMPERATIVE. 
Present. 

PLURAL. 

es te, be ye. 

Future. 

2. estd, thou shall be. est5te, ye shall be, 

3. esto, he shall be, sunt5, thpy shall be. 



SINGULAR. 

2. es, be thou. 



INFINITIVE. 

Present, esse, to be. 
Perfect, fuisse, to have been. 
Future, futlirus esse, to be about to be, 

PARTICIPLE, 
f uterus, -a, -um, about to be. 



1 No meanings can be given to 
t^e subjunctive that are not mis- 
leading. Its forms are therefore 



better left untranslated until its 
use has been illustrated. The sub- 
junctive is treated on pp. 164-186. 



THE VERB Sum. 27 




CHAPTER VIIL 1. 
THE VERB Sum. 

74. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicatiye, and 
the present imperative and infinitive. 

75. EXERCISES. 

^^. 1. Est, erat, erit. 2. Sunt, erant, erunt. 3. Sumus, 
eramus, erimus. 4. Ero, eram, sum. 5. Eras, es, eris. 
6. Estis, eritis, eratis. 7. Es, este. 8. Esse. 

II. 1. I am, we are, I was, we were, I shall be, we shall 
be. 2. He was, they were, he is, they are, he will be, they 
will be. 3. You {sing.) will be, are, were. 4. You {piur.) 
will be, are, were. 5. Be ye, be thou. 6. To be. 

2. 

From this point the vocabularies follow the exercises, and it is 
recommended that the pupil go through the exercises mentally, 
referring to the vocabularies for the meanings of words. Before 
writing the translations into Latin the vocabularies should be re- 
viewed, but the task of committing to memory will then be found 
an easy one. 

76. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Inimlcus pilum habet. 2. luimlcO est pilum. 
3. Somnus puero erit gratus. 4. Liben agricolae erunt 
defessi. 5. Minerva aram in oppido habebat. 6. Minervae 
in oppido erat ara. 7. In terra viri, in aqua ranae sunt- 
8. Inimici eramus incolarum malorum. 9. Ocull domin! 
duri erant magni et nigri. 10.^ Domino duro erant oculi 
magnl et nigri. 11.^ Dominus durus oculos magnos ct 
nigros habebat. 12. Consilium fabri penti bonum erat. 

1 What word is betj^er left untranslated, though needed in the Latin ? 



28 THE VERB Sum. 



II. 1.^ The farmer had a wagon. 2. I shall be the man's 
friend. 3. There* is a large town on* the island. 4. There 
was a red egg on the table. 5. Children were carrying the 
food of the men. 6. A boy gave a smith* some* javelins. 
7. In the town are enemies of the inhabitants. 8. They 
were praising the words of the sturdy farmer. 9. The 
poet's gifts will be pleasing to Minerva. 10. Boys, be ye 
strong and skilful. 

3. 

77. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Eritis valido in carro agricolae periti. 2. Eras 
nonus discipulus et filius poetae erat octavus. 3. 6 miser 
serve, tu (thou) es inimicus pulchrae Minervae. 4. Amicus 
ero Minervae magnae. 5.* AgricolTs aratra dura et valida 
dabant viri. 6. In Britannia sunt oppida multa et magna. 
7. Puer bone, es amicus equi miseri. 

II. 1. A girl gave a sick sailor* some wine and water. 
2. The wine sha carried in a pretty^ cup. 3. He praised the 
maiden's^ pretty cup and the ruddy wine. 4. The maiden 
and the sailor were inhabitants of Britain. 5. Britain is a 
large island, and has handsome towns. 

78. VOCABULARY. 

aqua, -ae, f., water, incola, -ae, m. & f., inhabitant. 

ara, -ae, f., altar, inimicus, -i, m., enemy, 

aratrum, -I, n., plough. insula, -ae, f., island, 

cousiliam, -i, n., advice, plan. mensa, -ae, f., taUe, 

1 Translate in two ways. of 69. 1. 10, and see the note there. 

2 Omit. See p. 18, note 2. What name is given to the dative 
' See vocabulary, 52. agricolis 1 I 

* Indirect object, see 33 & 34. « See 69. II. 6, and note. 

* Compare the order with that ^ See p. 19, note 1, 



THE VEBB Sum. 29 



Minerva^ -ae, f., Minerva, god- oppldum, -i^ n., town, 

dess of wisdom, rfina, -ae^ v., frog, 

nOnuBy -a, -urn, adj., ninth, somnugy -i, m., sleep. 

octavuBy -a, -uniy adj., eighth. terra, -ae, f., eai-th, land, 

oculusy -if M., eye, verbum, -i, n., word. 

amabaty {he she it) was loving, loved, 
dabaty {he, she, it) was giving, gave, 
habebaty {he, she, it) was having, had, 
laudfibaty {he, she, it) was praising, praised, 
portabaty {he, she, it) was carrying, carried, 

amabanty they were loving, loved, 
dabant^ they were giving, gave, 
habebanty they were having, had, 
laudabant^ they were praising, praised, 
portabanty they were carrying, carried, 

79. Nouns in ius and iwn contract the genitive ending i\ 
to i: c5nsilL Fllius (sort) and genius {guardian deity), and 
proper nouns in ius, drop the e of the Tocative: fill, Mercuri, 
Mercury, But the word is accented as if the longer form were 
used. 



4. 
80. COLLOQUIUM. 

Nonne aquam in poculo habet f aber ? 
Minime. Faber in poculo habet novum vinum. 

no 

DesTderatne Galba somnum gratum ? 

wishes 

Certe, nam hodie est Galba defessus. 

certainly for to-day 

Ubi est amicus agricolae pigri? 

lazy 

Est in oppido, nam non amabat amlci consilium. 
Ubi sunt arma agricolarum validorum ? 

tools 

Agricolarum equi, earn, aratra sunt In agro. 



30 THE VEBB Sum. 



CHAPTER IX. 1. 
THE VERB Sum. 

81. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicatiye, 
and the perfect infinitive. See pp. 25 and 26. 

82^ EXERCISES. 

y(, 1. Fuit, Aierat, fuerit. 2. Fuerunt, fuerant, fuerint. 
3. Fuimus, fueramus, fuerimus. 4. Fuero, fueram, fuT. 
5. Fueras, fueris, fuisti. 6. Fuistis, fueritis, fueratis. 
7. Fuisse. 

II. 1. I have been, we have been, I had been, we had 
been, I shall have been, we shall have been. 2. He has 
been, they have been, he had been, they had been, he will 
have been, they will have been. 3. You (stwgr.) will have 
been, had been, have been. 4. You (pZwr.) will have been, 
had been, have been. 5. To have been. 

2. 

83. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. In Graecia erant templa multa. 2. In Graeeia 
erant templa deorum et dearum. 3. Aurum erat in statua 
Minervae. 4. Minervae fuit statua magna et clara. 5. Mi- 
nerva statuam magnam et claram habebat. 6. 'Multae et 
pulehrae erant Graeciae statuae. 7. Non alta erant pulchra 
Graeciae templa. 8. Fluvii Graeciae non lati et altl erant. 
9. Clari fuerunt mult! Graeci. 10. Graeeorum antiquorum 
erit gloria sempiterna. 

II. 1. They had been in the towns of the Greeks. 2. The 
monuments of Greece were temples and statues. 3. The 
statue of Minerva had a shield and spear. 4. The arms of 
the Greeks were shields and spears. 5. The gods had many 
stataes in Greece. 6. The red roses will be pleasing to the 



THE VERB Sum. 31 



queen. 7. The man's children are in the street. 8. He 
has been on the farmer's horse. 9. The children are carried 
in the poet's arms. 10. Many inhabitants of Britain have 
been skilful sailors. 

84. VOCABULARY. 

altuSy -a, -uniy adj., deep^ high. gloria, -ae, f., glory, 

antiquusy -a, -urn, adj., ancient. Graecia, -ae, f., Greece, 

armay -orum, n. (plur.), arms. GraecuSy -iy m., a Greek, 

aureus, -a, -um, adj., of gold, hasta, -ae, f., spear. 

golden. monumentuin, -i, n., monument 

aurum, -i, n., gold. scStum, -i, n., shield. 

dea, -ae, f., goddess, p. 8, n. 1. gempiternus, -a, -um, adj., ever* 
decimus, -a, -urn, adj., tenth. lasting, 

deus, -ly M., god (262). statua, -ae, f., statue, 

fluvlus, -i, M., riuer (79). templum, -i, n., temple. 



3. 
85. COLLOQUIUM. 

Duo PUERI. 
two 

Ubi est Carolus hodie? Nonne est in schola? 

Charleii school 

Minime. Est in fluvio ; nam habet c^^mbam parvam, et 
libenter navigat. 

likes SMiling 

Unde Carolo est cymba ? Where did C. get a boat ? 

whence to Chaples is a boat. 

Ab avunculo, nam Carolus ab avunculo amatur. 

from micle 

Quid in cymba portat Carolus ? 

Nescio ; procul dubio prandium ; etenim in animo 

I doD*t know donbUess luncheon for mind 

habet . . . 

Quid in animd habet ? 

Yale, bone amice, eras patSbit. 

good by to-morrow it will b« open » the secret will be out. 



32 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



CHAPTER X. 
FIRST CONJUGATION. 

86. A-Yebbs. 

Ain5 (stem amSL), love. 
Principal Farts : ^ amo, amftre, amftvl, amfttum. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 



INDICATIVE. 
Present. 



/ love, am loving, do love, etc, 
am 5 am&mus 

am Sla am SLtis 

am at am ant 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

/ am loved, etc. 
am or am &mur 

am SLris, or -re am tminl 
am fttur am antur 



Imperfect. 
/ loved, was loving, did love, etc, I was loved, etc. 

amSLbam amSLbftmus amftbar amftb&mur 

amSLbSLa amSLbfttis amftb&ris, or-re amSLbSUninl 

amSLbat amftbant amftb&tur amftbantur 



/ shall love, etc. 
am SLb5 am ftbimuB 

amSLbis amftbitis 

am &bit am ftbunt 



Future. 

/ shall he loved, etc. 

am &bor am SLbimur 

am ftberis, or -re am SLbiminI 

amftbitur amSLbuntur 

Perfect. 



/ have loved, I loved, etc, 
amav I amav imua 

amav istl amav istis 
amav it amav Snrnt, or -re 



/ have been (wcw) loved, etc. 
r sum r BumuB 

amat us •< es amat I •< estis 

( est ( sunt 



1 Certain forms of the verb 
are called, from their importance, 
principal parts. Those forms are 
the first person of the present in- 
dicative, showing the present stem ; 
the present infinitive, showing the 
conjugation ; the first person of the 



perfect indicative, showing the 
perfect stem ; and the perfect parti- 
ciple, showing the participle stem. 
The neuter of the participle is 
given, as intransitive verbs have 
the perfect participle only in that 
gender. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



33 



ACTIVi: VOICE. FASSIYB VOICIC. 

Pluperfect. 
/ had loved, etc. I had been loved, etc, 

amaveram amayer&muB /-eram rerSUnus 

amaverSLa amaverfttiB amatua -^erSLs amati -^ er&tis 

amaverat amaverant verat (erant 



Future Perfect. 

/ shall have loved, etc, I shall have been loved, etc, 

amaverimus 
ainav eritis 
amaverint 



amaver5 
amav eris 
amav erit 



rero 

amatus -^ eris 
(erit 



rerimua 
amati •< eritis 
ienint 



SUBJUNCTIVE.* 







Present. 




aiu em 


am SmuB 


amer 


am Smur 


amSs 


amStis 


am Sris, or -re 


am SminI 


aiuet 


am ent 


am Stur 
Imperfect. 


amentur 


amSbrem 


amftrSmuB 


amSbrer 


am SbrSmur 


amftrSs 


am trStis 


amarSris,(?r-re 


am SrSminl 


am Sbret 


am ftrent 


am ftrStur 
Perfect. 


am Srentur 


amav erim 


amaverimus 


rsim 


^slmus 


amav ens 


amav eritis 


amatus -| sis 


amatI < sitis 


amav erit 


amav erint 


(sit 
Pluperfect. 


(sint 


amnyissein 


amavissSmus (essem. 


r essSmus 


amavisses 


amavissStis 


amatus ^ essSs 


amatl-^ essStis 


amavisset 


amavissent 


( esset 


( essent 



^ See p. 26, note. 



34 FIRST CONJUGATION. 

IMPERATIVE. 

active: voicb. passitb voicb. 

Present. 

am ft, love thou, am ftre, he thou laved, 

am&te, love ye, amftmini, be ye loved. 

Future. 

am&td, thou shcdt love, amfttor, thou shalt be loved, 

am fttd, he shall love, am SLtor, he shall be loved, 
am &t5te, you shall love, 

amant5, they shcUl love. amantor, they shall be loved. 

INFINITIVE. 

Pres. amftre, to love, am&]% to he loved, 

Perf. amayisse, to have loved, amatus esse, to have been loved, 

FuT. amattlnis esse,to&6a&ati/ amStum Irl, to be about " ^ 

to love, loved. 

PARTICIPLE. 



Pres. am fins, -antis, Zo27{n^. ' 

FuT. amatfiruB, -a, -um, about Ger.^ amandu8,-a, -um, to de 
to love, loved, 

* Perp. amatus, -a, -um, hawing 

been loved. 

GERUND. 
G. am andl, of loving. 

D . am and5, for loving, 

Ac. amandum, loving, 

Ab. am ando, by loving, 

SUPINE. 
Ao. amatum, to love, Ab. amatCl, to love, to be loved. 

^ Observe that the Latin has ^ Gerundive, sometimes less 

neither a perfect active nor a correctly called future passive 
present passive participle. participle. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 35 



CHAPTER XI. 1. 
FIRST CONJUGATION. 

87. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, and the 
present imperative and infinitive, active and passive, of amo.^ 

, 88. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Amatis, amabatis, amabitis. 2. Amatur, amaba- 
tur, amabitur. 3. Amat, amabat, amabit. 4. Amantur, 
amabantur, amabuntur. 5. Amo, amor. 6. Amas, amaris. 

7. Amamus, amamur. 8. Amabitis, amabimini. 9. Ama- 
bat, amabatur. 10. Amare, amari. 

II. 1. He loves, he is loved. 2. He will love, he will be 
loved^ 3. They were loved, they were loving. 4. I shall 
love, I shall be loved. 5. You {sing.) love, you are loved. 
6. They loved, they were loving, they will love. 7. You 
(plur.) are loving, you were loving, you will be loving. 

8. Love (stngr.),. be loved. 9. To be loved, to love. 

2. 

89. EXERCISES. 

Laudd, praise; port5, carry; superd, conquer. 

I. 1. Laudat, portat, superat. 2. Laudatur, portatm^ 
superatur. 3. Laudabitur, portabitur, superabitur. 4. Lau- 
dasne ? portabasne ? superabisne? 5. Laudamur, portaba- 
mur, superabimur. 6. Lauda, porta, supera. 7. Superare, 
portare, laudari. 8. Non superaminT, non portabaminT, 
non laudabiminT. 9. Laudare, portamini, superate. 10. Lau- 
dor, portabar, superabor. 

II. 1. Thou praisest, you carry, he conquers. 2. He is 
praised, they are carried, they will be conquered. 3. I praise, 

Jl was carrying, I shall conquer. 4. Thou art praised, thou 

' Notice how frequently the Where is it absent in the first three 
letter r marks a form as passive. tenses ? 



\ 



36 FIRST CONJUGATION. 

art carried, thou art conquered. 5. Praise (thou), carry, 
conquer. 6. He will be conquered, he was praised, it is 
carried. 7. To conquer, to be carried, to be praised. 8. Do 
we carry? are we conquered? are we praised? 9. I am 
not carried, he was not conquered, they are not praised. 
10. Thou wilt praise, he will be praised, they were carried. 

90. Examine the following sentences : — 

1. Agricola ft rSgIn& laudfttur, the farmer is praised hy the queen, 

2. Agricola rSginae verbis laudfttur, the farmer is praised hy 

the words of the queen* 

3. Servl gladils arxnantiir, the slaves are being armed with swords. 

On the first example see 61 and 62. In the second and third, 
observe that there is no ft or ab used with verbis and gladils. 

These ablatives, verbis and gladils, answer the questions by 
what f with what f by means of what f The ablative thus used is 
called the Ablative of Means or Instrument. 

91. Rule of Syntax. — Means and Instrument are 
expressed by the ablative without a preposition. 

3. 

92. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Fuellae rosas amant. 2. Rosae albae a paellis 
amantur. 3. Homerus viros Graecos laudabat. 4. Ab^ 
Homero laudabantur virl GraecT. 5. Oppidum nominabant 
Romam.' 6. Oppidum Roma* nominabatur. 7. Servos 
gladils armabimus. 8. Inimicus gladio vulneratur. 9. Ini- 
micus a Galba vulneratur. 10. O R5mani, servos hastis 
armate. 

II. 1. Sing, good boy. 2. Many goddesses were loved 
by the Greeks. 3. The boy will put the doves to flight. 

* Before words beginning with ^ Predicate accusative. 

h use aby not S. ^ Predicate nominative. See 47. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 37 

4. The doves will be put to flight by the boy. 5. We shall 
invite friends and enemies. 6. Friends and enemies will be 
invited. 7. The Romans were not loved by the Greeks. 
8. You will be summoned by a golden* trumpet. 9. The 
slaves will be armed with javelins. 10. The black horse 
was wounded by a spear. 

4. 
93. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Dum nos (we) laboramus, cantat caecus poeta. 

2. Quid (what) cantabat caecus poeta dum laborabamus? 

3. Dum in oppido ambulant domim, servi laborant in agro. 

4. Fueri vigUabunt dum somnus gratus viros defess5s recre- 
abit. 5. Nauta defessus aqua frigida recreabitur. 6. Equi 
defessi pabulo bono recreabuntur. 7. Verba bona discipuli 
a magistro laudabantur. 8. Muri alti ab oppidanTs aediflca- 
bantur. 9.^ Multos et altos muros aedificabunt oppidani. 
10. Non a pigrls virls oppidum aedificabatur. 

II. 1. While the man was working, the boy was singing. 
2. While the master is being refreshed with sleep, the servant 
is watching. 3. Pleasant sleep refreshes the weary boy. 
4. By pleasant sleep the boy will be refreshed. 5. A high 
wall is being built by the townsmen. 6. A famous Roman 
was called the Sword* of Rome. 7. The}' called a famous 
Roman the Sword* of Rome. 8. The tired farmer is re- 
freshed by food and sleep.* 9. We will walk in the streets 
of the town, while the farmers are working® in the fields. 
10. Sing, O blind poet, while we toil. 

1 Goiden, anrea or ex auro. ' Sword, in the nominative case, 

The material of which a thing is just as if was took the place of was 

made is expressed in Latin either coded. See 92. 1. 6, and note, 
by an adjective or by 5 (ex) with * Sword, in the accusative case, 

the ablative. How is it in English? See 92. 1. 5, and note. 

^ Compare, for order, 77. 1. 6, • Cf. 6 and 6 in L 

and 09. 1. 10, and note. ^ Imitate 4 in L 



^ 



38 FIRST CONJUGATION. 

94. VOCABULARY. 

aedifico, 1, build. aqua,^ -ae, f., water. 

ambulo, 1, walk, aureus, -a, -nm, B.dj,, golden, 

armOy 1, arm, caecus, -a^ -um, adj., blind, 

cantOy 1, ging, dum, adv., while, 

fugOy I, put to flight. e (ex), prep. w. abl., out of, from. 

invito, 1, invite, summon, frigldus, -a, -um, adj., cold, 

laboro, 1, work, toil, gladius, -i, m., sword (79). 

laudo, 1, praise, Homerns, -i, m., Uomer, 

nomino, 1, name, call, Italia, -ae, f., Italy, 

porto, 1, carry. marus, -i, m., wall, 

recreo, 1, refresh, oppidanns, -i, m., townsman, 
supero, 1, surpass, conquer. piger, -gra, -grum, adj., lazy. 

vigilo, 1, watch, Roma, -ae, f., Rome, 

vulnero, 1, wound, Romanus, -I, m., a Roman, 

5. 

95. COLLOQUIUM. 

Pater et Filiolus. 

Father and little son. 

P. Quae, mi fQiole, in penso hodierno tractabantur? 

what my little son lesson to-day's treat or discuss 

F, Tractabantur casus ablativus atque verbum amo. 

case and 

P, Quid significat Anglice verbum amof 

means in English 

F, Amo significat " love." 

P. De ablativo quoque mihi narra. 

about also me tell 

F. Regulam de ablafivo tibi narrabo. 

rule you 

P. Regulamne tibi dabat magister? 

F. Certe, regulam de ablativo instrument!. Cum abla- 

certainly instrument with 

fivo Tnstrumenti nunquam ponitur praepositio ; ante aHlati- 

never is put preposition before 

vum agentis semper ponitur praepositio d vel ab, 

of agent always or 

P. Optime, mi puer; tibi erit malum rubrum. 

well done apple 

1 Words are sometimes purposely repeated in the vocabularies. 



PIBST CONJUGATION. 89 



CHAPTER XII. 1. 
FIRST CONJUGATION. 

96. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indica- 
tive, and perfect infinitive, active and passive, of am5. 

97. The compound tenses are formed by combining forms of 
the verb sum with the perfect passive participle. The participle 
(declined like bonus) agrees in gender and number with the sub- 
ject: amSLta est, she was loved; amSLtl sunt, they were loved* 

98. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Amavit, amaverat, amaverit. 2. Amatus est^ ama- 
tus erat, amatus erit. 3. Amaverunt, amaverant, amaverint. 

4. AmavT, amatus sum. 5. Amaveramus, amati eramus. 
6. Amaveritis, amati eritis. 7. Amavisse, amatus esse. 

II. 1. You loved, you have been loved. 2. You had 
loved, you had been loved. 3. You will have loved, you 
will have been loved. 4. He has loved, he has been loved. 

5. We had loved, we had been loved. 6. To have been 
loved, to have loved. 

2. 

99. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Laudatus est, portatus est, superatus est. 2. Lau- 
davitne ? portaveratne ? superaveritne ? 3. Portavisti, 
laudavistis, superavit. 4. Superaveras, portaveris, lauda- 
veritis. 5. Laudati estis, portata sunt, superatus es. 

6. Nonne laudatae sunt? honne portatae estis? nonne su- 
peratae sumus? 7. Portavi, laudatus sum, superatus eram. 
8% Non laudavimus, non portaverimiis, non superavero. 
9. Laudavisse, portavisse, superavisse. 10. Portatus esse, 
superatus esse, laudatus esse. 

II. 1. They have carried, we have been praised, you have 
been conquered. 2. Have I praised? have you been carried? 
had they conquered? 3. We had been carried, I shall have 



40 FIRST CONJUGATION. 

praised, they will have been conquered. 4. You had not 
carried, thou hadst not praised, thou hadst not been con- 
quered. 5. To have been conquered, to have praised, to 
have carried. 6. I had praised, I liad been conquered, 
I (fern*) had been carried. 7. Has it not been praised? 
will it not have been carried ? have they not been conquered ? 
8. We (fern.) had been carried, thou wilt have praised, he 
conquered. 9, ITiey praised, you carried, we conquered. 
10. I was praised, thou wast conquered, it was carried. 

3 

100. In Latin, the words for myt thy, your^ aur^ hts^ Aer, its, 
and their^ are very often omitted when they are not emphatic 
Accordingly, in the exercises to be tamed into Latin, for the 
present, leave these words untranslated. 

101. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Fugna fortuna mutata est. 2. Fortuna pugnam 
mutavit. 3. Rdmanl Graecos superaverant. 4. Graecl a 
Homanis superatl erant. 5. Yiri multl et egregii agi*6s arave- 
runt. 6. Ministri scutis ariLati sunt. 7. Agricola egregius 
§L ministro misero vituperatus est« 8. AgrI latl ab agricolis 
aratrd magn5 arata sunt. 9. Magister malos discipulos 
vituperavit* 10. Foeta pugnas et victdrias eardrum clarorum 
cantavit. 

Read a^aiii the explanations and rules on pj^ 20, 21, and 36. 

II. 1. An eagle changed the fortune of the battle. 2. We 
shall witness a battle on the broad river. 3. Many good men 
will have been blamed by their enemies. 4. The boys will 
have recited to their master. 5. The land in Italy has been 
ploughed with iron ploughs. 6. The master freed his pupils 
from their hard tasks {ahL). 7. The goddess Minerva has 
been praised by many poets. 8. The victories of famous 
men have been sung by the poets. 9. The tyrant armed a 
great number of slaves with swords. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



41 



102. 

arOy \, plough* 
liberOy l,Jree, setjree. 
mutOy 1, change, 
recitOy 1, read aloud, recite, 
spectOy 1, look at, witness, 
superOy 1, surpass, conquer, 
vituperOy 1, blame, censure. 



VOCABULARY. 

ferreusy -a, -um, adj., of iron, iron. 
fortunay -ae, v., fortune. 



numerusy -i, m., number. 
pensuniy -iy n., task, lesson. 
pugnay -acy f., battle. 
scutumy -iy TX,, shield. 
terray -aey f., earth, land. 
tyrannusy -iy m., tyrant. 



egreeiuB9'Skf'UTaya.dj., excellent, victoriay -aey f., victory. 



-oo^OfOO- 



CHAPTER XIII. 1. 
THIRD DECLENSION. 

103. The stem ends in a consonant or in i. 

104. Consonant stems are named, according to theii 
final letter, mute sterns^ liquid sterns^ sibilant stems. 
See 3. 



106. 

Prlnceps, m ., 

chief. 
Stem prXncip- 

N.V. princeps 
G. principis 
D. principl 
Ac. prlncipem 
Ab. prlncipe 

N.V. prlncipBs 
G. principum 
D. priDcipibuB 
Ac prlncipSs 
Ab. pilncipibiui 



Mute Stems. 
paradigms. 

R6z, M., Judex, m., 

king. Judge, 

St. r6g- St. jfldic- 

SlNGULAR. 

rex judex 

regis judicis 

regl judici 

regem judicem 

rege judice 

Plural. 

regfis judicfis 

rSgum judicum 

rgg ibuB jQdic ibus 

rSgSs judicSs 

regibvB judicibi 



Aetfts, F.y 


Caput, N., 


age. 


head. 


St. aet&t- 


St. capit- 


aetas 


caput 


aetatia 


capitis 


aetati 


capiti 


aetatem 


caput 


aetate 


capite 


aetatSa 


capita 


aetatum 


capit um 


aet&tibuB 


capit ibuB 


aetiltSs 


capita 


aetltibiui 


capit fbuB 



42 THIRD DECLENSION. 



PSs, M., fooL MIISb, m., soldier. 
St ped- St. mmt- 

SlNGULAR. 


Terminations. 

MA8C. & FEM. 

Sing, Plur. 


N.V. pea 


miles 


8 


es 


G. pedis 


mllitis 


is 


um 


D. pedi 


militl 


I 


ibus 


Ac. pedem 


mil it em 


em 


68 


Ab. pede 


milite 


e 


ibus 


Plural. 


NEUTER. 


N.V. pedes 


mllites 


— 


a 


6. pedum 


mQltum 
ml|itibus 


is 


um 


D. pedibus 


I 


ibus 


Ac. pedes 


militSs 


— 


a 


Ab. pedibus 


multibus 


e 


ibus 



106. Observe that the vowel before the final consonant of the 
stem is not always the same in the nominative as in the other cases. 

107. Consonant stems may be found by dropping the termina- 
tion of the genitive singular. But there are some exceptions. 

108. Decline grez, poSma, servitds. Decline together lapia 
asper, fidus comfis, and mllfis aeger. For the nouns, see UOi 

2. 

109. EXERCISES. 

I. 1 . Poeta comiti aegro poema gratum recitavit. 2. Co- 
mes poetae poemate grato liberatus est cura*^ 8. Magnus 
erat equitum numerus. 4. MSites multi a servd domini 
invitati sunt. 5. Greges albos habent agrieolae^ insulae 
vicinae. 6. Ager vicinus lapides multos et asperos habet. 
7. In agr5 vicino sunt lapides multi et asperi. 8. Servitus Sl 
virTs non est amata. 9. Pes pueri lapide asperd vulneratns 
est. 10. Regis amid a militibus gladiis et pilis sunt fugati. 

II. 1. The king has changed the fortune of the war. 
2. The fortune of the war was changed by the king. 8. The 

^ /rom care. See 101. 11. 0. > The subject. 



THIRD DBCI.ENSION. 43 

soldiers will free the king. 4. The king will be freed by the 
soldiers. 5. The king had armed the soldiers with shields 
and spears. 6. Daedalus fitted wings to his son. 7. Wings 
were fitted to his son by Dsedalus. 8. We shall read aloHd 
the poems of Homer. 9. The girl sings for the weary 
soldier and is praised. 

110. VOCABULARY. 

comSSy -itlsy M. & F., companion, servltus, -ntlSy f., davery, 

equSsy -itiSy m., horseman, ~ voluptasy -atiSy f., pleasure, 

grezy greg^Sy u,,Jlock, herd. 

lapis, -IdiSy M.y stone. aptS, 1, Jit. 

mnCSy -itiSy M., soldier, Daedalus, -I, m., Dmdalus, builder 

pes, pSdiSy is.,tfoot, of the Labyrinth. 

poema, -fttis, n., poem. fOius, -i, m., son (79). 

rex, rSgis, m., king, viclnus, -a, -uin, adj., neighboring, 

3. 

111. COLLOQUIUM. 

Frater et Sororcula. 

brother little siiter 

S, Quid hodie narravit magister in schola? 

to-day school 

F, Narravit de Icaro, Daedal! filio. 

S, Mihi quoque de Icaro Latlne narra. Fuitne Icarus 

me also in Latin 

puer malus ? 
F, Minime malus sed miserrimus. Habebat alas ; alas cera 

not unfortunate wings wax 

aptaverat Daedalus ; Icarus evolavit et cera sole liquef acta 

flew away son was melted 

est. Turn • • • 

then 

S. Turn . . . quid? 

F. Mihi non sunt verba Latina. Itaque haesitO. 

words that is why hesitate 

8, Erg5 narra Anglice. Nam linguam Anglicam intellegO. 

well, then language understand 

F* Minime. LatmS tibi narro, non Anglic^. 

by no means 



44 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



112. 



CHAPTER XIV. 
SECOND CONJUGATION, 

E -Verbs. 



Mone5 (stem mon§), advise. 
Principal Parts : moneo, monfire, monul, monitum. 



ACTIVE. 

/ advise, etc, 
0)on e5 mon 6muB 

moD §B mon fitis 

monet monent 



INDICATIVE. 
Pre8*:nt, 



PASSIVE. 

/ am advised, etc. 



I was advising, etc, 
mon ebam mon Sb&miis 
mon fibfts mon Sbfttia 
mon 6bat mon 6bEuit 

/ shall advise, etc, 
mon eb5 mon Sbimua 
monfibis monSbitia 
mon fibit mon ebant 



mon eor mon 6miir 

mon 6ri8, or -re mon §mini 
monfitur monentur 

Imperfect. 

/ wa§ advised, etc, 
monSbar monSbamur 

mon §b&ria, or -re monSbfiminl 
monfibfttur monSbeuitur 

Future. 

/ shcdl be advised, etc, 

mon 6bor mon 6biinur 

mon Sberia, or -re jnon fibiminl 

mon ebitur mon 6 buntur 



Perfect. 
/ have advised, I advised, etc, I have been (wo-?*, advised, etc, 

luonuX monuimua rauxn /aumua 

monuiatf mouuiatia monitiia-|e8 moniti •< eatia 

monuit monu§runt,or-re (eat (aunt 

Pluperfect. 
/ ?iad advised, etc, I hftd been advised, etc, 

monneram monuerftmna feram lerftmiia 



monn erSs monn erItU 
monu erat mona erant 



monitna < erSa monitX < erfttla 
( erat ( erant 



SECOND CONJUGATIOK. 



45 



active:. 



PASSIVE. 



Future Perfect. 

/ shall have advtsedy etc, I shall have been advised, etc. 

monuero monuerlmuB rex6 rerimus 

monueris monueritia monitua < eris monitX < exitis 



monuerit monuerict 



(erit 



(erunt 



moneam 
monefts 
mon eat 



moD 6rem 

monSrSs 

monfiret 



monuerim 

monueris 

monuerit 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Present. 

mon eftmuB mon ear mon eftmur 

mon efttis mon eSris, or -re mon eftminl 

moneant monefttur moneantur 

Imperfect. 

monSrSmua monSrer monSrSmur 

mon 6r6tis mon erSris, or -re mon 6r6minl 

mon 6rent mon 6r6tur mon Srentur 



monuerlmuB 

monueritia 

monuerint 



Perfect. 

/aim 

monitua JaSs 
(ait 



/'sltnua 
moniti < altia 
Caint 



Pluperfect. 

monuiaaem monuiaafimua /eaaem /eaaSmua 

monuiaaSa monuiaaStia monitua -^eaaSa monitX •<eaa6tia 
monuiaaet monuiaaent (eaaet (eaaent 



mon 6, advise thou, 
mon 6te, advise ye. 



IMPERATIVE. 

Present. 

mon ere, be thou advised, 
monSmini; be ye advised. 



mon 6t5, thou shalt advise. 
mon 6t5, he shall advise, 
mon 6t5te, you shall advise, 
mon ento, they shaU advise. 



Future. 

mon 6tor, thou shalt be advised, 
mon etor, he shall be advised, 

mouentor, they shall be advised. 



46 SECOND CONJUGATION. 

INFINITIVE. 
ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

f RES. nion Sre, to advise. mon 6ri, to he advised, 

Perf. monu isae, to have advised, monit us esse, to have been adv*d. 

FuT. momt^Lrus eBBBt to be about monit um irl^ to be about to be 

to advise, advised. 

PARTICIPLE. 
Fres. monfinSi -entis, advising. 



FuT. monit flrusi -a, -um, about to Ger. mon endus, -a, -um, to be 
advise. advised, 

Perf. monit ub, -a, -um, having 

been advised. 

GERUND. 
G. monendi, of advising. 

D . mon end5, for advising. 

Ac. monendum, advising. 

Ab. mon end5, by advising. 

SUPINE. 

Ac. monit um, to advise. Ab. monit u, to advise^ to be 

• advised. 



>:»;o«- 



CHAPTER XV. 1. 
SECOND CONJUGATION. 

113. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, and 
present imperative and infinitive, active and passive, of mone5. 

/ 

114. EXERCISES. 

I. 1 . Monet, monetur. 2. Monebat, monebatur. 3. Mone- 
bit, monebitur. 4. Mone, monere. 5. Monete, moneminl. 
6. Monebimiis, monebimur. 7. Monemus, monemur. 8. Mo- 
nebas, mones. 9. Monebis, moneris. ^ 10. Moneri, monere. 

n. 1. You are advising, you will be advised, you were 
advised. 2. Advise ye, be ye advised. 3. We do advise. 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 47 

we are advising, we shall be advising. 4. We were advis- 
ing, we were advised. 5. They are advised, they advised, 
they were advising. 6. They will advise, they will be 
advised. 

2. 

115. EXERCISES. 

Habe5, Tiave, or hold; d61eo,^ destroy; terre5, frighten, 

I. 1. Habet, delebat, terrebit. 2. I^onne habemus? 
nonne delebamus? nonne terrebimus? 3. Deles, habebas, 
terrebunt. 4. Habete, terrete, delete. 5. Deletur,^ habe- 
batur, terrebatur.^ 6. Terrere, deleri, haberi. 7. Habetne? 
deleturne ? terrebatne ? 8. Delebitur, habebantur, terrebimini. 
9. Non terremus, non delebunt, non habent. 10. Habebun- 
tur, teiTentur, delebantur. 

II. 1. We are held, they will be destroyed, he was fright- 
ened. 2. I frighten, thou hast (you have), he destroys. 
3. To have, to destroy, to be frightened. 4. Is he fright- 
ened ? are they destroyed ? Were you held ? 5. Destroy (thou), 
have (ye), frighten (ye). 6. Have we not? does he not 
frighten? did they not destroy? 7. You will be frightened, 
it is held, we were frightened. 8. I was holding, he was de- 
stroying, you were frightening. 9. I shall destroy, we shall 
frighten, they have. 

3. 

116. EXERCISES,., 

Before translating the following exercises, review the tables of 
declensions and terminations, pp. 41 and 42. 

I. 1. Poenam merebis, si memoriam non exercebis.^ 

^ For principal parts of dele($, * Translate as if it were the 

see vocabulary, 119. present tense ; but in Latin the 

* The present, which denotes future is necessary, because future 

continued action, means it is being time is meant. Cf. 93. 1. 4. Ob- 

{destroyed) ; the imperfect, he was serve the difference between the 

heing {frightened), Latin and English idioms. 



48 SECOND CONJUGATION. 



2. Exerce memoriam, comes. 3. Stadium memoriam auget. 
4. MHites a ducibus exercentur et docentur. 5. Pericula 
milites noQ terrebunt. 6. Periculum non timebit miles. 
7. Oppidum a militibus tenetur. 8. Judiees poems malos 
coercent. 9. Quidvides? 10. Multa video. 

II. 1. The tyrant is restrained. 2. The water of the river 
was increased. 3. The leader will have a statue. 4. The 
faithful comrade advises his friend. 5. The friend is advised 
by his faithful companion. 6. Lazy slaves fear a hard mas- 
ter. 7. A hard master is feared by lazy slaves. 8. Italy is 
the land of famous poets. 9. The soldiers will not be teri'ified 
by dangers. 10. The boy remembered the master's words. 

117. Mal5B (I. 8), had men, and multa (I. 10), mant/ things^ 
are examples of the frequent use in Latin of an adjective without 
a noun. Compare, in English, the good, the wise. 

4. 

118. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Equos et equites multos in via vide5. 2. Cyrus, 
primus Persarum rex,^ nomina* mllitum memoria tenebat. 

3. SI oppidum delebunt, poenam merebunt. 4. Principes a 
templo del prohibebimus. 5. Voluptates memoriae auge- 
bantur. 6. Studio augetur memoria. 7. MTlites a princip** 
monebantur. 8. Rex magnum mllitum numerum tenebat. 
9. Princeps equites pigros exercebat. 

II. 1. In ancient states there were many slaves. 2. Why 
had the ancient Romans many slaves? 3. We saw the 
great numbe^^ of horsemen in the road and were frightened. 

4. Roman boys were often taught by Greek slaves. 5. Greek 
slaves often taught Roman boys. 6. The horsemen were 
trained by the king's son. 7. Many horses and horsemen are 
seen in the town. 8. The chief will deserve a great victory. 



1 Rexy in apposition with Cyrus. See 157. * names* 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 49 



119. VOCABULARY. 

coorceoy 2, -ui^ -itum, check, re- antiquu8> -a, -uniy adj., old, 

strain, ancient. 

exerceoy 2, -ui, -Ituniy train, exer- civitasy -atls, f., state, 

cise, cur, adv., wkif ? 

habeo, 2, -ui, -Itum, have, hold, Cyrus, -i, m., Cyrus. 

mereo, 2, -ui, -Itum, deserve, merit, dux, duels, m. & r., leader, general 

prohibeo, 2, -ui, -itum, prevent, fidus, -a, -um, adj., ya/^A/u/. 

keep off, " memorla, -ae, f., memory, 

terreo, 2, -ui, -itum, frighten. memoria teneo, rememhme 

timeo, 2, -ul, , fear, periculum, -i, n., danger, 

poena, -ae, f., punishment. 

augeo, 2, auxi,^ auctum, increase, quid, interrog. pron., what ? 

deleo, 2, -evi,^ -etum, destroy, Romanus, -a, -um, Boman (94). 

doceo, 2, -ui, doctum,^ teach, saepe, adv., often, 

teneo, 2, -ui, tentura,^ keep, hold, si, conj., if. 

video, 2, vidi,^ visum, see ; pas- studium, -i, n., zeal, study, 

sive, seem, templum, -i, n., temple. 

«>o>»io« 

CHAPTER XVI. 1. 
SECOND CONJUGATION. 

120« Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indica- 
tive, and perfect infinitive, active and passive, of moneo. 

1^1. EXERCISES. 

fl, 1. Monuit, monuerat, monuerit. 2. Monuerunt, monu- 
erant, monuerint. 3. Monui, monitus sum. 4. Monuerit, 
mouitus erit. 5. Monuisti, monueras, monueris. 6. Monitus 
est, monitus erat, monitus erit. 7. Monuisse, monitus esse. 

II. 1. You have advised, you had advised, you will have 
advised. 2. They have beea advised, they had been advised, 

1 Auxi for aug-si. See p. 1, n. 2. ' « Observe, not docltum. 

2 Only fleo, weep, neo, spin, and * Observe, not tenitum. 

the compounds of the obsolete ^ Vidi. Perfect stem formed 

pleS, Jill, are conjugated like by lengthening the vowel of the 
dSleoy with the perfect in evi. present stem, vTd to vid. 



50 SECOND CONJUGATION. 

they will have been advised. 3. I had advised, I had been 
iCdvised. '4. He has advised, he has been advised. 5. We 
have advised, we have been advised. 6. To have been 
advised, to have advised. 

2. 

122. EXERCISES. 

I. !• Habuit, delevit, terruit. 2. Habaisti, delevisti, ter- 
ruisti. 3. Non delevimus, non deleveramus, non deleverimas. 
4. Deletam est, territus erat, habita sunt. 5. Habuerone? 
estne territa? suntne deletae ? 6. Nonne habueratis? nonne 
deletum erat? nonne terruerunt? 7. Terruisse, delevisse, 
habitus esse. 8. Deleveras, territus eras, habuistis. 9. Ha- 
buerint, deletum erit, habuerunt. 10. Deleta sunt, habiti 
sumus, territae estis. 

II. 1. They have had, they have frightened, they have 
destroyed. 2. I had had, I had been frightened, I had 
destroyed. 3. Have you had? had he destroyed? has he 
frightened? 4. We had not destroyed, they (/em.) had not 
been frightened, you had not destroyed. 5. We have had, 
we shall have destroj-ed, we had been frightened. 6. To 
have destroyed, to have been held, to have been frightened. 
7. Have you been frightened? had they (neut.) been de- 
stroyed? has she had? 8. I have destroyed, I have not 
had, I shall not have been frightened. 9. They will have 
had, they will have been frightened, they (neut.) will have 
been destroyed. 10. Have you not had? did they not 
destroy? have you (/cm.) not been frightened? 

3. 

123. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Rex Romam obsederat. 2. Roma a rege obsessa 
erat. 3. Senba cum {with) rege sedebat. 4. Ira ferocem 
{fierce) animum viri movit. 5. RegulT con jug! et liberis 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 51 



alimenta praebuerunt Roman!. 6. Captivi retenti sunt. 

7. Novamne lunam vidisti? 8. Aquila in (on) templo sedit. 
9. Poeta flevit quia filius captivus erat. 10. Caesar oppi- 
dum Galliae obsedit. 

II. 1. The town was besieged by the general. 2. Why 
did the general besiege the town? 3. The king is sitting^ 
with his clerk. 4. The minds of the men were moved with 
anger. 5. Regulus was retained (as) a prisoner.^ 6. Regu- 
lus deserved great glory. 7. The new moon has been seen. 

8. The commander's daughter was a prisoner. 9. We wept 
because we were prisoners. 10. The town had been besieged 
by Pyrrhus. 



124. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Multibus magna praemia S rege praebita sunt. 
2. MTlites timuerunt quia elephantos viderunt. 3. Numerum 
verborum auximus. 4. Caesar milites in oppido retinuerat. 
5. Judicum bon5rum memoria nunquam delebitur. 6. Multa 
Romanorum monumental deleta sunt. 7. Dux castra ab 
oppido moverat. 8. Dominus servos in servitute tenuit. 
9. Multa verba in memoria manserunt. 10. Militis conjunx 
in Minervae templd sedebat. 

II. 1. The king furnished food for his weary soldiers. 

2. Elephants had frightened the horses of the Romans. 

3. H^ve you increased the number of your friends? 

4. Caesar's soldiers were besieged in the town. 5. The 
sword of the tyrant has restrained the judge. 6. War has 
destroyed many monuments' of great men. 7. The camp 
had been moved away from the town. 8. We weep if our 
children are held in slavery. 9. Shall you remain in Italy? 

* Not passive. by an adjective and a genitive^ 

* Predicate nom. ; see 47. the order often is : adjective, genu 

* When a noun is limited both tive, noun. Cf. 118. I. 2 and 8. 



52 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 



125. 



VOCABULARY. 



fleo, 2, flevi, fletuniy tveep, be- 
wail, 

maneSy 2, mansi^ mansuniy re- 
main, await. 

moveo, 2, movi,^ motuniy move, 

ob-sideoy 2, -sedi,^ -sessuniy be- 
siege. 

praebeoy 2, -ui, 'itunxy furnish, 

re-tlneoy 2, -tinui, -tentum, keep 
back, retain. 

sedeSy 2, sedi,^ sessuniy sit, 

aliTnentum, -I, n., food, support, 

animus, -i, m., mind. 

Caesar, -arls, m., Ccesar, (134.) 



captivus, -iy m ., prisoner, captive, 
castra, -orum, (pi.) n., camp, 
conjunx, conjugls, f., wife. 
elepliantusy -i, m., elephant, 
ira, -a«9 f., anger, 
liina, -ae, f., moon, 
novus, -a, -um, adj., new, 
nunquaniy adv., never. 
praem^um, -i, n., reward. 
Pyrrhtis, -i, m., Pyrrhus, king of 

Epirus. 
quia, conj., because, 
Regulusy -iy M., Regulus, a Roman. 
scribay -ae, m., clerk. (11. 1.) 



126. 



5. 

COLLOQUIUM. 

Praeceptor et Discipulus. 



p. Latine mihi interroganti responde si possis. Quae 

to me asking answer you can what 

insula Graeciae est parva quidem sed clara ? 

to be sure 

D, Admodum clara est Ithaca insula, ubi habitabat Ulixes. 

very where Ulysses 

P. Recte, mi puer, Ulixes Ithacae rex fuit et dux in bell5 

right leader 

egregius. Quis cantavit de Ulixe egregio? 

D. Homerus, poeta caecus, qui autem Ulixem nunquam 

blind who however never 

viderat. 

P. Tenesne memoria ndmen fidi servi Ulixis? 

name 

D. Servus Ulixis fidus erat Eumaeus. 



^ See p. 49, note 6. 



FIRST AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS. 53 

CHAPTER XVII. 1. 
REVIEW. 

127. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Magister discipulos invitavit. 2. Nonne §l magistro 
discipull invitata sunt ? 3. Vldistine agricolarum aratra 
ferrea? 4. Milites lapides magnos portabant. 5. Rex ab 
oppido castra movit. 6. Gregis custodes lapidibus fugati 
sunt. 7. MP fill, poemata Homeri recitavistlne ? 8. SI 
oppidum tenuerimus, victoriam merebimus. 9. Conjuges 
nulitam pugnam spectabant et flebant. 10. In Italia antlqua 
a Pyrrho Epiri rege superati sunt Romanl. 

II. 1. We shall see the flocks in the fields. 2. The king 
was not frightened by the elephant.^ 3. Horses are frightened 
by elephants.* 4. The townsmen were sitting on the wall. 
5. The prisoners were wounded by the soldiers with their 
swords. 6. My boy, what are you looking at ? 7. Do you 
not see the horsemen's swords ? 8. Do you remember the 
poems of the Roman poet? 9. The king's sons were finding 
fault with fortune. 10. Why are the townsmen armed with 
swords ? 

128. Examine the two following groups of sentences : — 

1. Iter ab Arare Helv6til ftverterant, the Helvetii had turned 

their course from the Arar, 

2. Arftnefts deiciam d6 pariete, / will brush down the cohufebs 

from the mall, 

3. Hannibal ez ItaliSl ezcSssit, Hannibal withdrew from Italy, 

1. NSb cflrSl llber&bia, you will free us from care, 

2. OcuIIb b6 prlvSvit, he deprived himself of his sight (eyes). 

3. Homo cib5 caret, the man is in want of food, 

129. The verbs have the general idea of separation ; and in the 
first group the ablative with a preposition, in the second the ablative 

, V . . 

^ Vocative singular of meus^ my. ^ Prep, not necessary. 



64 FIRST AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS. 

alone, answers the question frrnn what t of what f Observe further, 
that the verbs of the first group are compounds of S, dfi, ex, and 
the "separation" is literal, or physical; in the second group the 
" separation " is figurative, or less literal. 

130. Rule of Syntax. — Separation is expressed 
by the ablative with a {ab), de, e {ex), in connection 
with verbs compounded with these prepositions,^ or 
by the ablative alone with simple verbs meaning 
to set free, depHve, or want, 

2. 

131. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Hunc (him) a tuis aris arcebis. 2. Fllius regis Ro- 
manes cura liberavit. 3. R5mani a filio regis cura liberati 
sunt. 4. Vir aeger aqua prTvatus est. 5. Servi servitute 
liberabuntur. 6. Dux Romanus Corinthum multis statuis 
prTvavit. 7. Servi, equis defessis aquam praebete. 8.^ Sa- 
turnus Italos agri culturam docuit. 9. Liber vinl erat deus 
et in Italia templa multa habebat. 10. Avarl mflites aras 
doDis spoliant. 11. MI puer, equus pabul5 et aqua caret. 

Before translating the following sentences, read over the ex- 
planations and rules on pp. 20, 21, and 36, and consider what 
expressions are equivalent to the Latin ablative of agent with d. or 
ah, the ablative of means, and the ablative of separation. 

II. 1. They deprived the sick man of water. 2. The 
state was freed from the tyrant by Brutus. 3. The Italians 
were taught by Saturn. 4. The leader adorned the town 
with statues. 5. The horsemen are in want of swords 
and horses. 6. Corinth was robbed of many statues by a 
Roman general. 7. The goddess will keep off the Romans 

1 With other verbs than those indicated in 129 and 130, of similar 
meaning, the preposition is sometimes used and sometimes omitted. 

2 Observe the two accusatives, one of the person, the other of the 
thing, with doceo. 



FIRST AND SECOND CONJUGATIONS. 



55 



from her temple. 8, The town was destroyed by the plans 
of the general. 9. Will not the Romans be kept off from 
the temple? 10. They thrust forth the leaders from the 
town. 11. The leaders are hustled out of town. 



132. 



VOCABULARY. 



ag^ cultara, -ae, f., agriculture. 
avamsy -a, -amy adj., greedy, 
arceS, 2, -uiy -tum, keep off, 
BratoSy -i, m., Brutus, a Roman. 
careSy 2, -ui, -ituin> want, lack. 
causay -ae, f., cause. 
CorinthuSy -i, f., Corinth (11.4). 
custSSy -odiSy M. & F., keeper, 
£pirusy -iy f., Epirus (11. 4). 



exturbS, 1, thrust out, 

ItaluSy -iy M., an Italian. 

liibery-eriy M., Bacchus, god of wine. 

meus, -ay -um, poss. adj., my, mine. 

omoy 1, adorn, 

privoy ly deprive, [agriculture. 

SaturnuSy -I, m., Saturn, god of 

spollOy 1, rob, despoil, 

tuusy -a, -uin, poss. adj., thg, your. 



3. 

133. COLLOQUIUM. 

Praeceptor et Discipulus. 
P, Die mihi, puer, elephantdsne aliquando vldisti? 

tell ever 

D, Certe, praeceptor, elephantos magnos et parvos vldl- 

P, In agrisne? 

D, Minime vero ; in circ6 et interdum in viis. 

indeed circus sometimes 

P, Quis rex elarus elephantorum auxilio pugnabat? 

what aid 

Z>. Pyrrhus, rex EpM, ita pugnabat. 

P. Nonne elephant! equos Romanorum terrebant? 

D, Terrebant. Milites quoque terrebantur. 

yes also 

P, Superavitne Pyrrhus Romanos? 
D. Saepe .superavit. 

often 

P. Quibus armis pugnant elephant!? 

with what 

D, Dentibus, proboscide, pedibus, capite pugnant. 

tusks trunk feet 



56 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



134. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 1. 
THIRD DECLENSION. 

Liquid Stems. 
paradigms. 



Consul, M., 

consul. 
St. consul- 

N.V. consul 
G. consul ia 
D. consul I 
Ac. consul em 
Ab. consul e 

N.V. consul Ss 
G. consul um 
D. consul ibus 
Ac. consul 6s 
Ab. consul ibus 



Pater, m., 

father. 
St. patr- 

SlNGULAR. 

pater 

patris 

patri 

patrem 

patre 

Plural. 

patrCs 

patrum 

patribus 

patrSs 

patribus 



PSstor, M.» 

shepherd. 
St. pSst5r* 

pastor 
pastor is 
pastor I 
pastor em 
pastor e 

pastor 6s 
pastor um 
pastor ibus 
pastor 6s 
pastor ibus 



Le5, M., 

lion. 
St. lean- 
led 

leonia 
leoni 
leonem 
le5ne 

leon6s 

leonum 

leonibus 

leon6s 

leonibus 



Imftgo, F., N5men, k., 

image. name. 

St. imkgin- St. nomin- 

Singular. 



N.V, 


. imago 


nomen 


G. 


Imflginis 


nomin is 


D. 


imagini 


nomin I 


Ac. 


Irnaginem 


nomen 


Ab. 


imagin e 


nomin e 




Plural. 


N.V 


, imagin 6s 


nomin a 


G. 


imagin um 


nomin um 


D. 


imagin ibus 


nomin ibus 


Ac. 


imagin 6s 


nomin a 


Ab. 


imSginibus 


nomin ibus 



Terminations. 

MASC. & F£M. 

Sing. Plur. 

— 6s 

is um 

X ibus 

em 6s 

e ibus 



NEUTER. 



is 
I 

e 



a 

um 
ibus 

a 
ibus 



THIRD DECLENSION. 67 

135. Examine the following : — 

1. Hieme et aestftte, in winter and summer. 

2. S51iB occSsu,^ at the setting of the sun, 

3. Primft luce, at daybreak (first light). 

4. HiB vlginti annls, within these twenty years. 

It will be seen that the above phrases are expressions of time^ 
and answer the question when? or, within what timet 

136. Rule of Syntax. — Time when is expressed 
by the ablative without a preposition ; time within 
whichf by the ablative alone, or by the ablative 
with in* 

2. 

137. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Tertia hora milites fugati sunt. 2. Primo anno 
Brutum consulem creaverunt Roman!. 3. Oppidum militibus 
ab imperatore impletum est. 4. Imperator oppidum militi- 
bus implebit. 5. Terror clamore hominura augetur. 6. Cla- 
mores defensorum omnes^ pueros* terrebuut 7. Nomen et 
imaginem amici semper in memoria habebat. 8. Semper 
erit claram imperatoris egregii nomen. 9. Nonne Hannibal 
Romanis fuit terror? 10. Hannibal fortittidinem magnam 
semper habebat. 

II. 1. Europe has no* lions. 2. A slave had a great 
lion. 3. The name of the slave was Androclus. 4. There 
are many lions in Africa. 5. The friend of my brothers 
has seen a lion. 6. A lion has been seen by my father and 
my brother. 7. The shouts of the soldiers scared the men in 
the town. 8. The defenders of the town were scared by the 
shouts of the men. 9. Why are many men miserable in 
time* of war ? 10. Do we not see by the sun's light ? 
11. At daybreak they saw Hannibars horsemen. 

1 Ablative of the fourth declen- 8 Children. See 60. 

sion. See 245. ^ ^/. 4 ^f^^ 5 Tempore, 



68 THIRD DECLENSION. 



138. VOCABU LARY. 

clamor, -oris, m., shout, Africa, -ae, f., Africa, 

defensor, -oris, m., defender, AndrQClus, -i, m., Androdus, 

fortitadOy -inls, f., bravery,,, annus, -i, m., year, 

frater, -tris, m., brother, cre9, 1, elect, choose, 

Hannibal, -ftlis^ m., Hannibal, a £uropa, -ae, f., Europe.^ ^ 

Carthaginian general. Horatius, -i, m., Horace, a Roman 

homo, -inis, m., man. poet (79). 

imperator, -5ris, m., general, impleo, 2, -evi, -etum,^^. 

lamen, -inis, a., light, Juventus, -Otis, f., youth, 

sol, solis, M. (no gen. pi.), sun, semper, adv., always, 

terror, -oris, m., terror, voluptas, -Stis, f., pleasure, 
timor, -oris, v..yfear, 

homo, maUf as distinguished from lower animals; general word 

for man, mankind. 
vir (60), man, as distinguished from woman ; man in an honorable 

sense, hero, 

3. 

130. COLLOQUIUM. 

Magister et Discipdlus. 
M, Quae, mi puer, sunt in penso hodierno? 

what things to-day's 

D. Multa sunt in penso, ut nomina, adjectiva, deciiua- 

many things as nouns declensions 

tiones, regulae. 

M, Quot genera sunt nominibus LatinTs? 

how many genders 

D, Genera sunt tria : masculinum, feminlnum, neutrum. 

genders three 

M. De quibus nominibus est regula prima? 

what 

D, Prima regula est de nominibus generis mascullni. 
Secunda regula est de nominibus generis feminini. 
M, Verborum quot sunt conjugationes ? 

verbs how many 

D, Quattuor sunt conjugationes, declinationes autem 

four but 

quTnque. 

five 



THIBD DECLENSION. 



59 



CHAPTER XIX. 1. 
THIRD DECLENSION. 

Sibilant Stems.^ 



40. 




PARADIGMS. 






M5S, M.y 


Jtls, K.» 


OpUB, N., 


CorpuB, K.9 




custom. 


right. 


work. 


body. 




Strnds- 


St. jiiB. 


St. opeB- 


St. corpoB- 






Singular. 




N.V. 


. m5s 


jus 


opus 


corpiis 


G. 


moria 


juris 


operiB 


corporiB 


D. 


morl 


jurl 


operl 


corporl 


Ac 


niorem 


jus 


opus 


corpus 


Ab. 


more 


jure 


opera 


corpore 






Plurat^. 




N.V, 


. iiiorSs 


jura 


oi)era 


corpora 


G. 


morum 


jurum 


operum 


corporum 


D. 


moribus 


juribuB 


operibuB 


corporibuB 


Ac 


morSB 


jura 


opera 


corpora 


Ab. 


moribuB 


juribuB 


operibuB 


corporibuB 


41. 




ADJECTIVE. 








VetUB, old. 


Stem veteB- 






Singular. 


Pl-URAL. 




Jft* cB J? • 


NEUT. 


JA* cC JT* 


NEUT 


K.V. vetus 


vetus 


veterfiB 


Vetera 


G. 


veteris 


veterlB 


veterum 


veterum 


D. 


veterl 


veterl 


veteribuB 


veteribuB 


Ac. 


veterem 


vetus 


veter fis 


Vetera 


Ab. 


vetere 


vetere 


veteribuB 


veteribuB 



142. The above were originally sibilant stems, the s having 
been changed to r between two vowels. Compare eram for OBam, 
er5 for eB5, p. 25. But for practical purposes they may be re- 
garded as stems in r. 

1 For table of terminations, see 184. 



60 THIRD DECLENSION. 

143. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Ceres agn culturae erat dea. 2. Cereri multa erant 
templa in Sicilia. 3. Ceres multa templa in Sieilia habebat. 
4. Ceres agri culturam doeebat. 5. Aestate est pulyis mo- 
lestus. 6. Servis temporibus antiquis non erant jura. 
7. Servi temporum veterum jura non habebant. 8. Equus 
perito ab equite exercitus erat. 9. Equiti perito praebitus 
erit equus niger. 

n. 1. The statue of Minerva has been seen. 2. The 
statue of Minerva had often been praised. 3. The works of 
the Greeks were pleasing to the Romans. 4. Our pleasures 
have been increased by work* and zeal. 5. What* were 
seen in the temples of Greece? 6. In ancient times men 
saw statues of gods and goddesses. 7. Statues of gods and 
goddesses were seen by men in ancient times. 



144. Examine the following : — 

1. Cum virtiite vixit, he lived with virtue (virtuously), 

2. Agricola agnim cum cfLrSi arat, the farmer ploughs his field 

with care (carefully), 

3. Agricola agrum mftgnS cum ctLrft arat, the farmer ploughs 

his field with great care 

4. Summft vl proelium commtserunt, they joined battle with the 

greatest violence. 

Manner is usually expressed by adverbs: benS, well; liberS, 
freely* So the phrases cum vlrtute, cum cilrS, m&gnSL cum 
clira, and Bummft vl, plainly denote manner, — how a thing is 
done, — like adverbs of manner. 

146. Rule op Syntax. — Manner is sometimes 
expressed by the ablative with cum; but if the 
ablative has an adjective, cum is often omitted. 

1 Read again explanations and rule, p. 86. ^ Quae = what things. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 61 

146. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Captivi lumen soils magno gaudio viderunt. 2.^ Si 
in agris tempore florum eritis,* libenter eos (them) vide- 
bltis. . 3. Magna voluptate aestate videntur pulchii flores. 
4. Libros cum studio et voluptate recitamus. 5. Pueri cor- 
pora cum studio et cura exercent. 6. Multa Romanorum 
opera tempore^ non deleta sunt. 

II. 1. They look at the lion with great fear. 2. If he 
blames (is blaming) the boy angrily,* he deserves punish- 
ment. 3. Daedalus had fitted wings to Icarus with care. 

4. They remember the words of the good judge with joy. 

5. The words of the good judge will be carefully* remem- 
bered. 6. How many works of the Romans time has not 
destroyed ! 

147. VOCABULARY. 

Ceres, -erls, f., Ceres, god- gaudluniy -I, n., joy, 

dess of agriculture. Icarus, -i, m., Icarus. 

flSs, floris, M., flower, ira, -ae, f., anger, 

pulvls, -erls, m., dxisU libenter, adv., gladly, with pleas- 

tempus, -oris, n., time, ure. 

molestus, -a, -um, adj., troublesome, 

aestas, -5tis, f., summer, quam, adv., how, than, 

cum, prep. w. abl., toith, sacer, -era, -crum, adj., sacred, 

cnra, -ae, f., care, Sicllia, -ae, f., Sicily, 

3. 

148. COLLOQUIUM. 

Duo Pueri. 

Hodie durum pensum habui. 
Studuistine cum cura et diligentia? 

did you study diligence 

Certe cum diligentia, non cum voluptate studui. 

^ Notice that in the fields = In • Why would it be wrong to 

agris; in the time = tempore. write 5 tempore? 

' See p. 47, note 3. < Compare 144. 1. 



62 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



Cur non cum voluptate studuisti? Eratne magistei 
morosns an pensum longum? 

cross or 

Mehercule ! longum erat pensum neque memoria tenebam. 

truly and not 

A^spice. Nonne vides multa vocabula in vocabulario et ver- 

look words vocabulary 

bum moneo et deelTnationis tertiae substanliva et adjectiva ? 
Heu amicum miserum, quam studes ! 

Ah have to study 



-«K>5»{< 



CHAPTER XX. 1. 



THIRD DECLENSION, 





Stems in 


i. 




149. 


PARADIGMS. 




HOBtiSy M. & F., 


NubCs, F., 


Turris, f., 


IgUiB,M., 


enemy. 


cloud. 


tower. 


fire. 


St. hosti- 


St. niibi- 

SlNGULAR. 


St. turri- 


St. Igni- 


N.V. host is 


nubSB 


turriB 


iguiB 


G. host is 


nubia 


turriB 


igniB 


D. hosti 


nubi 


turrl 


ignl 


Ac. host em 


nub em 


turrim,em 


ignem 


Ab. hoste 


nube 


tuiTl, e 


ignS,e 


- 


Plural. 






N.V.hostSs 


nub 6b 


turr6B 


!gu 6b 


G.*- hostium 


nub ium 


turrium 


igninm 


D. hostibuB 


ntibibuB 


turribUB 


iguibus 


Ac. host 68, Is 


nub 6b, Ib 


turr6B, Ib 


Igu6B, Ib 


Ab. hostibuB 


nubibuB 


turribuB 


ignibuB 



THIRD DECIiBNSION. 



63 



• ««B«iM«^V^ 


Animal, n., 


Mare, k.. 


Calcar, n., 








animal. 


sea. 


spur. 


Terminations. 




St. animftU- 


St. mari- 


St. calc&ri- 


MASG. & 


FEH. 






SlNGULAR. 




Sing, 


Plur, 


N.V. 


, animal 


mare 


calcar 


is, 6b 


6b 


G. 


animal ia 


maris 


calcar is 


iB 


ium 


D. 


animal I 


marl 


calcar I 


I 


ibuB 


Ac. 


animal 


mare 


calcar 


em, im 


6b, Ib 


Ab. 


animal I 


marl 


calcar 1 


e,I 


ibuB 






Plur^k 




NEUTER. 


N.V. animal ia 


maria 


calcar ia 


e or — 


ia 


G. 


animal ium 


marium 


calcar ium 


iB 


iiim 


D. 


animal ibtLB 


maribuB 


calcar ibus 


I 


ibuB 


Ac. 


animalia 


maria 


calcar ia 


e or — 


ia 


Ab. 


animal ibuB 


maribuB 


calcar ibuB 


I 


ibuB 



11 


50. 




ADJECTIVES. 










Acer, keen, 


eager, St. fieri 


- 








Singular. 






Plural. 






MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


N.V. 


acer 


acriB 


acre 


acr6a 


acr6B 


acria 


G. 


acriB 


acriB 


acriB 


acrium 


acrium 


acrium 


D. 


acrl 


acrl 


acrl 


acribuB 


acribuB 


acribuB 


Ac. 


acrem acrem 


acre 


acr6s,lB 


acr6B, Ib 


acria 


Ab. 


acrl 


acrl 


acrl 


acribuB 


acribuB 


acribuB 



LeviB, lightf nimble, St. levi- 
SiNGULAR. Plural. 





M. & F. 


NEUT. 


Jtt,* & jr« 


NEUT. 


N.V. 


lev is 


leve 


lev 6b 


levia 


G. 


leviB 


leviB 


lev ium 


lev ium 


D. 


lev I 


lev I 


levibuB 


lev ibus 


Ac. 


lev em 


leve 


lev 6b, Is 


levia 


Ab. 


lev I 


levl 


lev ibus 


lev ibus 



64 




THIKD DECLENSIOK. 








Memor, 


mindful. 


St. 


memori- 






Singular. 

M. & p. NEUT. 






Plural. 




N.V. 


memor 


memor 






memor 68 




G. 


memoris 


memoris 






memor um 




D. 


riiemorl 


memor i 






memor ibuB 




Ac. 


meuiorem 


memor 






memor 6s, is 




Ab. 


memor I 


memor I 






memor ibuB 



161. An inspection of the tables shows : — 

1. That the i of the stem is sometimes lost, and sometimes 
changed to e. It appears in the terminations im, is (ace. plur.), 
i (abl. sing.), ia, and turn. 

2. That the ablative singular has in some nouns I, in some e^ 
and in some l or e ; in adjectives, always l. 

3. That the genitive plural has iurriy and the nominative and 
accusative plural neuter ia. Compare these endings with the nom- 
inative and genitive plural of consonant stems (105, 134, 140). 

4. Memor has um in the genitive plural, masculine and feminine. 
It has no neuter plural. Like memor decline vigil, watchful^ 
which has neuter plural vigilia, vigilium, etc. 

152. To stems in i belong : — 

1. Nouns in is and es not increasing in the genitive.* 

2. Neuters in e^ al, and ar, 

3. Adjectives of two terminations. 

4. Adjectives of the third declension of three terminations. 

153. Nouns in es (gen. is) are declined like nub6s. Most 
nouns in is are declined like hostis. Canis, dogt has genitive 
plural canum. 

154. The principal nouns declined like turris are: clSivis, 
key; nftvis, ship; puppis, stern of a ship; secilris, axe. 

Like Ignis are: amnis, river; anguis, snake; avis, bird; 
clviB, citizen ; clSiBBiB, fleet ; collis, M/; finis, end; orbis, circle; 
postis, post, Sitis, thirst, has ace. in -im, abl. in -I 



^ That is, haying no more syllables than in the nominative. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 65 

»  * 

155* Adjectives decliued like §cer are called adjectives of 
three terminations; those declined like levia, adjectives of two 
terminations ; while those declined like vetua (141)^ audSz and 
prfLdSns (164), are called adjectives of one termination. 

156* Decline together nlvis longa, ship of warj vallis pro- 
funda, deep valley ; Alp6B altae, high Alps, See 161. 



2. 

167, Paradigm illustrating apposition: — 

N.V. CicerS consul, Cicero, the consul, 
G. Ciceronis consulis, of Cicero, the consul, 
D. Ciceroni consuli, to or for Cicero, the consul, 
Ac. Ciceronem consulem, Cicero, the consul, 
Ab. Sl Cicerdne consule, by Cicero, the consul, 

158. Rule of Syntax. — An appositive is in the 
same case as the noun or pronoun which it qualifies. 



159. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. In vallibus Alpium sunt fluvii pulchrl. 2. Quae 
(what) animalia aquilam timent ? 3. Naves Gallorum erant 
longae et altae. 4. Galli longas naves habebant. 5. Fui- 
mus in navi alta. 6. Robur tuum lev! labore augebitur. 
7. Somnus hominibus voluptStem praebet. 8. Habentne 
mflites defessi eibura et aquam? 9. Homines eibum Tgni 
coquunt (cook), 10. Leones et elephanli sunt animalia fera, 

II. 1. In the tower there were many men. 2. The towers 
of the ships were high. 3. From the high tower we saw the 
broad sea. 4. The broad sea was seen by men in the high 
tower. 5. The flight of the horsemen was seen by brave 
soldiers. 6. Robbers fear a brave man. 7. A brave man 
is feared by robbers. 8. On the shore they built a tower 



66 THIRD DECLBNSIOIT, 

for the king. 9. Numa, king of the Homans, changed the 
number of the months. 10. The number of the months was 
changed by Numa, a Roman king. 

3. 

160. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Turrim altam videbant regis comites. 2. Corpora 
hominum non animi sunt mortalia. 3. Capita animalium 
multorum videbantur. 4. Acri animo navem latronum sub* 
movent nautae. 5. Navis latronum ab acribus nauHs sub- 
movetur. 6. Vict5riam debemus turribus nostris validis. 
7. Multa animalia sunt levia et vigilia. 8. Avium non multa 
genera in ruinis turrium antiquarum habitant. 9. Servl 
Graeci filios E.omanorum n5bilium edueabant. 10. Fflii 
Komanorum n5bilium a servis Graecis saepe educabantur. 

II. 1. Polyphemus, son of Neptune, had a huge body. 
2. Cyrus, the first king of the Persians, remembered all the 
names of his soldiers. 3. The names of all his soldiers were 
remembered by Cyrus, king of the Persians. 4. How many 
ships of the Gauls were driven off ? 5. The number of 
fires in the town was great. 

161. VOCABULARY. 

Alpesy -lam, f., Alps, ferus, -a, -uniy adj., wild. 

avis, -la, F., bird (154). tuga^ -ae, t., flight, 

fortis, -e, adj., brave, genus, -erls, n., kind, race, 

mensls, -is, m., month, habito, 1, dwell, inhabit. 

mortalis, -e, adj., mortal, latro, -onis, m., robber. 

n&vls, -Is, F., ship (154). litus, -SrlSy n., shore, 

nobilis, -e, adj., noble, multltodS, -Inis, f., multitude, 

omnis, -e, adj., all, every. Neptfinus, -I, m., Neptune, god of 

vallis (or-es), -is, f., valley. the sea. 

viglly -Is, adj., watchfid, noster, -tra, -trum, poss. adj., our, 

ours. 

animus, -f, h., mind, soul. Numa, -ae, m., Numa, a Roman king. 

educo, 1, train, educate, Persae, -arum, m., the Persians, 



COLLOQUIUM. 67 



VolyphemuBy 'If JL., Poluphemus. sub-moveS, 2, -movi, -motamy 

quoty adj. indecl., how many f {move from beneath) remove, drive 

r5bur, -Sris^ n., strength. away, 

ruina, -ae, p., ruin, \IV5, 1, avoid, shun. 



X 



4. 

162. COLLOQUIUM. 

Frater et Sororcula. 

S. Narra mihi, frater, de Polyphemo ; quis fuit et ubi 
habitabat? ^^^^^ 

F. Polyphemus filius Neptuni fuit et cum fratribus in 
Insula habitabat. 

S. Fuitne arator et agros arabat? 

F. Minime. Neque fuit arator neque agros arabat Poly- 

neither ploughman nor 

phemus. 

S. Nauta igitur sine dubio fuit, et maria navibus 

therefore 

' navigabat. 

F. Erravisti, mea sororcula, Polyphemus fuit pastor ^ue 

and 

magnos ovium greges habebat. Fuit autem ingentis corporis 

sheep moreover huge 

et unum tantum oculum habuit. Ulixes dolosus ei unum 

only crafty for him his one 

oculum stipite perforavit. 

stake dug out 

S. Eheu ! miserrimum Polyphemum I 

Oh dear! poor 



68 



THIRD DECLENSION. 



r 



CHAPTER XXI. 1. 
THIRD DECLENSION. 

Mixed Stems.^ 



63. 


PARADIGMS 


• 




Cli6ns, M. & F., 


Urbs, F., 


Arz, F., 


• 


clierd. 


city. 


citadel. 






Singular. 




TERMINATIONS, 


N.V. cliens 


urbs 


arx 


S 


G. client is 


urbis 


arc is 


is 


D. client I 


iirbl 


arc I 


I 


Ac. client em 


urbem 


arc em 


em 


Ab. client e 


urbe 

Plubal. 


arce 


e 


N.V. client Ss 


urbSs 


arc 6s 


6s 


G. client ium 


urbium 


arc ium 


ium 


D. client ibus 


urbibus 


arc ibus 


ibus 


Ac. client Ss, is 


urbSs, is 


arc 6s, Is 


6s, Is 


Ab. client ibus 


urbibus 


arc ibus 


ibus 



164. 



ADJECTIVES. 

Audftz, hold; prfLd6n8, sagacious. 

Singular. 





JA* wC X • 


NEUT. 


Jtt* & £ • 


NEUT. 


N.V. 


audax 


audax 


prudens 


prudens 


G. 


audacis 


audacis 


prudent is 


prudent is 


D. 


audaci 


audaci 


prudent I 


prudent I 


Ac. 


audacem 


audax 


prudent em 


prudens 


Ab. 


audaci, e 


audaci, e 


prudent I, e 


prudent I, e 






Plural. 




N.V. 


audac6s 


audac ia 


prudent 6s 


prudent ia 


G. 


audacium 


audacium 


prudent ium 


prudent ium 


D. 


audacibus 


audacibus 


prudent ibus 


prudent ibus 


Ac. 


audac 6s, Is 


audac ia 


prudent 6s, Is 


prudent ia 


Ab. 


audac ibus 


audftcibUB 


prudent ibus 


prudent ibus 



^ Usually classed as i stems. See 166. 



THIRD DECI^BNSION. 



69 









>^«^ 


165 


• 


PARTICIPLE. 
AmSng, loving. 






Singular. Plural. 




A» cB x» 


NEUT. M. & p. 


NEUT. 


N.V. 


aui&ns 


amans amantSa 


amant la 


G. 


amantis 


amantis amantium 


amantium 


D. 


amanti 


amanti amautibus 


amant ibus 


Ac. 


amantem 


anions amautSs, is 


amant ia 


Ab. 


amante, I 


amant e, ! amant ibus 


amant ibuB 



166. Note in the above tables : — 

1. That the nouns are declined in the singular like consonant 
stems (105, 134, 140), and the adjectives also, except that, like 
t stems, they have an ablative in l. 

2. That the plural of both nouns and adjectives is like that of 
t stems (149, 150). 

167. To the class of mixed stems belong: — 

1. Nouns in ns and rs. But parSns has the genitive plural 
parentum. 

2. Monosyllables in s and x following a consonant, together with 
niz, nivis, snow; noz, noctiB, night; os, obbIb, bone; mfls, mtLris, 
mouse, 

3. Adjectives of one ending, with some exceptions, of which the 
most important are: dives, rich; pauper, poor; particeps, 
sharing; princeps, chief; and compounds of nouns that have 
consonant stems. These all have the genitive plural in tim. 

4. Present active participles. 

168. RuiiES OF Gendeb. — 1. Kouns endingr in Sy 
OTf OS 9 er, €8 (gren. idis, itis), are masculine. 

But nouns ending in dd and gd, of more than two syllables^ 
together with abstract * and collective ^ nouns in i5, are feminine. 

2. Kouns ending* in as, es not increasing* in the 
genitive, is, x, and 8 following a consonant, are 
feminine. 



^ Abstract nouns are such as 
denote a thought rather than a 
thing: ratio, method. 



2 Collective nouns are such as 
in the singular imply a number of 
things or persons : legiS, legion. 



70 THIRD DECLENSION. 

3. Kouns ending in a, e, i, p, c, I, n, t, ar, ur, 
and U8f are neuter. 

There are many exceptions to these rules, which the learner 
should note as he advances. 

169. Decline together fdna profundus, deep spring; hostis 
audftz, bold enemy/ mSigna pars, great part* See 172. 

2. 

170. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Alpes sunt montes Europae. 2. Saepe in lateribus 
montium sunt silvae. 3. Multorum amnium fontes sunt 
parvi. 4. In Alpibus sunt regi5nes pulchrae et suaves. 
5. Sunt valles profundae, rupes altae, silvae inagnae. 6. Ibi 
magnam videbis niultitudinem vulpium. 7. Aestate ovium 
greges videntur. $. Mriitem fortem non terrebit periculum. 
9. Mfles fortis periculo non terrebitur. 10. Omnes adule^ 
scentes erunt milites fortes. 

II. !• There are mountains in Europe. 2. On the sides 
of the mountains are tall trees. 3. Many rivers have small 
sources, 4. Parts of the Alps are beautiful. 5. The Alps 
have deep valleys and high cliffs. 6. Wild beasts are seen 
on the sides of the Alps. 7. There you will see shepherds 
and sheep. S. Brave soldiers do not fear dangers. 9. The 
fathers of the young men are soldiers. 10. We honor the 
brave soldier. 

3. 

171. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Quid vident homines in montibus altis? 2. Aquilam, 
avem audacem, in rupibus vident. 3. Nonne in arboribus 
altls habitat rex avium? 4. Certe, et parvTs avibus est ter- 
ror magnus, nam inter aves regnat. 5. Acres sunt aquilarum 
oculi; longe vident venatorem. 6. In mar! classera hos- 
tium videmus. 7. Classis navium § latronibus videbatur. 
8. Magister mores bonOs et diligentiam discipulorum lauda- 



THIRD DECLENSION. 71 



bit. 9. Mores boni et diligentia a magistro laudabuntur. 
10. Omnis Galliae sant partes tres (three), 

II. 1. Men dwell in the deep valleys of the mountains. 
2. In summer they have flocks on the mountains. 3. Why 
do men call the eagle the king^ of birds ? 4. Do not keen 
hunters see the eagle from afar ? 5. The enemy's ships 
plough the deep sea. 6. The robbers saw the ships with great 
terror.* 7. Solon was the author of many good laws. 8. In 
ancient states there were free men and slaves. 9. The 
memory of the wise Solon has been honored. 

172. VOCABULARY. 

adulesceUSy -entis, h. & f., youth, latusy -eiisy v., side. Cf . latus, broad, 

young man. lex^ leglSy f., law, 

fonsy fonttSy m., source, spring. longe, ady., afar, at a distance. 

monSy montiSy m., mountain. mosy moriSy m., manner, custom. 

parsy partiSy f., part. nam, conj.,/or. 

sapiens, -entiSy adj., wise. ovis, -is, f., sheep, 

pastor, -oris, m., shepherd. 

amnls, -is, h., river (154). periculum, -I, v., danger, peril. 

arbor, -dris, f., tree. profundus, -a, -um, adj., deep. 

auctor, -oris, h., attthor. regio, -onis, f., region. 

Belgae, -arum, h., the Belgians, regno, 1, be king, rule, reign. 

classis, -is, v., fleet (154). rapes, -is, f., rock, diff. 

diligentia, -ae, f., diligence. sllva, -ae, f., wood, forest. 

fera, -ae, f., wild beast. Solon, -onis, m., Solon, an Athenian 
honoro, 1, honor. lawgiyer, 

hostls, -is, M. & F., enemy, suavls, -e, adj., sweet, pleasant. 

ibiy ady., there. venator, -oris, m., hunter. 

inter, prep. w. ace, between, among, vulpes, -is, f., fox. 

amnis, a large, deep river ; not the common prose word for river, 
flomen (203), general word for river; flowing, as opposed to still 

water, as a lake or pond. 
fluvius (84), not different from flnmen, but much less used. 

bostis, general word for enemy : a public enemy, enemy in war. 
inimlcus (78), a private or personal enemy ; opposed to amicus. 

^ Predicate accusatiye. ^ See 144, 145. 



72 THIRD DECLENSION. 



4. • 

COLLOQUIUM. 

1 73. Translate into Latin : — 

Father and Son. 

F, Tell me (jnihi) about Solon, if j^ou please {si placet), 

S. Solon was a wise Athenian {Atheniensis) ; his \ejus) 
laws were famous, and his memory will always be honored. 
He was the friend of poor men {pauperum) . He saw many 
lands and many men. He did not fear Fisistratus the 
usurper (tyrannum). 

F. Was Miltiades also (quoque) an Athenian ? 

S. Certainly ; he overcame the Persians {Persds) in the 
battle of Marathon.^ He was a brave and skilful leader. 
He had a brave son. 



-»o}<Ko»- 



CHAPTER XXII. 1 
REVIEW. 

174. Decline together gladius Seer, sharp sword; consilium 
utile, useful counsel ; aquila celeris, swift eagle ; animal vSloz, 
Jleet animal. See 179. 

1 75. Examples of the locative case in the third declension are : 
Carthagini, or Carth&gine, at Carthage ; rtirl, in the country. 

1 76. Affix the proper terminations to the adjectives in the 
following^ and translate: — 

1. Equo celer-, equorum veloc-, equTs veloc-. 2. Puella 
trist-, puellae trist-, puellam trist-, puellarum priident-. 
3. Gladiis aer-, gladios acr-, gladium acr-. 4. Libro util-, 
librorum util-, librum util-. 5. Donum util-, dona util-, 
doni util-. 6. Sei*vi fidel-, servo fidel-, servos fidel-, servis 
fidel-. 

^ Of Marathon, MarathoniuSy -a^ •um. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 73 



177. -EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Equi sunt celeres. 2. Proelium equestre fuit. 
3. Viri fortes laudantur. 4. Virum fortem laudamus. 
5. Omne initium est difficile. 6. Bella sunt tristia. 7. Con- 
silium ducis audax fuit. 8. Yetus vinum est bonum. 
9. Acris et velox est aquila. 10. Multa animalia vitas 
breves habent. 

n. 1. The soldiers have keen weapons. 2. I have a 
swift horse. 3. We praise brave men. 4. Do you like 
sweet food? 5. The lessons are not hard. 6. The plans of 
the commander are sagacious. 7. Life is short. 8. There 
are swift eagles in the mountains. 9. The king has bold 
sailors. 10. The wings of the swift eagle are long. 

2. 

178. EXERCISES. 

Write out the whole of 177. 1, in Latin, changing singulars 
to plurals and plurals to singulars. Thus, 4 will be viroa 
fortSs laud5. 

Turn II. into Latin, first changing the sentences as 
directed above in regard to I. 

179. VOCABULARY. 

acer, acriSy acre, ad j ., sharp, eager, fidelis, -e, ad j ., faithful, 

brevis, -e, adj., short. initium, -i, n., beginning. 

celer, celeris, celere, adj., quick, telum, -l, n., weapon. 

fleet y swift. tristis, -e, adj., sad. 

difflcilis, -e, adj., difficulty hard, atilis, -e, adj., useful. 

equester, -tris, -tre, adj., eques- velox, -Scis, adj., swifts fleet. 

trian. vita, -ae, f., life. 

celer, quick, with the added notion of eagerness or energy, 
vel5x, swift, sometimes implying nimUeness, 



7.4 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
THIRD CONJUGATION. 
180. E -Verbs. 

Rego (stem rege), rule. 
Principal Parts: reg5, regSre, rSzI,^ rSctum.^ 

« 



t 


INDICATIVE. 


ACTlVlfi. 


PASSIVB. 




Present. 


/ rti/tf, etc. 


/ am ruledf etc. 


Teg 6 regimus 


Teg or regimnr 


regis regitis 


reg eris, or -re reg imini 


regit regunt 


regitur reguntur 




Imperfect. 


/, was ruling, etc. 


/ was ruled, etc. 


reg6bam reg6bSxnu£ 


\ regSbar regSb&mur 


reg6bftB regSb&tis 


reg SbSris, or -re reg 6bSxninI 


reg6bat reg6bant 


reg6b&tur reg6bantur 



/ shall rule, etc. 
reg am reg6mus 

reg 6b regStis 

reget regent 

/ have ruled, etc. 
rex I reximus 

rexistl rexistis 



Future. 

/ shall he ruled, etc. 

regar regSmur 

reg Sris, or -re reg Sminl 

regStur regentur 

Perfect. 

/ have been ruled, etc. 

r sum t aumus 

rect us J ea recti -< eatis 



rex it 



rgxSrunt,or-re 






est 






aunt 



Pluperfect. 
/ had ruled, etc. I had been ruled, etc. 

rexeram rexerSmus reram /-erSmus 

rexerfis rexer&tis rectus •<er&a recti ^er&tis 

rexerat rexerant (erat (erant 

1 BSxi for reg-sl. See p. 1, note 2. ^ BSctuiu for reg-tum. 



\» 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



76 



ACTIVE. 



PASSIVE. 



Future Perfect. 
/ shall have ndedy etc. I shall have been ruled, etc. 

r§xer5 rexerimus rex6 /^erimus 

rexeriB rexexitis rectus-^eris recti •< eritis 

rexerit rexerint (erit (erant 





SUBJUNCTIVE.* 








Present. 




regam 


regftmus 


regar 


reg&mur 


regfts 


reg&tis 


reg&riSfOr-re 


regftmini ' 


regat 


regant 


reg&tur 
Imperfect. 


regantur 


regerem 


regerSmuB 


regerer 


reger6mur 


regerfia 


regerStis 


regerSri8,or-re 


regerSmini 


regeret 


regerent 


regerCtur 
Perfect. 


regerentur 


rgxerlxn 


rex erimuB 


rsim 


rsTmus 


rexeria 


rex eritis 


rect UB -^ bIb 


recti < Bitis 


rexerit 


rexerint 


(sit 
Pluperfect. 


(sint 


rexissem 


rgxisBSmuB 


/ essem 


r essSmuB 


rexiBB6s 


rexisBStis 


rect us -Jesses 


recti < essStis 


rexisset 


rexissent 


(esset 


( essent 



rege, ride thou. 
regite, rule ye. 

regit5, thou shalt rule. 
regit5, he shall rule, 
regit5te, ye shall rule. 
regant6, they shall rule. 



IMPERATIVE. 

Present. 

regere, be thou ruled. 
regimini; be ye ruled. 

Future. 

regitor, thou shalt be ruled. 
regitor, he shall be ruled. 

reguntor, they shall be ruled. 



1 See p. 26, note. 



76 THIRD CONJUGATION. 

INFINITIVE. 
AOTIYi:. PASSITE. 

Fbes. regere, to rule. regl, to he ruled. 

Perf. rexisse, to have ruled. rectus esse, to have been ruled. 

FuT. recturuB esse, to be about rectum IrX, to be about to he ruled, 
to rule. 

PARTICIPLE. 
Pres. reg6n8, -entis, ruling. 



FuT. rect^us, -a, -um, about Ger. regendus, -a, -um, to be 
to rule. ruled, 

Perf. rectus, -a, -um, having been 

ruled. 

GERUND. 
G. regendi, of ruling, 

D. reg endo, for ruling. 

Ac. regendum, ruling. 

Ab. reg endo, by riding. 

SUPINE. 
Ac. rectum, to rule. Ab. rectH, to rule, to be ruled. 



-•K>}04oo- 



CHAPTER XXIV. 1. 

THIRD CONJUGATION. 

181. Learn the present, imperfect, and future indicative, and 
present imperative and infinitive, active and passive, of regd. 

182. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Regitis, regebatis, regetis. 2. Regitur, regebatur, 
regetur. 3. Rego, regebam, regam. 4. Reguntur, rege- 
bantur, regentur. 5. Regere, regi. 6. Regite, regere. 
7. Regis, regeris. 8. Regimus, regimur. 9. Regit, regitur. 
10. Regitis, regimini. 

II. 1. He rules, he was ruling, he will rule. 2. To be 
ruled, to rule. 8. They rule, they were ruling, they will 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 77 

rule. 4. We rule, we are ruled. 5. We shall rule, we shall 
be ruled. 6. You are ruling, you were ruling, you will rule. 
7. Rule (thou), be (thou) ruled. 8. He is ruling, he is 
ruled. 9. The}' ruled, they were ruled. 10. I rule, I ruled, 
I shall rule. 

2. 

183. EXERCISES. 

ScrXb5,^ ujrite; xiiitto,^ send; emo,^ buy. 

I. 1. Scribis, mittis, emis. 2. Mittitur, scribitur, emitur. 

3. Nonne mittebas ? nonne scribebant ? nonne emebam ? 

4. Scrlbetur, mittebantur, ementur. 5. Mitte, scribite, 
emite. 6. Emere, scribere, mittere. 7. Non mitfcunt, non 
scribitis, non emet. 8. Scribamne ?. emuntne ? mittimusne? 
9. Mitteris, mitteris, scrlbetur. 10. Scribi, mitti, emi. 

II. 1. He writes, he is sent, they buy. 2. Is it written ? 
does he send? are they bought? 3. I shall buy, thou wilt 
send, he will write. 4. It will not be written, we shall not 
be sent, thou wilt not be bought. S. To write, to send, to 
buy. 6. Write, send, bu3\ 7. We are sent, they were 
bought, it is (being) written. 8. They write, they will buy, 
they were sending. 9. I was writing, we were sending, 
I shall buy. 10. You are sent, it was (being) written, they 
are bought. 

184. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Imperator multas urbSs vincet. 2. Multae terrae 
ab BomanTs regebantur. 3. Omnera mundum regit Deus. 
4. Dux Bomanus ex Graecia in Italiam portabat multas 
statuas. 5. Viri fortes timore non vincuntur. 6. Pabulum 
militibus^ emetur. 7. Hannibal milites trans Alpes ducebat. 

^ For principal parts, see 186. 

3 What would be the meaning of S militibiis ? 



78 THIBD CONJUGATION. 

8. Trans fluvium erat parva urbs. 9, Urbs a civibus defen- 
debatur. 10. Nautae, e navi descendite. / 

II. 1. The commander writes a letter. 2. Letters are 
written by the commander. 3. Hannibal was leading his 
soldiers into Italy. 4. The citizens are defended by their ^ 
leaders. 5. Caesar conquered all his enemies. 6. Rome will 
be defended by the citizens. 7. Drive the sheep into the 
fields. 8. There are many robbers in the city. 9. Near the 
town is a broad valley. 10. Come down out of the tower. 



3. 

185. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Omnis mundus a Deo regitur. 2. PuerTs libros 
emam. 3. Defensores oppidi a Caesar is militibus vincentur. 
4. In Africa servi emuntur. 5. Hieme multa animalia in 
valles descendant . 6. Agricolae in urbem oves agent. 
7. Omnes canes ex urbe agemus. 8. Epistulam de bello 
scribebam. 9. Puer epistulam depensTsscribebat. 10. Poeta 
bonus poemata bona scribet. 

II. 1. The king's brothers send soldiers into Greece. 
2. I will send my brother's son into Africa. 3. You will 
be sent into Sicily. 4. Send men across the river. 5. The 
city was defended with^ great brav/ery by all the citizens. 
6. Pyrrhus led many men across the sea into Italy. 7. In' 
winter many animals are overcome b}^ hunger. 8. The 
farmers are buying food for their sheep. 9. Strong men 
were driving the white horses into the river. 10. The good 
shepherd leads his sheep. 

1 See 100. * Is in to be separately expressed 

^ Is it necessary to translate in Latin? See fifth sentence aboye, 

with by cum % See examples and and examples and rule, 135, 136. 

rule, 144, 145. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 79 

'186. VOCABULARY. 

agdy 3, Sg^9 Sctuniy drive, lead, Caesar, -ftrlSy h., C<Bsar. 

de-^ndo, 3, -di, -suniy defend. canls, -is, M. & f., dog, (153.) 

de-scendOy 3, -di, -suniy descend^ civiSy -is, h. & f., citizen, 

go down, come down, de, prep. w. abl., concerning, about, 

dacOy 3, daxiy ductuniy lead, epistula, -ae, f., letter. 

emS, 3, emiy emptum, buy, fames, -is, f., hunger, famine, 

mitts, 3, misi, mlssum, send, hiems, hlemis, f., winter, 

scribo, 3^ scripsi, scriptuih, latro, -dnls, m., robber, 

write, mundus, -i, M., world, universe, 

sQmo, 3, sampsl, samptum, taJce, prope, prep. w. ace, near, 

vinco, 3, vici, victum^ conquer, trans, prep. w. ace., across, beyond, 

supero (102), to have the upper hand, surpass, conquer r- 
vinco, to get the mastery, vanquish, conquer. 

What difference do you make out from a comparison of the 
meanings 1 

4. 

187. COLLOQUIUM. 

Charon et Mercurius. 
Ch, Salve, O Mercun! 

hail 

M. Et tu, salve, portitor. 

ferryman 

Ch. Mercuri, ducisne hodie multos manes? 

souls 

M, HodiS manium duco numerum magnum. Tnste est 

sad 

officiam meum. Ithaca tibi proeul dubio nota est atque Ulixes. 

dnty without doubt known 

Ch, Recte dixistT. Ithaca est insula inter Graeciam et 

you have said 

Italiam sita ; et mihi notus est Ulixes, nam ipse olim hue 

situated himself formerly hither 

venit. 

came 

M. Jam aspice mftnes procerum et servorum infidorum. 

now see chiefs unfidthful 

Hi omnes ab Ulixe necati sunt. 

these 

Ch. Istud mihi placet. Manes in cymba transveham. 

that boat carry over 

Vale, Mercuri. 

M. Et tu vale, CharOn. 



80 THIRD CONJUGATION. 

5. 
188. FOR TRANSLATION.! 

PuBLius Cornelius Scipio. 

Publius Cornelius Scipio major,* adulescens^ septendecim 
annorum, ad Ticinum flumen patrem vulneratum servavit. 
In pugna CannensI fortiter dimicavit. Fostea Carthaginem 
Novam, urbem in Hispania Foenorum firmissimam expug- 
navit. Obsides Hispanorum ben^ne tractavit et libertate 
donavit.* Non minus feliciter Scipio in Africa bellavit ibique 
Foenos ita ursit* ut Hannibalem ex Italia revocarent.^ Ad 
Zamam Scipionis et Hannibalis exercitus ^ castra habuerunt ; 
clarum est illud colloquium, quod Hannibal, dux Foenorum, 
et Scipio, consul Hdmanus, ante pugnam habuerunt. Foeni 
a ScTpione superati fugatique sunt. Scipio triumphum 
magnificum ex AfricS. reportavit et a populo Africanus 
appellatus est. 



-•Or^Koo- 



CHAPTER XXV. 1. 
THIRD CONJUGATION. 

189. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indica- 
tive, and perfect infinitive, active and passive, of rego. 

190. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Rexit, rexerat, rexerit. 2. Rexerunt, rexerant, 
rexerint. 3. Rexisse, rectus esse. 4. Rectum est, rectum 
erat, rectum erit. 5. Rexisti, rexeras, rexeris. 6. Reximus, 

^ For meanings of words, see ^ From urgeo ; ita ursit, 

general vocabulary. pressed them so hard. 

2 The elder, * Ut . . . revocarent, that they 

* When a youth. recalled. 

* Presented them mth their liberty ^ Nom. plur., subject of habue- 
A set them free. rant. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 81 

^^— — — ^— ^ » 

recti sumus. 7. Rexistis, recta estis. 8. Rexi, rexeram, 
rexero. 9. Eexerant, recti erant. 10. Recta est, recta 
erat, recta erit. 

II. 1. I have ruled, I had ruled, I shall have ruled. 

2. I have ruled, I have been ruled. 3. They have ruled, 
they have been ruled. 4. You ruled, you had ruled, you 
will have ruled. 5. He will have ruled, he will have been 
ruled. 6. To have been ruled, to have ruled. 7. They had 
ruled, they had been ruled. 8. She has ruled, she has been 
ruled. 9. It was ruled, it had been ruled, it will have been 
ruled. 10. They (neut.) were ruled, they had been ruled, 
they will have been ruled. 

2. 

191. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Dtlxit, §merit, sumpserit. 2. Emit,' duxistl, sumpsi. 

3. Sumptus est, ductac sumus, empta sunt. 4. Eratne 
ductus? erantne emptae ? eratne stimptum? 5. Duxerimus, 
sumpseritis, emerint. 6. Nonne duximus ? nonne emera- 
mus ? ndnne emerimus? 7. Duxisti, emerunt, sumpsimus. 
8. Ducta est, emptum est, sumpta erat. 9. Duxisse, emisse, 
sumpsisse. 10. Non duxeram, non emeratis, non sumpser5. 

n. 1. She had been led, it has been bought, they (neut,) 
will have been taken. 2. I have taken, you have bought, 
he has led. 3. Has it not been taken ? had he not been 
led ? have they (neut.) not been bought ? 4. I had led, 
you had bought, he had taken. 5. They will have 
taken, I shall have led, thou wilt have bought. 6. I was 
led, it was bought, it had been taken. 7. To have been led, 
to have been bought, to have been taken. 8. We shall have 
taken, I shall have bought, he will have led. 9. Did he 
take ? didst thou buy ? did j-ou lead ? 10. They did not 
lead, you had not bought, she will not have taken. 

^ How do you know whether this form is present or perfect ? 



82 THIRD CONJUGATION. 

192. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Hostes vicimus. 2. Hostes terriH victique sunt. 
3. HOratius oculum in proelio amiserat. 4. O patria, vicisti 
(ram meam. 5. Scipio in Hispaniam missus est. 6. Spar- 
tacus, dux gladiatorum, consules Romanos vlcit. 7. Gallia 
inter Pyrenaeos montes et Rhenum posita est.^ 8. Metellus 
bellum in Hispania gessit. 9. Quid times? Caesarem vehis. 
10. Bellum a Pyrrho in Italia gestum est. 11. A Spartaco,* 
duce gladiatorum, consules Roman! victl sunt. 

II. 1. Have you lost your books? 2. My brother will sail' 
in a small ship. 8. Do men live in trees? 4. Neptune 
ruled (over) the deep sea. 5. A river flows out of the 
mountain. 6. The girl's head was encircled with flowers. 
7. War has been waged in Italy. 8. A lazy boy is often 
despised. 9. The ancient Romans did not despise war. 
10. The king had surrounded the city with walls. 11. Did 
not Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, wage war in Italy? 

a 

193. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Aves multae in arboribus vivunt. 2. Viri fort§s 
urbem templaque deorum defenderunt. 3. Dux trans mare 
in navi vectu^ est. 4. Tyranni a virls fortibus contempt! 
sunt. 5. Ponite pedes in rupem. 6. Virgo a templo tracta 
erat. 7. Hannibal a Sclpione victus est. 8. Caesar m!lites 
in equos posuit. 9. Oppidum muro alto cinctum erat. 
10. Oppidan! oppidum muro alto cinxerunt. 11. Inter 
montem et oppidum fluebat fluvius latus. 12. Bellum in 
Hispania a Metello imperatore Romano gestum est. 

II. 1. A large fleet was bought with gold by Caesar. 
2. The general's daughter had been carried in a wagon. 

"^ Posita esty 18 situated. ^ Future passive of veho. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 88 



3. The commander had carried on war against his enemies. 

4. All the property^ of the enemy has been lost. 5. Many 
men live by agriculture. 6. We went away from JJMy to^ 
Sicily. 7. My brother has departed from his native land. 
8. Have they lost their books? 9. Have not men always 
despised tyrants? 10. The boys rode on horseback^ with 
great pleasure.* 11. The farmer's cart is drawn by strong 

^ horses. 12. My books have been lost. 



Id4* VQ«4B«liAR«. 

a-mlttOy 3, -misiy -missiun, lose. Gallia, -ae, f., Ontd. 

cingo, 3, cinxi, cinctum, bind, en- gladiator, -oris, m., gladiator, 

circle, surround, Hispania, -ae, f., Spain, 

con-temno, 3, -tempsi, -temptum, Horatius, -i, m., Hor alius, (79.) 

despise. Metellus, -i, m., Metellus, a Koman 

dls-cedo, 3, -cessi, -cSssuin, depart, generaL 

fluo, 3, floxl, flaxum, flow, patria, -ae, f., native land, 

gerS, 3, gessi, gestum, carry on, Pyrenaeus, -a, -uniy adj., Pyre- 

wage (war), nean, Pyrenees, 

pon5, 3, posui, posituin, pu^,/)/ace. -que (enclitic),^ conj., and, 

trahS, 3, -xi, -ctum, drag, draw, Rhenus, -i, m., the Rhine, 

veho, 3, vexi, vectum, carry, draw, Scipio, -onis, m., Scipio, a Koman 

vivo, 3/vixi, vietum, live, general. 

Spartacus, -I, h., Spartacus, a 

contrS, prep. w. ace., against, gladiator. 

carrus, -i, m., cart, wagon, virgo, -inis, f., maiden, girl. 

habits (161), trans, and intrans., live, in the sense of dtvdl, inhabit, 

with reference to place. 
vivo, intrans., have life, live, often with reference to some condition 

or circumstance other than place. 



1 Goods. See 117. * See 145. 

2 Into. See 52. * /.e., appended to some word, 
 Ride on horseback = be car- as in 192. 1. 2. 

Tied on a hxrse. 



84 COLLOQUIUM. 



4. 

195. COLLOQUIUM. 

Praeceptor et Discipulus. 

P. Quis f uit Hannibal ? Fuit Romanus an Carthaginiensis ? 

Carthaginian 

Z>. Fuit Carthaginiensis et a Scipione victus est. 
P. Ubi fuit Hannibalis patria? 

where 

D, Carthago, Hannibalis patria, fuit in Africa. 
P. Ciir fuit f cur non est in Africa? 

why 

D. Quia Carthago a Scipione deleta est. 

was destroyed 

P. Quot ndmina erant ScipionI? 

how many 

D, Tria Scipioni erant nomina. Piiblius Cornelius Scipio. 

three 

P. Recte, mi puer, praenomen Publius; Cornelius nomea 

first name 

gentile ; Scipio cognomen. 

family cognomen 

D. Nonne interdum appellatus est Scipio Africdnus 9 

sometimes was called 

P. Certissime. Hoc autem nomen dicebant Romani 

this moreover 

cogndmen secundum. 

— ^>«=:oo — 

CHAPTER XXVI. 1. 
REVIEW. 

196. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Defendite, elves, cTvitatem. 2. Civitas est mater 
nostra. 3. Cives sunt fratres nostri. 4. Pueri, fratres 
amS,te. 5. Ornate, cives, urbem monumentis statuisque. 
6. Urbes pulchrae in Italia videntur. 7. Habitasne in urbe 
pulchra? 8. Urbs Roma^ muro cincta est. 9. Homa a civibus 
cum fortitudine defensa est. 10. Milites Homani erant fortes. 



1 See 157, 158. 



REVIEW. 85 



II. 1. The citizens are defenders of the state. 2. Roman 
mothers furnished brave heroes for the state. 3. Do you 
write letters to your brothers ? 4. From^ springs in the 
mountains the rivers flow. 5. The city will be adorned with 
golden^ statues. 6. In Greece we do' not see many beautiful 
cities. 7. The cit^^ is defended by watchful guards. 8, A 
high wall encircles the farmer's field. 9. We shall remain 
near Caesar's camp. 10. We teach our children by means 
of stories.* 

2. 
197. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. C6nsules a Pyrrho victi sunt. 2. Urbs a consulibus 
defendetur. 3. Filii regis audacis sunt civitatis defenso- 
res. 4. Clamoribus mflitum nostrorum territi sunt hostes. 
5. Milites in urbe nostra n5n saepe videmus. 6. In monti- 
bus et silvls vivunt aprl. 7. Mali* poenae timore coercentur. 

8. Legibus patriae omnes* coercemur. 9. Fluvius oppidum 
cingit. 10. Mores mall ab hominibus bonis contemnuntur. 

II. 1. Who defeated the Roman consuls? 2. The consul 
was besieging a city of Spain. 3. We all have seen the 
pleasant light of the moon. 4. The sad maidens were sitting 
near a deep river. 5. The maidens were weeping because 
they had lost their flowers. 6. The boars are descending 
headlong into the sea. 7. Soldiers are not often seen in our 
streets. 8. The ancient city of Rome^ was ruled by kings. 

9. The shepherd's son will weep if he loses (shall have lost) 
a sheep. 10. The teacher was teaching his pupils® the 
poems of Homer. 

1 e rather than fi. ® Omnes agrees with the under- 

^ See p. 37, note 1. stood subject of coercSmur. 

* See p. 14, note 1. "^ The city of Rome = the city 

« See 90 and 91. ' Borne. See 157, 158. 

A See 117. ^ Accusative. See p. 54, note 2. 



86 IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 

198. VOCABULARY. 

fibula, -ae, f., stori/f tale,jabie. ornnis, -e, adj., all, every, whole. 
frater, -tris, m., brother. praeceps, -clpltlSy adj., headlong, 

mater^ -tris, f., mother, tristis, -e, adj., sad, gloomy, 

3. 

199. FOR TRANSLATION.* 

Proserpina, 

Proserpina, Cereris filia, aliquando in Sicilia ad urbem 
Hennam in campis flores carpebat, serta nectebat ludebatque 
cum comitibus. Nam campi ibi floribus pulchrls sparsl^ 
sunt. Subito terra concussa' est atque Pluto, inferorum 
deus, e terra emersit;* ejus currum equi atrl vehebant. Deus 
Proserpinam abduxit, ut uxor sua et Inferorum regina esset;* 
clamorera puellae compressit.* Juppiter autem fratri per- 
mlserat ut Proserpinam abduceret.'' Mater cum® ignoraret, 
ubi filia esset,' totum orbem terrarum f rustra peragravit. 

[Continued on p. 92*3 



CHAPTER XXVII. 1. 
IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 

200. The following adjectives have lus (rarely iu8^ 
in the genitive singular of all genders, and i in the 
dative : 

^^^us, alia, aliud, another, totus, -a, -um, whole, 

nfillus, -a, -um, no one, none, no, fillus, -a, -um, any. 

solus, -a, -um, alone, sole. flnus, -a, -um, one, alone. 

1 For meanings of words, see ^ From comprimo. 

genferal vocabulary. ' Ut . . • abdaceret, that he 

3 From spargo. might lead away =: to lead away. 

* From concutio. ^ Cum IgnorSrety since she did 
^ From emergo, not know. 

* Ut . . . essety that she might he. ^ Was. 



IRREGtTIiAR ADJECTIVES. 87 

alter, altera, alterum, the other of two. 
neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither of two, 
uter, utra, utnim, which of two? 
uterque, utr&que, utrumque, each o/two, both^ 



2 


01. 


• 


PARADIGM. 










SlNGULAK. 


1 




PlURATm 






MASO. 


FEM. 


NBUT. 


MASC. 


FEM. 


NBUT. 


N. 


aliiia 


alia 


aliud 


aUl 


aliae 


alia 


G. 


alius 


alius 


alius 


ali5rum 


aliSrum 


ali5rum 


D. 


aHl 


aUI 


alii 


alils 


all 18 


alils 


Ac. 


alium 


aliam 


aliud 


all 5s 


aliSLs 


alia 


Ab. 


aU5 


ali& 


all 5 


alils 


alils 


aUls ^ 



202.^ EXERCISES. 

I. 1 ^Virtds sola veram dat voluptalem. 2. Alius ^ aliud 
dixit. 3. In utram partem^ fluit flumen? 4. Alter ^ Graecus, 
alter' Romanus erat. 5. Utri consul! dat eivitas totam 
laudem? Neutrl. 6. Alii^ virtu te, alil^ dolls hostes superant.^ 
7. Unius hominis mors totam urbem servavit. 8. Alterl 
discipuld laudem, alter! culpam dat' praeceptor. 9. NulKus 
precibus cedemus. 10. A Cicerone un5 urbs servata est. 

n. 1. The farmer was ploughing his field alone. 2. He 
is praised by one, blamed by another. 3. To which of the 
two does the teacher give the praise? 4. Some like* boys, 
others like girls. 5. Death is feared by no good man. 
6. The consul conquered some of his enemies, by others he 

^ Literallj, another said another ^ This sentence illustrates a 

thing. The English of it is, one common usage of the Latin. A verb 

eaid one thing, another another, belonging to two groups of words 

^ Into which part 9 i.e., in which is often placed only with the last, 

direction? and must be mentally supplied 

* Alter . . . alter, the one,,, the with the first. With the English 

other, it is the reverse. Show the applir 

• ^ Alii . • . alU) 909116 . • . others/ cation of the remark. 
aliud . . . aliudy one thing , • . on* * See note 6. 

other thing. 



88 IBBEGULAB ADJECTIVES. 

was conquered. 7. One leg is long, the other short. 8. Some 
praise one thing, others another. 9. The plan of the whole 
war was disclosed to the enemy. 10. The citizens praised 
Cicero alone. 



/A 



203. VOCABULARY. 



brevisy -e» adj., short, lausy laudls, f., praise, 

cedOy 3, cessiy cessuiny yield, morsy mortisy f., death. 
ClcerOy -dnisy m., Cicero, a Roman praeceptor, -oiisy m., teacher, 

orator. preces^ -urn, f. (plur.), prayers, 
eras, crarlsy n., leg, entreaty, .y 

culpa, -ae, f., Uame, fault, ratio, -ontsii., plan, method, reason, 

dolus, -I, M., trick, deceit, servo, 1, save, preserve, 

e-nantio, 1, disclose, announce, verus, -a, -um, adj., true, 

flfimen, -inis, n., river, (172.) Tirtas^ -atis, f., virtue, courage. 



2. 

204. COLLOQUIUM. 

PrAECEPTOR ET DlSCIPULUS. 

D. Quis f uit Cicer5 ? 

P. Claras consul Komanus f uit. 

D, Multane bella gessit? 

P. Minime. Orator fuit ; dux militum semel. 

once only 

D. Nonne ejus orationes in schola legimus ? 

hlB read 

P. Complures. Multas epistulas quoque scripsit Cicero. 

several also 

D. Ad quos epistulas scripsit ? 

whom 

P, Ad fratrem et amicos. 

D. Fuitne Cicero ejus ''nSmen"?* 

P. Non fuit *' nomen," sed " cognomen.' 

D. Quid fuit ejus " nSmen *' ? 

P. TulliiLS. 



ff 



1 See 195. 



■n 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 89 



D. Et praenomen? 

P, Marcus, 

D. Hoc dicas mihi, praeceptor eruditissime, si placet; 

tell most learned 

difficilesne sant Ciceronis orationes ? 

hard 

P. Sine dubio difficiles sunt, puer autem acer eas intelle- 

^^.^ «%^4-^«4- but them 

gere potest. 



-»o>Ko^ 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 1. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

^ 205. Adjectives in Latin, as in English, change their 
terminations to express different degrees of quality: 
altusy altior, altissimus, hiffh^ higher^ hiffhest 

Adjectives may also be compared in Latin, as in English, by 
means of adverbs. 

206. Examine the follomng: — 

POSITIVE. COMPARATIVE. SUPERLATIVE. 

altos (alto) alt lor, altius altisaimus, etc. 

levis (levi) lev lor, levins levis&lmus, etc. 

prudens (prudent) prudent ior, prudent ins prudent issimua, etc . 

pulcher (pulchro) pulchrior, pulchrius pulcherrlmus, etc. 
miser (misero) miser lor, miser ius miser rimus, etc^ 

acer (acri) Scrior, acrius acerrimus, etc. 

Observe (1) that the comparative is formed in both the above 
groups by dropping the final vowel of the stem, if the stem ends 
in a vowel, and adding lor, ius, 

(2) That the superlative is formed in the first group from the 
shortened stem by adding issimus, tssimOf issimum. 



90 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



(3) But if the adjective ends in er, the superlative is formed by 
adding rimus, rima^ rimum, to the positive. 

207. Six adjectives in lis drop the final vowel of the 
stem and add limua to form the superlative : 

facilis, -e, €05^. facilior, facilius facillimus, -a, -um 

difficilis, -e, hard. difiicilior, difficilius difficillixniis, -a, -am 

similis, -e, like. similior, similius siraillimua, -a, -um 

dissimilis, -e, unlike, dissimil lor, dissimil ius dissimil limua, -a, -um 

humilis, -e, low. huinilior, humilius humillimus, -a, -am 

gracilis, -e, slender, gracilior, gracilius gracillimoa, -a, -am 



/ 



208. 



IRREGULAR/ COMPARISON. 



^ '^ , bonuSi -a, -am 
yTr-^l^ malas, -a, -am 
iSLgnus, -a, -um 
LultuB, -a, -um 






Declension op the Comparativb. 



Pcu^ 



melior, -ius 
pSjor, -ua 
m&jor, -us 

> plua^ 

minor, -us 
etuatior, -iua 



optimuB, -a, -um 
peaaimua, -a, -am 
m&zimuB, -a, -um 
plurimua, -a, -um 
minimua, -a, -um 
veterrimus, -a, -um 



209. 



/ 



Singular. 



PARADIGM. 



Plural. 



M. & F. 

N.V. altior 

G. altior is 

D. altior I 

Ac. altior em 

Ab. altior e, I 



NEUT. 

altius 
altior is 
altior i 
altius 
altior e, I 



M. & F. 

altior 6s 
altior um 
altior ibus 
altior 6s, Is 
altior ibas 



NEUT. 

altior a 
altior um 
altior ibus 
altior a 
altior ibus 



/ 



Compare^ and decline in the comparative : — 

^atrSx, -GoiSfJierce. • liber, -era, -erum,^€e. 

audSz, -Acis, bold. piger, pigra, pigrum, lazy. 

celer, -eris, swift, placidus, -a, -um, calm. 

J.f6IIac, -Icis, lucky. aapiSns, -entis, toise.yy 

^ Plfis has in singular only plural, nom. ploresy plfira^ gen. 

^., gen. (plaris), and ace. ; in plariumy etc. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 91 



210. EXERCISES. 

y 1. Of bolder soldiers. 2. For a bolder soldier. 3. On 
the highest tree. 4. The wisest king. 5. Of fiercer lions. 
6. By a more lucky general. 7. With calmer joy. 8. Of a 
swifter horse. 9. For freer men. 10. Of wiser judges. 
11. A deeper river. 12. Of deeper rivers. 13. In a deeper 
river. 14. For lazier boysy^ 

2. 

211. We can say in Latin without difference in meaning: 

1. Quia eat filoquentior quam Cicerd? > Who is more eloquent 

2. Quia eat filoquentior Cicer5ne? > than Cicero f 

212. Rule of Syntax. — The eomparative degree 
is followed by the ablative when quam (than) is 
omitted. 

But the ablative can take the place only of quam and the nom- 
inative, or quam and the accusative. 

213. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Fluvii alti5res sunt rivis, maria altissima^ sunt. 

2. In Africa sunt animalia atrociora quam in America. 

3. Leones sunt audacissimae bestiae. 4. Elephantl sunt 
prudentiores leonibus. uSt^ Gentes Africae et Europae sunt 
dissimillimae. 6. Fensum tuum facillimum, meum difficilli- 
mum est. 7. Roma est Italiae urbs veterrima,^ sed vetusti- 
6res sunt in litoribus coloniae Graecorum. 8. Templa Graeca 
erant humillima. 9. Nihil est pejus quam mendacium. 
10. Mendacium autem pejus pigritia et Tgnavia est. 

II. 1. A river is longer than a brook. 2. Seas are deeper 
than rivers. 3. The sources of great rivers are not always 
in high mountains. 4. Elephants bear heavier burdens than 

^ The superlative must often be translated by very with the positive. 



92 COMPAKISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

horses. 5. The horse and the dog are very faithful. 6. Your 
dog is better than mine. 7. Not many cities are more beau- 
tiful than Rome. 8. The elephant is bolder than the horse. 
9. Your task is easier than mine ; but mine is not very 
hard. 10. The bravest men are not always the wisest. 

214. VOCABULARY. 

Amerlcay -ae, f., America, Utus, -oris, n., shore. 

autem,^ conj., but, moreover. mendacluniy -i, n., lying. 

bestia, -acy f., beast, nihily n. (indecl.), noting, 

coloniay -ae, f., colony. plgriUs^ -ae, f., laziness. 

gensy gentiSy f., nation, people. quaniy conj., than, 

ignaviay -ae, f., cowardice, rivuB, f^ m., brook, 

3. 

" Proserpin gathering Jlowrs, 
Herself a fairer flotvr, by gloomy Dis 
Was gathered, which cost Geres all that pain 
To seek her through the world," 

216. FOR TRANSLATION.^ 

Tandem Ceres a Sole, qui omnia conspicit, audivit quis 
ffliam abduxisset.' Itaque statim iter ad Jovem* flexit* et 
precibus animum ejus luflexit, ut filia a Plutone remittere- 
tur.* Juppiter id permisit, si jejuna mansisset.^ Sed cum® 
Proserpina mail Punici septem grana gustavisset,® non licuit. 
Tandem Proserpinae permissum est,^° ut per partem anni 
dimidiam apud matrem, per partem alteram apud Inferos 
esset." 

1 Always placed after the first ' Had remained. 
or second word in the sentence. ^ Since. 

2 Continued from p. 86. » Had tasted. ^ 
* Had led away, lo Ji fff^g permitted = permission 

^ Nom. JBppiter. teas given. 

^ From flecto. ^ Ut . . . esset, that she should be 

^ Ut . . . remltteretur, that her = to be. For the order, see p. 87, 

daughter might be sent back. note 6. 



FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 



93 



CHAPTER XXIX. 1. 

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. 

216. Most adverbs are formed from adjectives, and 
follow them in comparison. 



217. Examine the following : — 




ADJBCTrVB. 


STEM. 


ADVERB. 


'gratns, thankful. 


grato- 


grate, thankfully. 


benignus, kind. 


benigiio- 


benign 6, kindly. 


miser, wretched. 


luisero- 


miser 6, wretchedly. 


pulcher, beautiful. 


pulchro- 


pnlchrS, beautifully. 


fortis, brave. 


forti- 


forti ter, bravely. 


acer, eager. 


acri- 


acriter, eagerly. 


prudens, wise. 


prudent- 


prudenter, wisely. 


felix, lucky. 


fellci- 


felici ter, luckily. 



Observe (1) that the adjectives of the first group are of the o 
(or second) declension, and that the adverbs are formed from the 
stem of the adjectives by changing the final o of the stem to S. 

(2) That the adjectives of the second group are of the third 
declension, and that the adverbs are formed from the stem of the 
adjectives by adding ter, 

(3) But stems in nt drop t before adding the suffix ter. 



218. Examine the following: — 



ADJECTIVE. 

multus, much. 
facilis, easy. 
imptiiiis, unpunished. 

citus, quick. 
subitus, sudden, 
prloaxLB, frst. 



ADVERB. 

multum, much, 
facile, easily. 
impflne, with safety. 

cito, quickly. 
subit5, suddenly. 
prlm5, at first. 



Observe that in the first group the accusative singular neuter of 
the adjective is used as an adverb ; in the second, the ablative. 



94 



FOBMATION AND COMPAEISON OP ADVERBS. 



219. Examine the 


following : — 




• 


POSITIVE. 


COMPARATIVE. 


SUPERLATIVE. 




grate 


gr&tius 


gT&tLsBimfi 




miaerfi 


miseriiiB 


miserrimfi 




Slcriter 


Slcrius 


&cerrim6 




feilciter 


fSlicius 


feiiciBsimfi 




bengi 


melius 


optimfi 




malS 


pSjUB 


pessimfi 




miiltum 


plOs 


pltirimum 






magis 


mSLzinifi 





Observe that the comparative of the adverb is the same as the 
neuter accusative singular of the adjective ; and that the superla- 
tive is formed from the superlative of the adjective by changing, 
as in the positive, the final o of the stem to S. 

If the adjective is irregular in comparison, the adverb is likewise. 



Compare : — 

placidfi, calmly. 
audtcte^ boldly. 



llberfi, freely. pulchrS, beautifully. 

celeriter, quickly, prtidenter, wisely. 



2. 

220. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Olim fait* Atheniensis clarissimus. 2. Fideliter 
legibus^ civitatis parebat. 3. Juste omnibus rebus* age- 
bat. 4^ Audacter ptignavit atque amicum fortiter defendit. 
5. Sapienter juvenes aliosque docebat. ^. Falso et turpiter 
accusatus est; llbere se* defendit neque timebat. 7. Inju- 
stissime ad mortem damnatus est a eivibus. 8. Venenum in 
carcere bibit placide. 9. Ejus® memoria delebitur nunquam. 
10. Quis fuit Atheniensis ? 

II. 1. Was Socrates an illustrious Athenian? 2. Was he 
more illustrious than other citizens? 3. Did he not act most 



1 Formed irregularly from bonus. 

2 There was. 

8 Observe the dative with p&re5. 



* Things. See 2e0. 
^ Himself. 
« Of him. 



PORMATIOK AND COMPARISON OP ADVERBS. 95 



Justly in all respects?* 4. Did he very* faithfully obey the 
laws of the Athenians? 5* Did he not teach the Athenians 
very wisely? 6. Did he not defend a young man in battle 
very bravely? 7. Why was he most basely accused and 
condemned to death? 8. We shall cherish his memory more 
diligently* 9. His memory will be cherished faithfully by 
the best men. 10, In vain shall we seek for a better man 
than Socrates. 

Ill* 1* Julius Caesar was a very famous man. 2. He was 
excellently brought up by his mother. 8. He learned the 
Greek language very well. 4. He was an illustrious general 
and fought many battles most successfully. 5. In Gaul he 
took towns, and cruelly slew many men. 6. He boldly sailed 
to Britain with many ships. 7. But the inhabitants did not 
basely beg for peace. 8* He quickly overcame all his 
enemies. 9. (As) consul he ruled the Roman state wisely and 
well* 10. He was foully slain by Brutus and other Romans. 



221. 



VOCABULARY. 



crfidSliter [crOdSUs]* enuMy» 

dfllgenter [dlllgSnsly dUigendy. 

falsH [falsus], faMy, 

fideUter [fldSlis],/atM/t<^9. 

firSstrSy in vain, 

i^JustS [li]J38tu8]9 unjttsity^ 

JGste [Jastus], justly* 

liberS [llber]ffreelif,fiafie8dif. 

Slimy Jbrmerly, 

optimSy very well, excellently, 

sapienter [saplensly wisely, 

turpiter [turpis], basely f/ouUy, 

accfl89, 1 [ady causa]^ accuse. 
AtheniSnslSy -e^ adj., Athenian. 
bibH) 3, bibfy pStum, drinks 
career, -erls, m., prison. 



coin, 8f C0I11I9 caltam, cultivate^ 

cherish, care for, 
damnHy 1, condemn, 
dlse5y 3, didlei> -— — , ham, 
Juvenisy •Isy Si. & f., youth, 
lingua, -ae, f., tongue, language. 
navigS, 1 [nSvis, ago], sail, 
neeS, 1, kill, Cf . interfleiS. 

pSre5, 2, -ul, , obey (w. dat). 

pSx, pSeis, p., peace. 

peto, 3y -Ivi, -ii, -I turn, beg for ^ ask, 

quaero, 3, quaesivi, -if, quae- 

si turn, seek for, ask, inquire. 
sed, conj.y but, Cf. autem (214)* 
SocratSs, -is, m., Socrates, an 

Athenian philosopher. 
venSnum, -I, k., poison. 



^ Compare L 3. 



2 See p. 91, note. 



96 FOURTH CONJUGATIOK. 



3. 
222. COLLOQUIUM. 

Pater et FIliolus. 
P. Quid, mi filiole, in schola hodie discebas? 

littie son 

F* Discebain, ml pater, pensum de adverbiis longissimum, 
P. Cm parti orfitionis est adverbium simillimum? 

to what speech 

F* Simillimum, ut opmor, est adverbium adjectivo. 

as I think 

P. Becte, puer ; sed illud mihi explicS, s! poteris : Si, 

this explain if you can 

Qt dicis, adverbium adjectlv5 est simile, undo nomen traxit? 

-whence has derived 

P. Fortasse propter hoc, quod saepissimS verbis ad- 

perhaps on account of this because very often verbs 

jungitur. 

P. Optime, filiole; en tibi assem! 

here is for you penny 



■"•ojo^o*- 



CHAPTER XXX. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

223. I-Verbs. 

Aucll5 (stem audi), hear. 
Principal Parts : audid, audire, audlv!^ audltnm. 

INDICATIVE. 
active. passive. 

Present. \ 

' IhearyCte, I am heardy etc, \^' 

audi5 audlmuB and lor audlmur 

audXa audTtis and iris, or -re andiminl 

audit audiunt auditur audiuntor 

Imperfect. 
/ was hearing, etc, I was heard, etc, 

audiSbam audiSb&mus audiSbar audiSbSUnur 

audifibSa audiSb&tis audi6b&Tis,or-re audiSbSUninI 

audiSbat andifibant audiSb&tux audiSbantur 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



97 



ACTiy£. 

/ shall hear^ etc, 
audiam audiSmus 

audiSs audifitia 

audlet audient 



PASSITB. 

EUTUBB. 

/ shall be heard, etc. 
aud iar aud i6miir 

aud ifiris, or -re aud iSminl 
audiStur audientur 



Perfect. 
/ have heard, etc, I have been heard, etc, 

audivl audivimua rsum ^sumus 

audlyisti audivistia audit us -^es audltl -^ estis 

audivit audiv Grunt, or -re (est (sunt 

Pluperfect. 
/ had heardf etc, I had been heard, etc, 

audiveram audiverfimus reram ^er^mua 

audiv erSLs audiver§tia audit us ^ erSLs audit! < erStis 

audlverat audiyerant (erat (erant 

Future Perfect. 
/ shall have heard, etc. I shall have been heard, etc. 



\\" 



audiverd 
audiveris 
audivezit 



audlverlmus 

audiverltis 

audiverint 



rer6 

audit us i eris 

Cerit 



t erimus 
audit I •< eritis 
( erunt 



^ 



'A 



audiam 

audiSLs 

audiat 



audfrem 

audlrfis 

audlret 

audiverim 
audiveris 
audiv erit 



SUBJUNCTIVE.* 

Present. 
audi^mus aud iar 

aud i&tis aud iSLris, or -re 

audiant audi&tur 



\ 



audi^mur 

audi^minl 

audiantur 



Imperfect. 

audlrSmus audlrer audrrSmur 

audlretis audIrSris,or-re audirSminI 

aud Irent aud IrStor aud Ir entur 



Perfect. 
audi V erimus r sim 

audIv eritis audit us -I sis 

audiverint (sit 



r simus 
audit! -| sltis 
(sint 



^ See p. 26, note. 




98 FOUBTH CONJUGATION. 

activs. passivb. 

Pluperfect. 

audivisaem audivissSmiis ressem reBsemua 

audlvissSs audivissetis audit us -168868 audit! -< essetis 
audlvisset audlvissent (esset (essent j 

IMPERATIVE. 

/ Pbesent. 

audi, hear thou, audire, he thou heard. 

audltOi hear ye. audiminTi he ye heard* . 

Future. 
audito, thou shah hear* auditor, tJiou shah he heard. 

audltd, he shall hear, auditor. Tie shall he heard. 

audlt5te, ye sJiall hear. 
audiuntOi they shall hear. audiuntor, they shgll he heard. 

INFINITIVE. 

Pres. audire, to hear. . audlri; to he heard. 

Perf. audivisse, to have heard. audit ub esse, to have heen heard. 

FuT. audit&msesse, /o^ea&ou/ audit um Irl, to he about to he 

to hear. heard. 

PARTICIPLE. 
Pres. audiSns, -entis, hearing. 



FuT. audlt&iis, 41, -um, aZxn^ Ger. audiendus,-a,-um, to^ 

to hear. heard. 

— — — — Perf. audit us, -a, -um, Jieard, 

having heen heard. 

GERUND. 
G. audiend^ of hearing. 
D. audiendo, ybr hearing. 
Ac. audiendum, hearing. 
Ab. aud iend5, hy hearing. 

SUPINE. 
Ac. audit um, to hear. AU. audit ti, to hear, to he heard. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 99 



CHAPTER XXXI. 1. 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

224. Leam the present, imperfect, and future indicative, and 
present imperative and infinitive, active and passive, of audio. 

225. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Aadio, audiebam, audiam. 2. Audit, audiebat, au- 
diet. 3. Auditur, audiebatur, audietur. 4. Audi, audire. 
5. Audimur, audiebamur, audiemur. 6. Audire, audin. 
7. Auditis, audiebatis, audietis. 8. Audis, audiris. 9. Audi- 
unt, audiuDtur. 10. Audient, audientur. 

II. 1. Thou hearest, thou wast hearing, thou wilt hear. 
2. I hear, I am heard. 3. He is hearing, he was hearing, 
be will hear. 4. To be heard, to hear. 5. We were hearing, 
we were (being) heard. 6. We hear, we heard, we shall 
hear. 7. They will hear, they will be heard. 8. You heard, 
you were heard. 9. Hear (ye), be ye heard. 10. I hear, I 
heard, I shall be heard. '  . ^ 

2. 
22a EXERCISES. 

Pixnid, punish; mfUiid, fortify; ve8ti5, clothe. 

I. 1. Puniebam, muniebam, vestiebam. 2. Munitur, pQ- 
Dltur, vestrtur. 3. Puniet, vestiet, muniet. 4. Funl, munite, 
vestiminl. 5. Vestietur, punietur, munietur. 6. Nonne pu- 
nlmus? nonne vestimur? nonne muniuntur? 7. Vestiamne? 
punietne ? munieturne ? 8. Muniebant, puniebaminT, vestior. 
9. Non vestiris, non punit, non muniemus. 10. Puniar, 
munlam, vestiebaris. 

II. 1. He was clothing, he was punishing, he was fortify- 
ing. 2. They will be clothed, they will be fortified, they will 
be punished. 3. Be thou clothed, punish (thou), fortify. 
4. I fortify, he punishes, we are clothing. 5. Are you not 
being clothed? was it not fortified? will he not be pun- 



100 FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

ished? 6. They are being punished, it is being fortified, 
thou wilt be clothed. 7. We punish, we were fortifying, 
they will clothe. 8. Were you being clothed? will it be 
fortified? shall I be punished? 9. I shall not fortify, you 
are not being clothed, they will not be punished. 10. I 
punished, you will fortify, they clothe. 

3, 

227. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Vere terra gramine et fioribus vestitur. 2. Vera 
avium cantus^ audlmus. 3. Mors vitam nostram finiet. 
4« Fueri in gramine dormiebant. 5. Somn5 mollimus curas. 
6. Canes agricolarum oves custOdiunt. 7. Milites urbem 
custodient. 8. Bellum a ScTpione finietur. 9. Audlte verba 
sapientium. 10. Injuste puer pQnItur. 

II. 1. A good father will nurture, clothe, and instruct 
his children. 2. It is very * pleasant* to hear the sweet voice 
of the nightingale. 3. All our pains are ended by' death. 
4. The general justly punishes a cowardly soldier. 5. The 
sheep are carefully* guarded by the dog. 6. Scipio finished 
the war in Africa. 7. The pupils are very faithfully in- 
structed by their teachers. 8. My son, soothe your mother's 
cares. 9. The city is fortified by strong walls. 10. In sum- 
mer the trees are clothed with leaves. 

228, VOCABULARY. 

custodio, 4 [custSs], guard, carmen, -Inls, n.^ amg, 

dormiS, 4, deep, dolor, -oris, m., pain, 

e-rudi5, 4 [rudls], teach, instruct, folium, -I, N., leaf, 

finis, 4 [finis], end, Jinish. gr&men, -inis, v., grass, 

molllo, 4 [mollis], soften, soothe, ignavus, -a, -urn, adj., cowardly, 

manio, ^, fortify, defend. JScundus, -a, -um, k^^,, pleasant, 

nutri9, 4, nurture, nourish, luscinia, -ae, f., nightingale. 

p9nl5, 4, punish. vSr, veris, n., spring, 

vestio, 4, clothe, v5x, vocis, f., voice. 



1 Songs. * See p. 91, note. ^ Neuter gender. * See 144, 145. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 101 



CHAPTER XXXIL ± 

FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

229. Learn the perfect, pluperfect, and future pei-fect indica- 
tive, and perfect infinitive, active and passive, of audid. 

230. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Audi VI, audiveram, audlvero. 2. Auditus est, audi- 
tus erat, auditus erit. 3. Audivimus, audlveramus, audlve- 
rimus. 4. Audiverant, audltierant. 5. Audlvisti, audiveras, 
audiveris. 6.AudIvisse, auditus esse. 7. Audlveratis, audit! 
eratis. 8. Audivit, audlverat, audlverit. 

II. 1. Thou hast J;ieard, thou hadst heard, thou wilt have 
heard. 2. They have been heard, they had been heard, they 
will have been heard. 3. I have heard, I have been heard. 
4. To have been heard, to have heard. 5. We have heard, 
we had heard, we shall have heard. 6. We have been heard, 
we had been heard, we shall have been heard. 7. You have 
heard, you have been heard. 8. He had heard, he had been 
heard. 



231. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. FInlverara, erudlveram, vestlveram. 2. Finitum est, 
eruditus sum, vestltus sum. 3. Nonne finita sunt? nonne 
vestitus eram? nonne eruditus ero? 4. Vestiveras, erudi- 
veras, finiveras. 5. FInlveris, eruditus eris, vestiverimus. 
6. Vestitae erant, finlta erant, eruditi erant. 7. Erudivera- 
tis, finlveram, vestiverint. 8. Vestitine sumus? estne eru- 
ditus? estne finltum? 9. Erudlta es, finisti/ vestieras.* 
10. Non erudlstis, non finlveratis, non vestiverit. 

^ For f inivisti. Perfects in ivi often drop v and contract tt to u 
2 For vestiveras. 



102 FOURTH CONJUGATION. 

n, 1. Have they not been clothed? have they (jieuL) not 
been finished? were they not taught? 2. We have finished, 
we have clothed, we have taught. 3. She had been taught, 
they (neut.) had been finished, we (/em.) had been clothed. 

4. Didst thou teach? have you finished? has she clothed? 

5. They had clothed, they will have taught, I have finished. 

6. I had clothed, thou hadst taught, he had finished. 7. "We 
shall not have finished, they will not have clothed, you will 
not have taught. 8. It was not finished, we had not been 
taught, you will not have been clothed. 9. You have taught, 
you had finished, you will have clothed. 10. I shall have 
clothed, I had taught, I finished. 



a 

232. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Medicus regis nocte ad Fabricium venit.* 2. Fabri- 
cius medicum vinxit et ad dominum misit. 3. Urbs virtute 
et fortitudine militum munlta erit. ^. Roman! artibus* et 
litteris^ a Graecis eruditi sunt. 5. Octo horas dormire 
pueris satis est. 6. Luce solis caloreque aperiuntur flores. 
7. Omnes terras fortibus virTs aperuit natura. 8. Milites 
arcem fideliter custodivSrunt. 9. Brutus in castra Caesaris 
venerat. 10. Nihil scire turpissimum est. 

II. 1. The king's physician was bound by Fabricius* 
slave. 2. The valor and endurance {fortitudo) of the 
soldiers fortified the city. 3. The Greeks instructed the 
Romans in the arts.* 4. Is it enough for a boy to sleep 
two hours?* 5. The light and heat of the sun had opened 
the fiowers. 6. The citadel was very* carefully guarded by 

^»^^^™^^— ■■111!  —^B^^^^^-^^—  I     ^^*— I   » ^^^^^^^^M— .  .  — ^B^^^^^,^^— — ^^— ^.^^i^^ 

1 How do you know whether this form is present or perfect 1 
3 In the arts and literature, ^ Duas horas* 

8 Compare I. 4. * See p. 91, note. 



FOURTH CONJUGATION. 



108 



the soldiers. 7. To know many things* is very useful. 
8. To be ignorant of many things is not disgraceful. 9. The 
general's camp* had not been fortified. 10. Did you not 
hear the voice of your father? 



233. 



VOCABULARY. 



aperiOy 4, -ui, -tuniy open, disclose. 
ne-sciSy 4, know not, be ignorant of. 
sciOy 4t, know, know how, 
veniSy 4t, veni, ventuniy come, 
vincioy 4, vinxi, vinctum^ bind. 

ady prep. w. ace, to, towards. 
arsy artisy f., art, (167. 2.) 
calOTf -oiisy M., heat. 



Fabriciusy -I, m., Fabricius, a Ro- 
man general. 

litteraOy -arum, f., letters, literor 
ture ; often = epistula. 

IQXy IQciSy F.y light, daylight, 

medlcusy -i, m., physician. 

nox^ noctisy f., night, (167. 2.) 

octOy num. adj., indecL, eight. 

turplSy •€» adj., base, disgraceful. 



234. 



4. 

COLLOQUIUM. 
Praeceptor et Discipulus. 



p. De qua re est pensum hodiernum ? 
Z>. Pensum hodiernum est iterum de conjugatione quarta. 
P. Herl quartam conjugationem nesciebas ; scisne hodie ? 
2). Partim scio, modum autem subjunctivum nescio. 

partly mood 

P. Mox subjunctivum quoque disces. 



soon 



also 



D. Estne utilius indicatlvum scire quam subjunctivum ? 
P. Utrumque debemus scire ; indicativus autem saepius 
invenitur. 

D. Adhuc conjugationes didici quattuor. Suntne plures? 

thus far 

P. Non plures ; sed multa verba sunt anomala. 

irregular 

^ See 117. castrOmm. What must be the 

^ Remember that the Latin number of the verb of which cas- 
word for camp is plural, castray tra is the subject 1 



104 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



CHAPTER XXXIII. 
THIRD CONJUGATION. 

235. Verbs in io^ 

Capi5 (stem cape), take. 
Principal Parts : capid, capSre, c6p2, captum. 



ACTITE. 

/ take^ etc, 
cap 15 capimus 

cap is capitis 

cap it capiunt 



INDICATIVE MOOD. 

PASSIV£.. 

Present* 

/ am taken^ etc, 

capior capimur 

cap eris, or -re cap ixnini 

capitur capiuntur 



Imperfect. 
/ was taking, etc, I was taken, etc. 

capiebam capiebaimus capifibar capi§bSlmur 

capiebfts capiebatis capi6baris,or-re capiSbftminl 

capiGbat capiSbant capiSbfttur capiGbantur 



/ shall take, etc, 
capiam capi6mus 

capi6s capi6tis 

capiet capient 



Future. 

/ shall be taken, etc, 

capiar capiemur 

cap iSris, or -re cap ifiminl 

cap ietur cap ientur 



Perfect. 
cepl^ cepistX, cepit, etc. captus sum, es, est, etc. 

PluperfeCt. 
ceperam, ceperfts, ccperat, etc. captus eram, erfts, erat, etc. 

Future Perfect. 
ceper5, ceperis, ceperit, etc. captus ero, eris, erit, etc. 

1 Verbs in to of the third con- infinitiye present. What forms of 
jugation are distinguished from capio are like those of audi51 
those of the fourth by the active Make a general statement. 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 106 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

acttvis. passite. 

Present. 

cap lain, capifts, capiat, etc. capiar, -i&ris or -re, -iSltur, etc. 

. Imperfect. 
caperem, caperSa, caperet, etc. caperer, -erSris or -re, -er6tar. 

Perfect. 
ceperixn, ccperis, ceperit* etc. captus sim, sis, sit, etc. 

Pluperfect. 
cep iBsem, cSp issSs, c5p lAset, etc. cap tus essexn, essSs, esset, etc 

IMPERATIVE. 

pRES. csk'pe, take thou, c&'p ere, be thou taken, 

capite, take ye, capimini, he ye taken, 

FuT. capito, thou shalt take, capitor, thou shalt be taken, 

etc • etc. 

INFINITIVE. 

Pres. cap ere, to take. capX, to be taken* 

Perf. cepisse, to have taken. captus esse, to have been taken. 

Fut. cB,^t^LraB eBBe,tQbeabout cap turn Irl, to be about to be 

to take. taken. 

PARTICIPLE. 
Pres. capiCns, taking. 



Put. capttLrus, about to take, ' Ger. capiendus, to be taken, 
TERV.CB.^t us, having been taken, 

QERUND. 
capiendl, of taking, 

etc 

SUPINE. 

Ao captum, to take. Ab. captfL, to take, to be taken, 



106 THIRD CONJUGATION. 

 I — ^— — ^^M ^B^^^ 

CHAPTER XXXIV. 1. 
THIRD CONJUGATION. 

236. Verbs in id. 

Learn all the tenses of the indicative, the present imperative, 
and the present and perfect infinitive, active and passive, of capi5. 

237. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Capiunt, capiebant. 2. Capior, capiebar, capiar. 
3. Capimur, capiebamur, capiemur. 4. Capis, caperis. 

5. Cepi, captus sum. 6. Cepimus, ceperamus, ceperimns. 
7. Capta sant, capta erant, capta erunt. 8. Cape, capere. 
9. Capere, cap!. 10. Cepisse, captas esse. 

II. 1. We are taking, we were taking, we shall be 
taking. 2. Take, be taken. 8. Thou art taking, thoa 
wast taking, thou wilt take. 4. Tou have taken, you had 
taken, you will have taken. 5. It is taken, it was taken, it 
will be taken. 6. I was taking, I was taken. 7. To take, 
to have taken. 8. To be taken, to have been taken. 9. It 
(fern.) has been taken, it had been taken, it will have been 
taken. 10. We have taken, we have been taken. 

2. 

238. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Tarentini legStTs Romanorum iujuriam fecerunt. 
2. Pyrrhus, Epirf rex, ad Tarentinos venit. 3. Contra 
Pyrrhum missus est Laevlnu^ consul. 4. Pyrrhus elephan- 
tis vicit, nam Romanorum equi territi sunt et fugiebant. 

6. Nox proeli finem fecit; Laevinus per noctem fugit. 
6. Multi et fortes Roman! in piign& interf ecti sunt. 7. Capti- 
vds Romfin5s 8umm5 in hon6re habuit Pyrrhus. 8. Deinde' 
in Campanfam sS recSpit. 9. LegfiH, ft Romftnls missi^' 

1 Pronounced de-in'-de.  * Sent, * 



THIRD CONJUGATION. 



107 



honorlfioe a Pjrrho except! sant. 10. Pax cum Pvrrhd 
Don facta ^ est. 

II. 1. A wrong was done^ to the Romans by the Tai-en- 
tines. 2. Against Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, the Romans 
sent the consul Laevinus. 3. The spies of Pyrrhos were 
taken by Leevinus and led through his camp. 4. The 
Romans did not make peace with King Pyrrhus. 5. Fabri- 
cius saw through the design of the king and was not' 
frighteiled. 6. You will welcome your iViend to-day. 7. I 
welcome my best friend with great pleasui'e.' 8. The enemy 
threw then: spears and fled into the woods. 9. Did not 
Caesar either conquer or slay all his enemies? 10. Finally 
he was himself {ipse) slain by Brutus his friend, and others. 



239. 



VOCABULARY. 



ex-cipioy 3, -cepiy -ceptum 
[caplojy catchy accept, welcome. 

tBLcUif^ S, fecfy Cactuniy inake, do, 

tag^^f S, fSgi, fUgitum, Jlee. 

inter-ficio, 3, -feci, -fectum [fa- 
cto], kill, slay. Cf. nec5 (221). 

jacio, 3, Jeci, Jactum, throw. 

per-spicio, 3, -flpexi, -spectum 
[specio]^ see through, into. 

re-cipio, 3, -cepi, -ceptiim [cap- 
19]^ take hack, get again, receive, 

se redpere, withdraw^ retreat, 

aut . . . aut, con]., either , , ,or, 
Gampfinia, -ae, f., Campania, a 

division of Italj. 
contrS, prep. w. ace, against. 



de-inde, adv., then, next, 
denique, vAv,, finally, 
expldrfitor, -ISris, m., scout, spy, 
finisy -is, H., end, 
lionor, -oris, m., honor, 
lionSrifice, adv., honorably, 
injuria, -ae, f., wrong, injury, 
Liaevinus, -I, m., Lcevinus, a Roman. 
legfitus, 'If M., ambassador, Ueu- 

tenant, 
per, prep. w. ace, through. 
proelium, -i, n., battle. Cf. 

pfigna (102). 
summus, -a, -um (sup. of supe- 

rus), adj., highest. 
Tarentinus, -I, h., an inhabitant 

of Tarentum, a Tarentine, 



1 For the passive of facio, see 327. 

» See 144, 145. 



^ And , , . not, neque. 



108 REVIEW OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 

~— "I — ^ —  ^ 

CHAPTER XXXV. 1. 
REVIEW OF THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 

240. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Amamus, monemus, regiraus, audimus, 2. Laudant, 
d€lent| agunt, custodiunt. 3. Ornabam, delebam, vince- 
bam, muniebam. 4. CantavistI, habuisti, posuisti, vinxistl. 

5. Mutaverunt, tenuerunt, egerunt, ceperunt, munivcrunt. 

6. Portaveratis, deleveratis, praebueratis, duxeratis, donni- 
veratis. 

II. 1. Fugatur, terretur, ponitur, vincTtur. 2. Servabe- 
ris, teneberis, mittere, vestiere. 3. Laudlatl sumus, pro- 
hibit! sumus, ducti sumus, eruditl sumus. 4. Ornare, monere, 
trahere, punire. 5. AmarT, doceii, contemni, jacT, aperlri. 
6. Amatae sunt, monitae sunt, exceptae sunt, audltae sunt. 

III. 1. Dormite, superate, facite, vineite, vinclte, prae- 
bete. 2. Vulneravisse, jecisse, venisse, docuisse, fluxisse. 
3. Recipimur, spectamur, agimur, vestimur, docemur. 4. Do- 
c^bitis, punietis, trahetis, fugietis, creabitis. 5. Misit, habuit, 
armavit, jecit, fugit. 6. Vinciminl, vituperamini, terreminl- 
vinclmini, capimini. 



2. 

241. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Thou lovest, thou advisest, thou rulest, thou hear- 
est. 2. I shall praise, I shall destroy, I shall drive, I shall 
guard. 3. You were adorning, you were seeing, you were 
conquering, you were fortifying. 4. "We have sung, we have 
had, we have placed, we have bound. 5. You have changed, 
you have held, you have driven, you have taken, you have 
fortified. 6. I had carried, I had destroyed, I had furnished, 
I had led, I had slept. 



BEVIEW OP THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS. 109 

II. 1. We are put to flight, we are frightened, we are 
placed, we are bound. 2« He will be saved, he will be held, 
he will be sent, he will be clothed. 3. Thej have been 
praised, they have been prevented, they have been led, they 
have been instructed. 4. They will be adorned, they will 
be advised, they will be drawn, they will be punished. 
5. To be loved, to be taught, to be despised, to be thrown, 
to be opened. 6. Thou hast been loved, thou hast been ad- 
vised, thou hast been welcomed, thou hast been heai'd. 

m. 1. Sleep, surpass, do (Jac)^ bind, conquer, furnish. 
2. To wound, to throw, to come, to teach, to flow. 3. They 
are received, they are witnessed, they are driven, they are 
clothed, they are taught. 4. I shall teach, I shall punish, 
I shall draw, I shall flee^ I shall create. 5. They have 
sent, they have had, they have armed, they have thrown, 
they have fled. 6. Thou art conquered, thou art blamed, 
thou art frightened, thou art bound, thou art taken. 

3. 
242. COLLOQUIUM. 

Jacobus et Augustus. 
J. Denique ad finem pens! pervenimus; quid Jam in- 

finally end now 

cipiemus ? 

begin 

A. Tu quidquid videbitur incipi§s : ego incipiam nihil. 

you whatever aeemsgood 

J, Quare? esne defessus? 

why 

A. Certe, admodum defessus; pensum rec5gn6scendum 

certainly downright review 

me quidem paene finivit. 

at leaAt almost ^ 

J. Mox recreaberis, si mecum ad natandum venigs. 

■oon will be rested with me swim 



110 



FOURTH DECLENSION. 



A, Frofecto tecum veniam, nam natare milii est jucun- 

surely with you for 

dissimum et semper et praecipue cum, 

especially when 



both 



^^ Sole 8ub ardenti resonant arbusta cicddis.^ 

under glowing resound groves the ctcadtie 

J, Quam laute poetam aliquem laudas ! 

how elegantly some quote 

A. Hunc Vergili versiculum me docuit praeceptor. 

this Vergil line 



-^x>'i9^oo- 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 1. 
FOURTH DECLENSION. 

243. The stem ends in u, 

244. Rule of Gender. — Nonns in us are mascu- 
line ; those in u are neuter. 

1. The following nouns, and a few others, are feminine : acus, 
needle; domus, house; Idas (plur.), /(Z^^; mBUMA, hand ; portd- 
cua, portico; tribus, tribe. 



245 


• 


PARADIGMS. 








GraduB, m 


., step* 


Ghenfl, 


N., knee. 




SING. 


PLUR. 


SING. 


PLUR. 


N.V. 


graduB 


gradils 


genii 


genua 


G. 


gradils 


graduum 


geniis 


gen uum 


D. 


gradui (tl) 


gradibus 


genii 


gen ibus 


Ac. 


gradum 


gradils 


genu 


genua 


Ab. 


gradti 


gradibus 


genii 


gen ibus 




MA8G. 


Terminations. 


NEUT* 


N.V. 


US 


lis 


ii 


ua 


G. 


US 


uum 


iis 


uum 


D. 


uT (u) 


ibus (ubus) 


u 


ibus (ubus) 


Ac. 


urn 


lis 


ii 


ua 


Ab. 


fl 


ibus (ubus) 


ii 


ibus (ubus) 



FOURTH DECLENSION. Ill 

246. The fourth declension is a modification of the third. 
Thus, graduB is for graduis, gradum for graduem, gradfl for 
gradue, etc. 

247* Artus, joints partus, hirth^ tribus, tribe ^ sometimes por- 
tus, harbor, veru, a spit; also dissyllables in cus, have the termination 
ubus in the dative and ablative plural. 

248. Domus, house, has also forms of the second declension. 
See special paradigms, 262. 

249. Decline together domua mea, my house; exercitus 
mftguua, large army ; Idus Martiae, Ides of March, 

2. 

250. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Vere adventus avium hominibus est jucundissimus. 
2. Sensus avium acres sunt, motus eeleres. 3. In lacubus 
et in paludibus magna avium est multitudo. 4. Aves 
multae in porticibus altis domicilium habent. 5. Quercus 
Jo VI sacra erat. 6. Quercus frons est victoris ornamen- 
tum. 7. Consulatus erat Romanorum magistratus amplus. 

8. Salus civitatis in manibus c5nsulum erat. 9. Consules 
exercituum erant imperatores. 10. Erant in portibus naves ^ 
longae. 

n. 1. The enemy {plur.) were conquered on the arrival* 
of Caesar. 2. Many animals fight with their horns. 3. Many 
lakes are seen in the Alps. 4* The ancients honored the oak 
(as) the tree® of Jupiter. 5. The songs of birds are heard 
among the oaks. 6. In ancient times men fought with 
bows and arrows. 7. The consulship of Cicero was very 
renowned. 8. Caesar came into Italy with a large army. 

9. The arrival of the army freed the citizens from fear.'* 

10. Between school and home we take (make) many steps. 

' Naves longaOy ships of war, ^ Predicate accusative. 
2 See 136. < See 128. 129, 130. 



112 



FIFTH DECLENSION. 



261. VOCABU 

adventusy -GSy m. [advenio], 
arrivalf approach, 

arcusy -asy m., bow, 

eantuSy -us, m., song. [^sulship, 

consulatus, -usy m. [consul], coth 

cornfiy -Qs, n., horn, 

exercituSy -us, m. [exerceo]^ 
army, 

lacuSy -uSf M., lake. 

mag^stratusy -us, m. [magister], 
office, magistrate, 

manus, ^us, f., hand, 

metus, -ns, M.,fear, 

motuSy -ns, m. [moveo], move- 
ment, motion. 



LARY. 

portus, -nSy m., harbor, 
quercusy -as, f., oak, (11. 4.) 
sSnsuSy 'UBf M. [sentld], sense, 

feeling, 
ampluSy -a, -um, adj., grecU, re- 

nowned, honorable. 
domlclliuniy -i, n., home. (79.) 
frons, frondiSy f., chaplet of leaves. 
Jfippiter, Jovlsy M., Jupiter, the 

supreme god. (262.) 
palusy -adlsy f., swamp, marsh. 
sag^tta, -ae, f., arrow. 
sains, -Otis, f.^ safety, 
schola, -ae, f., school, 
victor, -oris, m. [xinco], conqueror. 



■oo'iQio**- 



CHAPTER XXXVII. 1. 
FIFTH DECLENSION. 

252. The stem ends in e. 

253. Rule of Gender. — Nouns of the fifth de- 
clension are feminine, except dies, day^ which is 
commonly masculine in the singrular, and always in 
the plural. 



254. 




PARADIGMS. 






DISS, 


day. 


RSs, thing^ affair. 


Terminations. 


SING. 


PLUR. 


SING. 


PLUR. 


SING. 


PLUR. 


N.V. diss 


diss 


rSs 


rSs 


Ss 


Ss 


G^diSi 


diSnim 


rei 


rSrum 


ei 


Srum 


W diei 


di Sbus 


rei 


rebus 


Si 


Sbus 


Ac. diem 


diss 


rem 


rSs 


em- 


Ss 


Ab. diS 


di Sbus 


rS 


rSbus 


S 


Sbus 



255. Only diSs and rSs are complete in the plural. A few 
other nouns have nominative and accusative plural. 



FIFTH DBCLEKSION. 118 

256. Decline together r6s pUblica, state; in sing., bona fidSa, 
good faith; mftgna spSs, great hope; diSs quintus, Ji/th day. 

257. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. In omnibus rebus certus 6rdd est. 2. Domina 
rerum humanarum est fortuna. 3. Tertio die consul in 
urbem veniet. 4. Dux exercitum in planitiem duxit. 5. Ibi 
aciem Instruxit et liostes exspectabat. 6. Magnam victoriae 
spem habuit. 7. Nam maximae erant militum fides et vir- 
tus. 8. Fr5 salute rei publicae pugnabant. 9. Posterd die 
hostes in pugnam processerunt. 10. Ad die! finem vlcti 
sunt et fugatl. 

II. 1. God is the creator of all things. 2. The com- 
monwealth is dear to all good citizens. 3. In all human 
affairs there is much uncertainty.* 4. The army was mar- 
shalled in a large plain. 5. The enemy advanced against' 
the Romans' line of battle. 6. The general praised the 
soldiers for* their* fidelity. 7. In the line of battle were 
many foot-soldiers. 8. They had great hopes of victory. 

9. In'^ a few days the arrangement of things will be changed. 

10. The consul gave a pledge to the state. 

258. VOCABULARY. 

aciesy -SI, f., line of battle. in-certus, -a, -uniy adj., uncertain, 

^d^Bf -^if r^ faith, fdelity, pledge, in-stmo, 3, -straxiy -stroctuniy 

plftnitiesy -Sly F., plain, draw up, marshal, 

rSs pablica, f., commontoealth, ordOy -inisy m., order, arrangement,. 

spesy speiy f., hope, [state, paucus/ -a, -urn, 9A},,few, little, 

cfiruBy -a, -uniy ad j ., dear, precious. pedes^ -itlSy m. [pSs] f foot-soldier, 

certuSy -a, -urn, ad j ., fixed, certain, posterus, -a, -um, ad j . , following, 

creStor, -oris, h., creator, next, 

domina, -ae, f., mistress, prSy prep. w. abl., for, in behalf of, 

ex-spectOy 1, await, expect, pr5-ced5, 3, -cessiy -cessumy ad- 

hSmSnus, -a, -am, adj., human, vance, 

^ Many things are uncertain, * Omit. 

^ In with accusative. * See 185, 136. 

* DB with ablatire. * Mostly used in the piiumL 



114 FIFTH DECLENSION. 

259. Examine the following: — 

1. ClauduB alter5 pede, lame in one foot. 

2. M5ribuB simiieSi similar in character. 

3. Virtute praecSdunt, they excel in courage, 

4. Numero ad duodecim, about twelve in number. 

Observe that the ablatives pede, mSribus, virtute, and numero, 
answer the question in what respect? This ablative is called the 
Ablative of SpecificatiozL 

260. Rule of Syntax. — The ablative is used to 
denote that in respect to which anything* is said to 
be, or to be done. 

2. 
261. COLLOQUIUM. 

Praeceptor et Discipulus. 
p. Omnium declinationum quae est difBcillima? 

which 

D, Tertia mihi videtur difl3cillima. 
F, Quare ita censes ? 

why think 

D, Varietatis causa terminationum in nominatlvo singular!. 

variety on account 

Genus quoque est mihi molestissimum, praesertim nominum 

gender also especially nouns 

in is desinentium. 

ending 

P. Tenesne memoria quae nomina pluraJem genetlvum in 
ium habeant? 

have 

D. Frimum n5mina in is et es desinentia, si in genetlvo 

first 

singular! non crescunt ; ut hostis et nubes. 

Delude monosyllaba in s vel x desinentia, s! ante s et x 
stat consonans ; ut urbs et arx. 

consonant 

Tum nomina in ns et rs desinentia ; ut cliens et cohors, 
Denique neutra in e, aZ, ar desinentia ; ut mare^ animal^ 

neuters 

calcar. 



SPECIAL PARADIGMS. 



115 



P. Optimfi, mi puer; bene studuisti et bene memoria 
tenes. Jam tibi licet Ire ad iQdendum. 

you may play 



>:*:o«- 



262. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII. 1. 
SPECIAL PARADIGMS. 



Vir, M., 


Vis, F., 


Deus, M., 


Seuez, M.y 


man. 


strength. 


god. 


old man. 




Singular. 




N.V. vir 


vis 


dens 


senex 


G. virl 


vis* 


del 


sen is 


D. viro 


vli 


de5 


sen! 


Ac. virum 


vim 


deum 


sen em 


Ab. vir 6 


vl 


de5 


sene 




Plural, 




N.V. virl 


vir 68 


del, dil, dl 


senSs 


G. vir6nim 


virinm 


de5rum, deum senum 


D. vir Is 


viribus 


dels, dils, dis 


senibus 


Ac. vir 68 


vires 


deos 


senSs 


Ab. vir Is 


viribus 


dels, dils, dIs 


senibus 


Iter, X., 


Jflppiter, 


B5s, M. & F., 


Domus, F., 


way. 


Jupiter. 


oXf cow. 


hottse. 




Singular. 




N.Y. iter 


Juppiter 


bos 


domus 


G. itineris 


Jo vis 


bovis 


donitis 


D. itinerl 


Jovl 


bovl 


domul, 5 


Ac. iter 


Jovem 


bovem 


domum 


Ab. itinere 


Jove 


bove 


dom 6, ii 


1 


Plural. 




N.V. itinera 




bovSs 


domtis 


G. itinerum 




bovum, boum 


doiuuum, orum 


D. itineribas 




bob us, bub us 


domibus 


Ac. itinera 




bov6s 


domds, Us 


Ab. itineribuB 




b5bus, biibus 


domibus 



1 The genitive and dative singular are rare. 



116 



FOR TRANSLATION. 



2. 
263. FOR TRANSLATION. 

Proserpina is carried off by Pluto. 

IReview 199 and 215.] 

Dum Proserpina luco - 
Ludit, et aut violas aut Candida lilia carpit, 
Dumque pueliari studio^ calathosque' sinumque' 
Implet, et aequales^ certat superare legendo,^ 
Paene simul visa est dilectaque'^ raptaque* DitiJ 

 

Her Chance of Return is lost. 

Dixerat.* At' Cereri cerium est' educere^ natam." 
Non ita fata sinunt, quoniam Jejunia virgo 
Solverat et, cultis^ dum simplex errat^ in hortis, 
Poeniceum" curva"^ decerpserat arbore pomum, 
Sumptaque callenti septem de cortice grana 
Presserat^^ ore suo : solusque ex omnibus illud 
Ascalaphus vidit. . . . 
Yidit, et indicio reditum crudelis ademit. 



^ Pueliari studio = pueliari 
cum studio. See 144 and 145. 
^ Que . . . quOy both . . . and, 
' Aequales = comites. 
^ LtegendOfin gcUhering (flowers), 
^ Dilecta, from diligo. 

* Raptay from rapio. With 
dilecta and rapta supply est. 

^ Diti. Translate as if, instead 
of the dative, it were a Dite. 
^ Dixeraty i.e. Jfippiter. 

* Cereri certum est, to Ceres it 
is determined = Ceres is resolved. 



^^ Edacere^ that is, from the 
lower world. 

^^ Natam = flliam. 

^ Cultis, with hortis. 

i^Errat. Translate as if it 
were errabat. The present is 
Tery often used after dum, refer- 
ring to past time. So ludit, 1. 2. 

^^ Poeniceumy with pomum. 

^ Curva, bending. The tree is 
loaded with fruit. 

1* Presseraty from premQ. 



PRONOUNS. 117 



CHAPTER XXXIX, 1. 
PRONOUNS. 

Pronouns may be divided into eight classes, and 
arranged in three groups: 

r 1. Personal. r j. "n t * f (6. Relative. 

I. } 2. Reflexive. II. i -' rmina i e. jjj ) ^ Interrogative. 
V o T5 • to. Demonstrative. / o t j is • j. 

1 3. Possessive. C 8. Indefinite. 

Personal Pronouns. 
'264. paradigms. 

First Person. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. eg5, /. noB, we. 

.G. mei, of me. nostrum, or nostrlt of us. 

D. mihi (ml), to, for me. ndbls, to, for us. 

Ac. mS, me. nds, us. 

Ab. (ft) mS, by me. (ft) nobis, by us. 

Second Person. 

Ta, thou. 
N. tA, thou. voB, you, ye. 

G. tu% of thee. vestrum, or vestrl, o/*yoti. 

D. tibi, fo,ybr-Me«. 'v6'bia, to, for you. 

Ac. tS, M^e. v5b, you, 

Ab. (a) t6, 6y thee. (ft) vSbis, Jy yow. 

Reflexive Pronoun. 
Sul, of himself etc. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

N. 

G. sul, of himself, herself, itself sul, of themselves. 

D. sibl to, for himself, etc. sibi, to, for themselves. 

Ac. 86 (sSsS), himself, etc. sS (sSsS), themselves. 

Ab. (ft) s6 (sSs6), by himself etc. (ft) sS (s6s6), by themselves. 



118 PBONOUNS. 



265. 1. The personal pronoun of the third person is is, ea, id, 
he^ she, iU But when reference is made in the oblique cases to the 
subject of the sentence, the reflexive buI is used : Omnfis hominSa 
s§ (or b686) amant, all men love themselves, 

2. The nominatives of the personal pronouns are much less fre- 
quently used in Latin than their equivalents in English. Why is 
this? In general, they are used only for emphasis or contrast : 
Ego sum aegrdtuB, tfL val6s, / am sick, you are well. 

3. " With me, with you," etc., are not expressed, as you would 
expect, by cum mfi, cum t6, etc., but always by mScum, tSctiin, 
sficum, n5bisoum, vobiscnm. So quiboBcum (279). 

4. The personal pronouns of the first and second person are 
often used with reflexive sense: Tfl t5 am&B, thou lovest thyself; 
ego mihi noce5, / do harm to myself, 

£ 

Possessive Adjective Pronouns. 

206. Possessive adjective pronouns are formed from the stems 
of personal and reflexive pronouns: 

meuB, -a, -um, my, mine suub, -a, -um, his, her, its, their (own'), 

(voc. sing. masc. zni). noster, -tra, -truzn, our, ours, 

tuuB, -a, -nm, thy, thine; vester, -tra, -trum, your, yours, 
your, yours, 

2. 

267. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Pater me amat et patrem ego amo. 2. Ta quoque 
patrem meum amas. 3. Patrem tuum ego quoque amo. 
4. Paella nimium se culpat. 5. Fllium tuum amamus nos 
omnes. 6. Vos (occ.) agitatis. 7. Non ut alii nos {ace,) 
videmus. 8. Brutus se suo gladio perfodit. 9. Nos suraus 
miserl, beati estis vos. 10. Sine te et tecum pariter sumus 
miseri. 11. Mecum eris miserrimus. 12. De te erat mea 
oratio. 13. Voblscum trlstis ero nunquam. 14. Mihi mea 
vita, tibi tua est cara. 15. Amicus noster est memor vestii. 

II. 1. Thy mother is dear to thee, mine to me. 2. All 
your plans are known to us. 3. The boy loves himself too 
much. 4. The burden will be carried hy me, by you, by us, 



PRONOUNS. 119 



by thee. 5. With you and without you we shall be equally 
happy. 6. Thee I love, but not thy dog. 7. O, how I shall 
miss you, my friend ! 8. We^ are poor, you* are rich. 9. Our 
life is very short. 10. The boy carried a wooden cup with 
him (self). 

268. VOCABULARY. 

agitOf 1 [agOy put in motion], dis- onus* -erlSy v., burden. 

turb, veXf chase. oratiOy -oniSy f. [oro]y speechf 
be&tusy -a, -um, adj., happy. talk, address, 

culpoy 1 [culpa], blame, censure, pariter, adv. [par, equal], equally. 

reproach. pauper, -eris, adj., /H>or. (167.3.) 

desidero, 1, desire, long /or, miss per-fodlo, 3, -f5di, -fSssum, dig 
UgnenSy -a, -am, adj. [lignum, through, stab, pierce. 

wood], of wood, wooden. ' quoque, conj., also, too. 

nlmium, ady., too, too mucL sine, prep. w. abl., without. 

notus, -a, -um, adj., known. ut, adv. and conj., as. 

3. 

260. COLLOQUIUM. 

Frater et Sororcula. 
F. Age, sororcula mea, si tibi placet, ambulabimus. 

come little eleter walk 

8. Quo est tibi in animo, care frater, ambulare ? Nonne 

whither 

in agros? 

F. Ita est, in agros et in umbra silvarum. 

yes shade 

S. Libenter tecum ambulo, tamen . . . 

gladly but 

F. Quid? cur tantum dubitas, si, ut dicis, mecum ambulas 

... . BO much hesitate 

libenter? 

8. Noll me ridere. Metuo angues. "Frigidus latet 

don't laugh at snakes cold lurks 

anguis in herba," ut cantat Vergilius. 

F. Noll metuere. Veni ; ubi fraga matura sunt repperl. 

where strawberries ripe are have found. 

S. O quam suave ! In me non jam est mora. 

delightful. now delay 

^ Why should the pronouns be expressed in Latin 1 



120 



DBTERMINATIVB PRONOUNS. 



270. 



CHAPTER XL. 1. 

DETERMINATIVE PRONOUNS. 

PARADI G M S : Is, idem, ipse. 
Is, thai, this ; also, he, she, it. 







SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




N. 


is 


ea 


id 


el,il 


eae 


ea 


G. 


ejns 


SJUB 


6jU8 


e5nim 


eftrum 


e5mm 


D. 


el 


ei 


el 


elB, ilB 


els, ils 


elB, ilB 


Ac. 


eum 


eam 


id 


e5B 


e&B 


ea 


Ab. 


e5 


ea 

SINGULAR. 


e5 

idem, 


els, ils 

same. 


elB, ilB 

PLURAL. 


elB, ilB 


N. 


Idem 


e&dem 


Idem 


\ eldem 


eaedem 


e&dem 



G. 6juBdem 6jnBdem Sjusdem eorundem e&rundem edrundem 

( eisdem eisdem eiBdem 
\ ilBdem ilsdem ilBdem 

Ac.eundem eandem Idem eoBdem e&Bdem e&dem 

( eisdem eliEidem eisdem 
( llsdem iisdem ilsdem 



D. eldem eldem eldem 



Ab.eodem eftdem eodem 



Ipse, self (himselfy etc.). 





SINGULAR. 






PLURAL. 




N. 


ipse ipsa 


ipBum 


ipsI 


ipsae 


ipsa 


G. 


ipsIuB ipBlus 


ipBlns 


ipsdrum 


ipsarum 


ipsonim 


D. 


ipsI ipBl 


ipsI 


ipsis 


ipsis 


ipsIiEi 


Ac. 


ipBum ipsam 


ipBum 


ips5s 


ipsis 


ipsa 


Ab. 


ipB5 ipB& 


ipso 


ipsis 


ipsis 


ipsHEi 



1. Determinative pronouns, like adjectives, agree with nouns 
expressed or understood ; Idem and ipse also with pronouns. 

2. Is is very often used as a personal pronoun, meaning he, she, 
it, they. Also as the antecedent of qui, who ; is qui, he who. 

3. idem is compounded of is and the suffix dem. idem is for 
isdem; idem for iddem; enndem, etc., for eumdem, etc; 
e5rundem, etc., for edromdem, etc. 



DBTERMmATIVB PBONOUNS. 121 

4. Ipse, self (intensive) is used to emphasize a noun or pronoun 
expi'essed or understood, and must be distinguished from b6, zelf 
(reflexive) : 

(1) Homo ipse veniet, the man himself (axid not another) will come, 

(2) Hominem ipsum vidl, / sato the man himself, 

(3) Homo 86 culpat niminm, the man blames himself too much, 

(4) MUes frfitrem, dein b6 ipsum interfScit, the soldier killed 

his brother, then himself 

5. How do we indicate in English in speech, and how in writing, 
when we use self (himself etc.) whether we intend the intensive or 
the reflexive self? 

6. Ipse may be variously translated : ipse ffici, / myself did 
it, I did it ALONE, / did it of my own accord. 

271* Decline together is homo, that man; ea nftvis, that ship; 
id bellnm, that war ; Idem di6s, the same day ; eadem manns, the 
same hand ; idem onus, tJie same burden ; vir ipse, the man himself 

2. 
272. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Cicero est scrTptor elegantissimus ; ejus libros legi- 
mus. 2. Fidum amicum habeo ; eum ego magis quam tu 
amas. 3. Eum magis quam te amo. 4. N5n semper eundem 
hominem laudamus. 5. Magister ipse te laudabit. 6. Sunt 
sex partes orbis terrarum ; maxima ear am est Asia. 7. For- 
tuna nunc mihi,* nunc ei^ fa vet. 8. Interdum amlcis^ ipsis, 
interdum inimicTs^ nocet. 9. Semper Idem erat Socratis 
vultus. 10. In eodem speed habitabant Androcius et le5. 

II. 1. Sallust is an elegant author; have you read his 
writings? 2. I have not read those, but Cicero's. 3. For- 
tune favored now you,* now them.* 4. Even {ipse) your own 
friend will blame 3^ou. 5. The minds of men are not always 
the same. 6. "We were sailing' with you in the same ship. 
7. He gave me the book of his own accord.* 8. The master 

1 Indirect object, though trans- * Dative. Cf . I. 7. 

lated as a direct object. See 343. ' Use passive of vehO. 

* See 270. 6. 



122 



DBTERMINATIVB PRONOUNS. 



offers the same rewards to the boys. 9. The same rewards 
are offered by the master himself. 

273. VOCABULARY. 



AndrocluSy -i^ m., Androclus, 
aoctoFy -orlBy m. [augeS^ increase], 

maker, author. 
elegfinSy -ntis^ adj., choice, elegant. 
faveSy 2, fSvfy fautum, be favor- 
able to, befriend (with dat.). 
interdum, adv., sometimes, 
mens, mentisy f., mind, purpose, 
noceoy 2, nocui, nocitum, do 

harm to, hurt, injure (with dat.). 
orbis, -ISy M., circle, 
orbts terrarum, the earth, the world. 



Sallnstiusy -i, m., SaUust, a his- 
torian. (79.) 

BCriptOFy -oris, M. [Bcrfl>5]y writer, 
author. 

Bcriptuniy -if V. [scribo], writing, 
written work. 

seXy num. adj., indecl., six, 

specusy -usy M., cave, 

suaviter, adv. [suavls], sweetly, 
delightfully, 

vultusy -iiSy M., countenance, fea- 
tures, looks, 

animus (161), mind, soul, heart; the general word for mind, 
mensy mind, as that which thinks, intellect; more limited in meaning. 

3. 

COLLOQUIUM. 
274. Translate into Latin : — 

Brother and Little Sister. — Continued. 

B. Let us carry ^ with us two* little-baskets.' 
S. See !* I have them in my hand alread3\* 
B. The sun is hot,^ but there is a eooF breeze. 
S. Oh, how the trees and flowers delight me ! 
B. To stay in the house is downright® stupid.® 
S. Yes, indeed,^® and I don't mean to any more." 
B. Here are^ the strawberries. Now we will fill our 
baskets. Isn't it jolly ?^ 



^ Let us carry, portemus 
2 Duas. See 311. 4. 
^ Corbula, -ae. 
* Ecce. ^ Jam. 



^^ Yes, indeed, lata sunty those 
things are {true), 

^ Neither is it in mind to me more. 
See 269, 1. 2. 



* ArdSns* ^ Frigidus. ^ Here are^ ent or ecce! 



B Admodum. ^ Molestus. 



^ Bufivisslmum. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 



128 



275. 



N. Mo 
G. hfljuB 
D. huic 
Ac. hunc 
Ab. h5c 



N. iste 
G. latins 
D. istl 
Ac. istum 
Ab. iBta 



N. iUe 
G. illiuB 
D. illl 
Ac. ilium 
Ab. 1115 



CHAPTER XLI. 1. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

PARADIGMS: Hie, Iste, llle. 



HIc, this (near), this of mine. 



SINGULAR. 

haec li5c 

hdjas hiijuB 

huIc huIc 

hanc li5c 

hftc h5c 



hi 

hdrum 

his 

h58 

his 



PLURAL. 

hae 

h&rum 

his 

has 

his 



haec 

hdrum 

his 

haec 

his 



Iste, that, that of yours. 



lata 

Istlus 

Istl 

Istam 

Ista 



Istud 

Istlus 

Istl 

Istud 

lst5 



Istl Istae Ista 

istorum istSbrum lst5rum 

Istis Istls Istls 

lst5s Istfts Ista 

Istls Istib Istib 



Hie, that (yonder). 

Ilia lUud illi 

iUIus lllius 1115rum 

1111 nil illis 

lUam lUud Ulos 

Ilia 1115 nils 



lUae 


Ula 


lliarum 


1115rum 


Illis 


illis 


mas 


Ula 


Ulis 


Illis 



1. HIc is used of that which is near the speaker in place, time, 
or thoughtf and hence is called the Demonstrative of the First Per- 
son : HIo equus, this horse (near me, or belonging to me), 

2. Iste is used of that which has some relation to the person 
addressed, and hence is called the Demonstrative of the Second 
Person : Iste equus, that horse (near you, or belonging to you). 

3. nie is used of that which is relatively remote from the 
speaker, or person addressed, in place, time, or thought, and hence is 
called the Demonstrative of the Third 'Person : Ble equus, that 
horse (yonder), 

4. nie often means that toeU-knoum, that famous. 



124 DBMONSTRATIVB PRONOUNS. 

5. HIc and ille are sometimes used in contrast: HIc, the latter; 
ille, the former. 

6. Is, as a determinative pronoun^ sometimes approaches hie in 
meaning, sometimes ille.. Hence it is to be translated this or thal^ 
according to the connection. 

276. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. IllTus hominis filium laudabant omnes. 2. Iste canis 
semper latrat. 3. Hujus scholae semper memores erimua. 

4. Dabo tibi iUud carmen pulcberrimum. 5. Illi lapides 
durl sunt. 6. Multl virfdivites in hac urbe habitant. 7. Va- 
ril sunt eolores hujus floris. 8. Nomen illlus poetae est cla- 
rissimum. 9. Harum avium cantus n5s delectat. 10. Ista 
tua studia amo et laudo. 11. Has terras silvls pulcherrimis 
ornavit Deus. 12. Illud ducis consilium nobis utile fuit. 

n. 1. These mountains are very' high. 2. I shall always 
be mindful of that friend of yours.* 3. This thing will be 
hurtful to you. 4. Demosthenes and Cicero were famous' 
orators; the former^ was a Greek, the latter^ a Roman. 

5. The citizens of yonder city are most wretched. 6. The 
air in these mountains is lighter than in those valleys. 7. He 
gave me this pretty bird. 8. That old farmer's wine is good. 
9. I have read that book of j-ours. 10. That book of yours 
has been read by me, by you, by us, by us ourselves. 

2. 

277. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Hannibal, clarissimus ille imperator, Alpes montes 
superavit. 2. Militum animos hac oratione firmavit. 3. Vi- 
detis, milites fortissiml, Italiam illam. 4. IUud est domi- 
cilium hostium nostrorum. 5. Galll, incolae hanim regionum, 
socil amicTque nostri erunt. 6. HI nobis omnes res neces- 
sarias praebebunt. 7. HI erunt hostes illorum Romanorun^ 

^ See p. 01, note. ' Superlative, 

a That of yours = iste. * See 275. 5. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 



126 



improborum. 8. Koma ilia praeda vestra erit. 9. Vos 
ipsi expugnavistis Saguntum, oppidum illud firmissimum. 
10. Has Alpes, illos Pyrenaeos montes superavistis ; Ro- 
manos mox vlncetis. 

II. 1. Hannibal increased the courage of the soldiers by 
these words. 2. Again, soldiers, have j'ou defeated those 
famous Romans. 3. The gods and your own courage have 
given us the victorj'. 4. This fair Italy will soon be ours. 
5. Rome itself, that proud city, will be taken. 6. Those 
arms of yours will be stained with the best blood of Rome. 
7. Those famous legions have been defeated. 8. Cross 
with me yonder mountains. 9. Those fierce enemies of the 
Romans, the Samnites, will welcome us. 10. Rome shall 
be the reward of valor. Forward !' 



278. 



VOCABULARY. 



aer, aeris, m,, air. 

cantus, -iiSy m., singing, song. 

delectOy 1, delight, 

Demosthenesy -is^ h., Demosthe- 
nes, an Athenian orator. 

divCSy -itiSy adj., rich. (167. 3.) 

d5y darcy dSdi, datuniy give. 

ex-pognOy 1, take by storm, take. 

flrmoy 1 [flnnusjy make firm or 
steadfast, forti/y, strengthen.  

firmuSy -a, -uniy adj., strong, firm. 

ImprobuSy -a, -uniy adj., bad. 

Iterum, adv., a second time, again. 

latrOy 1, bark, bark at. 



legio, -oniSy f., legion, 
maculOy 1, stain, 

moxy adv., soon, tsary, 

necessariusy -a, -uuk, adj., neces- 
praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoil. 
Saguntuniy -i, n., Saguntum, town 

in Spain. 
SamniSy -itiSy m. & f., a Samnite. 
sanguis, -inisy m., blood. 
silva, -ae, f., wood, forest. 
Bociusy 'iy M., ally, associate. 
superbusy -a, -um, adj., proud. 
tenuis, -e, adj., thin, light. 
trSnscendOy 3, -i, -sum, cross. 



cantus, song, melody, whether of the voice of man, of birds, or of 

musical instruments. 
carmeiiy song, as melody, and also in a wider sense; often with 

reference to the composition. Hence, a poemJ^ 



^ ProcSdlte. distinctions in synonymous words 

2 It must not be supposed that are always observed in usage. 



126 



PRONOUNS. 



CHAPTER XLII. 1. 

PRONOUNS: RELATIVE, INTERROGATIVE, AND 

INDEFINITE. 



279. 



PARADIGMS: Qui| qnis, aliquis. 
Relative : Qui, who, which, that. 







SINGULAR. 




PLURAL. 




N. 


qui 


quae 


quod qui 


quae 


quae 


G. 


CdjUB 


CfljUB 


cujus quorum 


qu&rum 


qu5rani 


D. 


cui 


cui 


cui quibuB 


quibus 


quibus 


Ac. 


quexn 


quaxxi 


quod quos 


qu&s 


quae 


Ab. 


qu5 


qua 


quo quibuB 


quibuB 


quibus 






Interkogative : Quia, who, which, what f 




N. 


quia 


quae 


quid qui 


quae 


quae 


G. 


CdjUB 


CUJU8 


cujuB quSrum 


quftrum 


qu5rum 


D. 


cui 


cui 


cui quibus 


quibus 


quibus 


Ac. 


quern 


quam 


quid quoB 


qu&s 


quae 


Ab. 


quo 


quH 


quo quibuB 


quibus 


quibus 




Indefinite 


: Aliquis, some one, some, any one. 










SINGULAR. 








N. 


aliquis 


aliqua 


aliquid or -quod 




G. 


alicfijuB 


, alicujuB 


alicfljus 






D. 


alicui 


alicui 


alicui 






Ac. 


aliquem 


aliquam 


aliquid or -quod 




Ab. 


aliqu5 


aliquft 

PLURAL. 


aliqu5 






^^ 


aliqui 


aliquae 


aliqua 






G. 


aliquorum aliquSrum 


aliquorum 






D. 


aliquibus aliquibus 


aliquibus 






Ac. 


aliquos 


aliquSLs 


aliqua 






Ab. 


aliquibus 


\ aliquibus 


aliquibus 





1. Observe the feminine nominative singular, and the neuter 
nominative plural of aliquis, and compare them with correspond- 
ing forms of quis. 



PRONOUNS. 127 



2. Aliquis is used adjectively in the neuter form aliquod, and 
sometimes in the masculine and feminine forms. The same is 
true of quidam and quisque (4). 

8. Besides the interrogative quis and its compounds, there is 
an interrogative adjective qui (which, what?) declined like the 
relative qui 

4. Besides aliquis, the most important indefinites are : 

quidam quaedam €iaiddaxn,OTquoddaxti, certain one, certain. 
quisquam (wanting) quidquam, any one (at all), no plural. 
quisque quaeque quidque, or quodque, each one, every. 

5. Quidam, quisquam, and quisque are declined like the 
simple pronouns. Quidam changes m to n before d ; quendam, 
etc., quSrundam, etc. 

6. Aliquis, some one, any one (without emphasis) ; quisquam, 
any one at all (emphatic), also in negative and interrogative 
sentences. Quis after si, nisi, n6, and num, is indefinite, any one, 

7. Aliquis means some man, I don't know who; quidam, a 
certain man, whom I know, but don't mean to describe. 

280. Examine the following : — 

1. Puer qui vSnit, the hoy who came. 

2. Puella quae vfinit, the girl who came. 

3. Ubrl qu5s legis, the hooks which you read. 

4. Puellae qufls vldistl, the girls whom you saw. 

Compare the relative in each of the above examples with the 
noun to which it refers (called the antecedent) in respect, first to 
gender, and then to number. 

Look now at the case of the relative in each of the examples, 
and compare the English with the Latin. Plainly, the case of the 
relative has nothing to do with that of the antecedent. It may be 
the same or different. 

281. Rule op Syntax.^ — A relative pronoun 
agrees with its antecedent in gender and numJ>er, 

1 As the person of the antece- say " the relative agrees with its 
dent has no effect on the relative, antecedent in gender, number, and 
it is wrong, though customary, to person." 



128 PRONOUKS. 



282. Examine the following: — 

1. Ego qui Tfini; / toko came* 

2. V5b qui TSnistiB, you who came. 

Observe now the person and number of the verb in these two 
examples, and in the first two given in 280. 

283. Rule of Syntax. — The verb of which a 
relative pronoun is the subject ag^rees in person and 
number with the antecedent of the relative. 

a 

284. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Quis forum Romanorum rostrT§ om&vit? 2. Gajns 
Dullius, qui magnam praedam a Carthaginiensibus report^- 
vit. 3. Quae amtcitia potest esseMuter improbos? 4. Quis 
clarior fuit in Graecia Themistocle ? ' 5. Quern times in 
mea domo ? 6. Quae animalia sunt eelerrima et ferocis- 
sima? 7. Omne animal quod sanguinem habet cor habet. 
8. Divites sunt ii qui suls rebus content! sunt. 9. Erant 
quoque' anno duo consules in eivitate Romana. 10. Sunt 
animalia quaedam in quibus est aliquid simile ration!. 

n. 1. What have you in jour hand? 2. By whom was 
the Roman forum adorned with the prows of ships? 3. We 
9ee the general whom you praise. 4. He is rich who is con- 
tented. 5. He will be praised whose* courage saved our 
country. 6. We love those whose manners are pleasing. 
7. The boy has something in his hand. 8. Certain labors 
are pleasant to us. 9. We are the same* to-day that* we 
were yesterday. 10. What things are brought to us from 
Africa? 

1 Potest esse» can be, ^ Of whom. 

2 See 212. * The same . . . that, or same . . . 
« Ablative of quisque. as, idem . . . qui. 



i^^oiTotjKg. l^d 



3. 

285. EXERCISES. 

Before trying to do the following exercises, review the declen- 
sion of irregular adjectives (200, 201), and write out the declension 
of quidam, quisquam, and quisque. 

I. 1. Est quisquam tibi carior quam parentes tul? 2. Pro- 
prii llberi carissimi culque sunt. 3. Erant duo filii Rheae 
Silviae, quorum alter! erat nomen Romulus, alterl Remus ; 
uterque fortis erat. 4. Estne in uUo animal! major pruden- 
tia quam in cane? 5. Yidesoe ilia duo sidera? utr!us ]ux 
clarior est? 6. Virtus eorum qu! patriam nostram servaverunt 
semper laudabitur. 7. In istis arboribus quae hortum ornant 
aves variae cantant. 8. Risus aliorum saepe causa !rae nos- 
trae est. 9. Nullum malum sine aliquo bon5 est. 10. Nemo 
nostrum idem est in senectute qui^ fuit in juventute. 11. Ur- 
bes illae, quarum gloria magna est, a militibus nostr!s expu- 
gnatae sunt. 

II. 1. All animals that have blood have hearts. 2. We 
shall be the same* to-morrow as* we are to-day. 3. Is any^ 
animal more sagacious than the elephant?^ 4. We have 
five fingers on each hand. 5. Those have hope who have 
nothing else.* 6. Many men build houses which the}' will 
never inhabit. 7. The moon sends upon the earth the light 
which she has received from the sun. 8. Cornelia had two 
sons, both of whom* were killed. 9. Hector, b}' whose 
bravery many Greeks were slain, was himself killed. 10. Will 
not some friend relieve me of this burden ? • 

286. VOCABULARY. 

accipioy 3, -ceply -ceptum [ad- CarthaginiSnsls^-eyadj. [Garth- 
capi5]y take to, receive, accept, Sfi>o]y of Carthage, Carthaginian, 

bonuniy -I^ v,, good thing, blessing. clfirus, -a, -um, bright, famous, 

1 See p. 128, note 5. » See 211, 212. ^ Of whom each. 

s See I. 4. < AUud. « See 128. 128. 



180 



RBVTBW OP PRONOUNS. 



contentus, -a, -uniy adj ., contented. 

cor, cordis, v., heart, 

crSs, adv., to-morrow. 

digitus, -i, M.,Jinger, 

duo, -ae, -o, num. adj., two (311. 4). 

ex-pagno,! [pugna]fttike,capture. 

forum, -i, n., market-place, forum, 

G^Jus Duilius, -i, m., Caius 
Duilius, 

Hector, -oris, m., Hector, chief of 
the Trojan heroes. 

heri, adv., yesterday, 

hodlSy adv., io-day. 

labor, -oris, h., labor, 

malum, -I, v., bad thing, evil, 

nemo (-Inls), m. & f. [ne, homo], 
no one. For genitive and abla- 
tive use uuUius, niillo. 



parens, -entls, m. & f., parent. 

(167. 1.) 
proprlus, -a, -um, adj., one's own, 
prOdentla, -ae, f. [prOdens], 

foresight, sagacity, wisdom. 
Remus, -i, m., Remus, brother of 

Romulus. 
re-porto, 1, bring back. 
Rhea Silvia, -ae, f., Rhea Silvia, 
risus, -us, M. [rideo], laughter, 
Romulus, -i, M.y Romulus, first 

king of Rome. 
rSstrunt, -i, v., prow of a vessel, 
sidus, -eris, n., star, constellation. 
Themistocles, -Is, m., Themisto- 

cles, a famous Greek. 
varius, -a, -um, adj., different, 

changeable, various. 



^>o»;< 



287. 



CHAPTER XLIII. 1. 

REVIEW OF PRONOUNS. 

Review the paradigms. 
EXERCISES. 



I. 1. Idem es qui^ semper fuisti. 2. Hodie eadem dictitat 
quae^ heri. 3. Ecce domum quam aedificavit Johanniculus. 
4. Quidam puer cachinnabat. 5. Iste homo, qui te laiida- 
bat, est stultissimus. 6. Sua cuTque^carissima sunt. 7. Sul 
eulque^ carissimT sunt. 8. Coram me aliquis illam fabulam 
narrabat. 9. Egens est et is qui non satis habet, et is cui 
nihil satis est. 10. Beatiis est qui' non cupit quae' non habet. 



1 See p. 128, note 5. • • The antecedent of the rela- 

3 Notice the order; qiilsque tive is often omitted when it is 
likes to stand after the reflexives. some form of Is. 



REVIEW OF PRONOUNS. 131 

II. 1. She is the same that^ she alwa3^s has been. 2. He 
will say the same things to-morrow as^ to-day. 3. Certain 
boys laughed out loud in school. 4. That friend of yours 
is a very wise man. 5. Those trees yonder are covered with 
leaves. 6. This man is praised by the citizens, that one is 
blamed. 7. The general himself led his brave soldiers. 

8. The soldiers were led by the brave general himself. 

9. Danger itself is pleasing to the brave.* 10. Those who 
are most faithful to their friends are most dear to us. 

2. 

288. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Quod^ non dedit fortuna, non eripit. 2. Liber est 
qui^ null! turpitudini servit. 3. Quis est amicior fratri quam 
f rater? 4. Saepe nihil est inimicius homini quam ipse sibi. 
5. Saepe ii n5bis nocent'' qui nos amant. 6. Eos quialiorum 
rebus adversis non moventur omnes contemnunt. 7. Eos 
vincere difficile est, qui nihil timent. 8. Deforme est de 
se ipso praedicare. 9. Aliud* bonum, aliud* malum est. 

10. Alterl* laudem, alterl* culpam dabat. 

II. 1. Some one has done this. 2. Yesterday a story 
was read to us by some one. 3. The slave killed himself 
together with his master. 4. My friend will migrate with 
me into Gaul. 5. The inhabitants of the city were frightened 
by the coming of the enemy. 6. Some' bear* thirst easily, 
others' hunger. 7. The fruits of this tree are pleasing to me, 
for they are sweet. 8. Those ^ trees are higher than these' 
houses. 9. These towers are high, those are low. 10. Those ^® 
maidens, whose modesty is known, are praised by all. 

1 See p. 128, note 5. « See p. 87, note 3. 

2 Plural. See 117. "^ See p. 87, note 4. 

* See p. 130, note 3. ^ See p. 87, note 5. 
« See 343. * See 275. 1 and 3. 

* See p. 87, note 4. ^^ A form of Is. 



132 BBVIEW OF PRONOUNS. 

289. VOCABULARY. 

ad-versusy -a, -uniy adj., unfavor- JohanniculuSy -l^ m., litde John, 

able. Johnny, Jack. 

cacUnnOy 1, laugh aloud. Cf. mlgro, 1, move from one pluce to 

ride<8. anatker. migrate. 

coram, prep. w. abl., tn presence of. modestlay -ae, f., modesty. 

cuplOy 3, -ivf, -itum, desire, narro, 1, tell, relate, report. 

de-formlSy -e, adj. [forma], mis- prae-dico, 1 [prae, &e/ore ; dlco, 

shapen, ugly, base, disgraceful. -are, make knoum^j proclaim, 

dlctito, 1 [dico], keep saying. boast. Cf . praedico, predict. 

ecce, inter j., /o/ see! see there I s&tiay Adv., enough. 

egens, -entls, adj., tn want, needy. servlo, 4 [servus], be a slave to, 

e*riplo, 3, -ul, ereptum [raplo], serve (w. dat.). 

snatch away; seize and bear off. sltls, -is, f., thirst. (154.) 

fames, -is, f., hunger, famine. tolero, 1, bear, endure. 

frondosus, -a, -um, adj. [flrons], turpltifdo, -Inls, f. [turpls]], ti^/t- 

covered with leaves, leafy. ness, baseness. 
ftroctus, -us, u., fruit. 

3. 

290. COLLOQUIUM. 
Socrates et Rhadamanthus. 

B. Tu, nisi fallor, es Socrates, ille Atheniensis. 

unlees I am mistaken 

S. Recte dicis. Ego sum Socrates, fllius, ut ferunt, 
Sophroniscl. *" "^^ 

B. Cur dicis ut ferunt 9 Nonne re vera es fllius illTus ? 

in truth 

S. Ipse quidem nescio, O Rhadamanthe, cujus sim fllius. 

indeed not know am 

B. Num^ me ludis, Socrates? Cave to. Nonne te sapien- 

mock beware 

tem dixit oraculum ? 

oracle 

S. Ita est; sed qua re non intellego, nisi quia me ipse 

yes wtiy understand 

Inscium perspicio. 

ignorant see plainly 

* This word is used in asking questions when the answer no is 
expected. It is not to be translated. 



BEVIEW OF PRONOUNS. 133 

E. Quo modo aetatem degist! ? 

bow pass 

S. Magna ex parte loquebar maximeque de virtute 

for the most part I used to talk especially 

quaerebam. 

inquired 

It. Mihi de virtute explicate, Socrates ; per breve tempus 
tibi aures praebebo. 
S. Eheu ! Rhadamantbe, istius rei sum Inscius, nam mihi 

alasl 

explicare poterat nemo. 

was able no one 

B. Minime sapiens, Socrates, tii mihi videris. At quid 

seem but 

hoc loco tibi est in animo f acere ? 

S. Ante omnia, si videbitur, cum Homero velim et Ulixe 

seem good I should like 

et aliis clarissimis Graeciae principibus loquT. 

to talk 

B. Apage igitur ad istas manes. 

be off then shades 

4. 

291. FOR TRANSLATION. 

The Battle of Marathon, b,(?. 490. 

Hoc in tempore nulla civitas Atheniensibus auxilio^ fuit 
praeter Plataeenses. Ea* mille misit militum. Itaque horum 
adventu decem milia armatorum'^completa sunt, quae manus 
inirabili flagrabat pugnandi cupiditate. Quo factum est'' ut 
plus quam collegae Miltlades valeret.' Ejus ergo auctoritate 
impulsi* Athenienses copias ex urbe eduxerunt locoque^ 
idoneo castra fecerunt. Deinde postero die proelium com- 
miserunt. Datis, etsi non aequum^ locum videbat suls,® 

^ AnxiliS fult, was for assist' ^ Pins . . . valeret, had more 

ance = assisted. See 344. influence, 

3 Supply cf vitas. ^ Impulsi (participle from Im 

B Armfitorum (participle as pello) prompted. 
noun), of armed men. ' IjOCO = In loco. 

* Quo factum est, by which it ^ Aequum, favorable. 

IPOS brought about = the result was, • Supply mllltlbus* 



184 COMPOUNDS OF Sum. 

tamea fretus numero copiarum suarum cdnfligere cupiebat, 
e6que* magis, quod, priusquam Lacedaemonii subsidio' veni- 
rent,^ dimicare utile arbitrabatur. Itaque in aciem peditum 
centum,* equitum decern milia produxit pioeiiumque com- 
misit. In quo tanto* plus virtute* valuemnt Athenienses, 
ut decemplicem numerum hostium profligarint,^ adeoque eos 
perterruerunt, ut Persae non castra, sed nav6s petierint.* 
Qua pugna' nihil adhuc exstitit nobilius: nulla enim un- 
quam tarn exigua manus tantas opes prostravit.^® — Nepos. 
Milt. V. 

CHAPTER XLIV. 1 

COMPOUNDS OF Sum. 

292. Possum, posse, potul, , he aMe, can. 

Posstim is compounded of potis, able, and sum. Potls is every- 
where shortened to pot ; then t is changed to s before «, and / is 
dropped after L 



INDICATIVE. 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 


SINGULAR. FLCRAI/. 


812^6 ULAR. 


PLURAL. 


Fres. / am able, can, etc. 






possum possumus 


possim 


poBsImus 


potes potestis 


possis 


possltis 


potest poBSunt 


poBsit 


possint 


Imper. I was able, could, etc. 






poteram poterftmus 


poBsem 


possfimua 


FuT. / shall be able, etc. 






poter5 poterimus 







^ Eoque ma^s, and the more, ^ Virtote. See 250, 260. 

2 Subsldio : cf . auxilio, first ^ ProfligSrlnt, they routed, 

line, and note. ^ Petierlnty^ec? to. See p. 101, 

' Venirent, should come, note 1. 

* Centum : supply milia. ^ Pogna : ablative after the 

^ Tanto plus valuerunty toere comparative nobilius. (212.) 

80 much superior, ^^ From prOsterno. 



COMPOXINDS OP Sum. 



135 



Perf. / have been able, could^ etc. 
potui potuixnua 

Plup. / had been ahle^ could have, etc. 
potueram potuer&mua 

FuT. Perf. / shall have been able, etc. 
potuerd potuerixnus 



potuerim pottterimus 



potuissem potuiBsfimtis 



INFINITIVE. 



ini-iiNi I ivt. 
Pres. posse, to be able. Perf. potuisse, to have been able. 



293. PrSsum, prSdesse, pr5ful, , benejit. 

Prdsum is compounded of prod (old form of pr6), ybr, and 
snin. The d of pr5d is retained before e. 



INDICATIVE. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

Pres. / benejit, etc. 

pr5-8um pro-stimus 
prOd-es pr5d-estis 
prOd-est pr5-sunt 

Imp. prOd-eram prOd-erftxnus 

FuT. pr0d-er5 prOd-erimus 

Perf. pr5-ful prO-fuixnus 

Plup. prd-fueram pr5-fuer&inus 

F. P. pr5-faer5 pr5-fuerimus 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

pr5-8im pr5-Blmas 

prdHsiIa prd-sltis 

pr5-sit pro-sint 

pr5d-essein prSd-essSmus 

prS-fuerim pr5-fuerimu8 
pro-fuissem prd-fuissexnus 



IMPERATIVE. 
Pres. prOd-es, prOd-este Fur. pr5d-e8t5, pr5d-e8t5te 

INFINITIVE. 

Pres. prdd-esse Perf. prd-fuisse 

Fut. pr5-fattLru8 esse 

PARTICIPLE. 
Fut. pro-futtlras 

The other compounds of snni are inflected like the simple verb 



186 COMPOUNDS OF Sum. 



294:« Learn the tenses of the indicative, imperative, and infini- 
tive of possum and prdsuzn. 

296. Rule of Syntax. — The compounds of sum, 
except possum and absunif all take the dative; but 
Insum is often followed by in with the ablative, and 
intersum by inter with the accusative. 

2. 
296. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. In vera amicitia magnum inest praesidium. 2. Ami- 
cus verus adest amico, neqiie deerit in perlculo. 3. Amico 
prodesse dulce est, amico deesse turpe. 4. Amicus fidus 
non aberit ab amico in casibus fortunac. 5. Mores mall 
amicitiae obsunt; inter homines malos vera amicitia non 
interest. 6. Cicero c5nsul rel publicae praefuit. 7. Multae 
epistulae Ciceronis et ejus amicorum supersunt. 8. Viri prae- 
stantes Atheniensibus nullo tempore defuerunt. 9. Mores 
tyranni sibi^amlcos pararc non potcrant. 10. Non omnes 
homines reges esse possunt. 

II. 1.. Cornelia was able to train her sons wisely. 2. All 
can be good citizens.* 3. Hannibal was not able to take the 
city. 4. In Hannibal there was great cunning and bravery. 
5.^ Hannibal was long absent from his own country. 
6. He commanded armies in Spain and Italy. 7. He was 
present at many battles, and was the terror'* of the Romans. 
8. He benefited his country in many ways.^ 9. But his 
enemies in his own land injured him. 10. Scipio defeated 
him in battle* in Africa. 11. He survived this defeat manv 
years.® 12. His name will never lack renown.^ 

1 For him. 2 Soe 47. * Ablative without in. 

* Compare auxiliOy 291^ first ^ Accusative. 

line, and note. ^ Renown will nether he wanting 

* Waif 8 = things. See 269; 2Q0. to hif name. 



DEPONENT VERBS. 137 

297. VOCABULARY. 

ab-suniy -esse, afui, be away, absent (fi or ab w. abl.). 

ad-suniy -esse, -fui (also aftaijy he present, stand by, side with, 

de-sum, -esse, -fUi, be wanting, lack. 

in-suniy -essey -fkii, be in, among. 

inter-Bum, -esse, -fui, be present at, among. 

ob-sum, -esse, -fUi, be against, opposed to, injure. 

possum, posse, potui, be able, can. 

prae-sum, -esse, -ftii, be before, at the head of, command, 

pro-sum, prod-esse, pr5-ftii, be useful, benefit. 

super-sum, -esse, -fui, remain over, survive, exist, 

calliditfis, -atls, f. [callldus], shrewdness, cunning. 

casus, -us, M. [cado,yaZ/], falling down, mischance, misfortune, 

clades, -is, f., destruction, defea ' 

dia, adv., long, a long time. 

dulcis, -e, adj., su^eet, pleasant. Cf. suSvis. 

f&ma, -ae, f., rumor, fame, renown. 

ne-que, conj., and not, nor; neque . . . neque, neither . . , nor. 

paro, 1, make ready^ prepare, get. 

patria, -ae, f., native land, country. 

praesidium, -i, h. [prae, sedeo], defence, help, garrison. 

pracstans, -tls, adj. [prae-sto, stand before"], pre-eminent, distinguished 



-ooJO^Oo- 



CHAPTER XLV. 1. 
DEPONENT VERBS. 

First and Second Conjugations. 

298* Deponent verbs have the forms of the passive 
voice with the meaning of the active. There are de- 
ponents of each of the four regular conjugations : 

Adxnirftxnur opera Del, we admire the works of God. 
MiaerOs tuSbimur, we shall protect the wretched. 
Audi multa, loquere pauca, listen much, say little. 
Caesar pr5vinciam sortltuB est, Ccpsar obtained (by lot) a 
province^ 



138 DEPONENT VERBS. 

299. Review the passive indicative, imperative, and infinitiye 
of amo and mone5. (86, 112). 

The principal parts of deponent verbs are thus given : 

adzniror, admXrarl, admlrfttuB (sum), 
tueor, tuSrl, tuitus (sum), 
loquor, loqul, lociitus (sum), 
sortior, sortiri, sortitus (sum). 

300. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Admiramur magnitudinem caeli. Quis non admira- 
bitur? 2. Nocte contemplamur sidera. 3. Pars vagatur 
certis cursibus, plurima non vagantur. 4. Sol domiuatur 
inter Stellas. 5. Terram luna comitatur una, Jovis stellam 
lunae comitantur quattuor. 6. Dareus Alexandre magnam 
Asiae partem pollieitus est. 7. Improbi sunt ii qui neminem 
verentur. 8. Homo f acinus confessus est. 9. Comites qui 
salutem regis tuiti erant, maximum praemium aceeperunt. 

II. 1. Who does not admire the beauty of the stars ? 

2. Other nations accompanied the Cimbri across the Rhine. 

3. They wandered far^ and wide^ through Gaul and Spain. 

4. The Romans wondered at the great bodies of the Ger- 
mans. 5. Certain animals imitate human voices. 6. We 
were contemplating that beautiful likeness. 7. The general 
promised the soldiers* a great reward. 8. He* is a bad man 
who does not respect any one.'' 9. Children respect their 
parents, slaves fear their master. 

301. VOCABULARY. 

ad-miror, 1, wonder at, admire. Cimbri, -orum, m., Cimbri, a Grer- 

Alexander, -dri, m., Alexander, man tribe. 

king of Macedon. comltor, 1 [comes, -Itis], accom- 

beneficium, -I, n., benefit, favor, pany, attend. 

caelum, -i, v., sky, heavens. con-fiteor, 2, -fessus, confess. 

^ lionge lateque. ^ Is. 

^ Not accusative. * Not any one = no one. 



DEPONENT VERBS. 139 

contemplor, 1, look at, observe. mereOFy 2, be worthy of, deserve. 

cursuSy -uBy M. [curroy run'], run- per, prep. w. ace, through, by, 

fling, course. polllceory 2, promise. 

Dareus, -i, m., Darius, Persian pulchritudS, -liils, f. [pulcher], 

king. beauty. 

dominor, 1 [dominus], be a lord Stella, -ae, f., star. 

and master, rule. tueor, 2, tuitus and tiitusy watch, 

facinuSy -driSy n. [faci5]y deed, defend. Cf. defends. 

crime. Cf. scelus. vagor, 1, go to and fro, wander. 

GermanuSy -a, -uniy adj., German. vastOy 1, lay waste, ravage, 

Imitory 1, imitate, vereor, 2, reverence, respect, 
magnltfidSy -inlSy f. [magnus], 

greatness. 

sIduB (286), a star, a great star, a constellation, 
Stella, a star as a bright heavenly body, 

2. 

302. COLLOQUIUM. 

Pater et Filiolus. 
P. Ades, ml filiole, et mihi libellum ostenta. 

come here little book show 

F. Eccum, care pater, si libellum Latinum videre cupis. 

here it is wish 

P. Quod pensum tibi hodie imperavit praeceptor? 

impose 

F. Pensum verborum deponentium quae ad conjugationem 

deponent 

prTmam atque secundam pertinent. 

belong 

P. Quam ob rem sic appellantur ista verba ? 

wherefore name 

F. Quia formam activam et significationem passivam 

form meaning 

plerumque deposuerunt. Sic nos praeceptor docuit. 

generally lay aside 

P. Quod autem pensum in crastinum diem imperavit 

for to-morrow 

praeceptor ? 

P. Ad haec addidit praeceptor alia deponentia. At tu, 

add but 

mi pater, Latlnae linguae jam puer studebas ? 



140 DEPONENT VERBS. 



P. Certe, filiole, idque vehementer. 

right hard 

F. Num ego, bI diligenter didicero, eniditns, ut tu, fiam? 

learn learned a« become 

P. Prociil dubio. At jam tibi eundum est dormltam. 

yoQ muBt go to bed 



-•oJOjo*" 



CHAPTER XliVI. 1. 

DEPONENT VERBS. 

Third and Fourth Conjugations. 

303. Examine the following : — 

1. Utor vestrfi benXgnitfttei / avail myself of (use) your kindness, 

2. Abtltitur patientift nostrSl, he abuses our patience. 

3. Ltbc qu& fruimur ft De5 n5bls datur, the light which we 

enjoy is given us by God, 

4. Fungor vice cdtis, / serve as (discharge the office of) a whet- 

stone. 

5. Mftgnft praedft potltus est, he got great booty. 

6. Lacte et carne vescSbantur, they lived upon milk and flesh. 

Compare the translation of the examples with the Latin. Ob- 
serve that the direct object of the verb, or of the preposition closely 
connected with the verb in English, is represented in Latin by the 
ablative case. 

304. ^RuLE OF Syntax. — The deponents utor, 
fruor, fungor, potior j vescor, and their compounds, 
take the ablative. 

305. Examine the following : — 

1. Mexninit praeteritSrum, he remembers the past, 

2. Haec Slim meminisse juvftbit, to remember these things will 

one day give pleasure. 



DEPONENT VERBS. 141 

3. T5tain causam oblitus est, he forgot the whole case. 

4. Totius causae oblitus est, he forgot the whole case. 

Observe that in the above examples the genitive is used in 1 
and 4, the accusative in 2 and 3. 

306. Rule op Syntax. — yerbs of remembering 

and forgetting take the grenitive or accusative* 

1. Neuter pronouns and adjectives are commonly put in the 
accusative. Recorder regularly takes the accusative. 

307. Review the passive indicative, imperative, and infinitive 
of reg5 and audio. (180, 223). 

308. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Sulla ui'bem Romam armatus^ngressus est. 2. Athe- 
niensium dux maximam adeptus est gloriam. 3. Alexander 
Magnus in Asiam profeetus est. 4. Eum multi et nobiles 
viri secuti sunt. 5. Quas injurias passus es obllviseere.' 
6. Beneficia quae aceepimus non obliviscemur. 7. Quod 
beneficium aceepit id obliviscitur. 8. Omnia pati* diseimus. 
9. Cicerd magna cum gloria consulatu functus est. 10. Lux 
qua fruimur donum est Del. 

II. 1. Alexander and his companions entered Asia. 
2. They suffered both* hunger and thirst. 3. He obtained 
great glory by his victories. 4. He did not forget the words 
of his master. 5. For he had been the pupil of a wise man. 
6. The soldiers follow their general. 7. They* are bad 
men who forget benefits. 8. We can learn to endure all 
things. 9. Who does not enjoy the light which is given 
us by God ? 10. The boys faithfully discharged their dut}'. 

2. 

309. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Caesar, Pompejus, Crassus, imperium inter se partati 
sunt. 2. Caesar Galliam provinciam sortitus est. 3. Sae- 

1 Armed. ^ Imperative. ^ Present infinitive of patior* 

* Et, 6 li. See 270. 2. 



144 


Kt;M£:HALg. 


• 


CARDINALS. 


ORDINALS. 


80. 


octOginta 


octogesimus 


90. 


ndnSginta 


nonSgesimus 


100. 


centum 


centesimus 


101.. 


( centum unuR, or 
X centum et unus 


( centesimus pilmus, or 
X centesimus et primus 


200. 


ducenti, -ae, -a 


ducentesimus 


300. 


trecenti 


trecentesimus 


400. 


quadringenti 


quadringentesimus 


500. 


quingenti 


quingentesimus 


600. 


sescenti 


sescentesimus 


700. 


septingenti 


septingentesimus 


800. 


octingenti 


octingentesiiiius 


900. 


nongenti 


nongentesimus 


1,000. 


mille 


millesimus 


2,000. 


duo milia 


bis millesimus 


100,000. 


centum milia 


centigs millesimus 



~1. Cardinal numbers answer the question how many? Ordinals, 
which in order t 

2. The cardinals from quattuor to centum, inclusive, are in- 
declinable: quattuor hominfis, ybtir men; quattuor hominuxn, 
of four men, 

3. UnuB is declined like bonus, except that it has genitive and 
dative singular tLnlus, tlnl, like alius (201). 

4. Duo and trSs are thus declined : 





MASC. 


FEM. 


NEUT. 


M. & F. 


NEUT. 


N. 


duo 


duae 


duo 


tr6s 


tria 


G. 


du5rum 


duSrum 


duOrum 


trium 


trium 


D. 


duObus 


duSbus 


duObus 


tribus 


tribus 


Ac. 


du5B, duo 


dufts 


duo 


tr6s 


tria 


Ab. 


duObus 


duSLbuB 


duObus 


tribus 


tribus 



5. The hundreds, ducentli etc., are declined like the plural of 
bonus. 

6. Mnie is indeclinable in the singular, and is sometimes an 
adjective and sometimes a noun : mllle homines, a thousand men ; 
mllle hominum, a thousand (of^ men. The plural has the /orms 
milia, milium, mllibus, and is always a noun: tria milia 
hominum, three thousand men (three thousands of men). 



imMERAiig. l45 



7. The ordinals are declined like bonus. 

8* Other kinds of numerals are the distributives : singula -ae, -a, 
one each, binl, -ae, -a, two each, etc. ; and the numeral adverbs : 
semel, once, bis, twice, etc. 

312. Examine the following: — 

1. Decern annds Trdja oppugnSb&tur, Troy was besieged for 

ten years. 

2. Tunis alta est centum ped6s, the tower is a hundred feet high. 

The accusative ann5s denotes duration or extent of time; 
ped6s, extent of space. The accusative, then, is used to answer 
the question how long t or how far t (in time or space), and may be 
called the Accusative of Extent. 

313. Rule of Syntax. — Extent of time or speice 
is expressed by the accusative. 

2. 

314. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Homo UDum os, duas aures, duos ocolos habet. 
2. Alexander Magnus tredecim annos regnavit. 3. Tern plum 
Dianae quadringentds quinquaginta pedes longum et ducen- 
tos v%inti pedes latum erat. 4. Annus spatium trecentorum 
sexaginta quinque dierum est. 5. Duodecim sunt menses. 

6. Mensis trlginta dies habet, Februarius duodetriginta. 

7. Dies v%inti quattuor horas habet. 8. Romanomm vete- 
rum annus deeem menses habebat; Martins erat primus, 
December decimus. 9. Aut tertius decimus aut quintus 
decimus dies mensis Idus nominabatur. 

II. 1. Romulus, the first king of Rome, reigned thirty- 
seven years. 2. This house is fifty-nine* feet long and 
fortj'^-eight feet wide. 3. The river is fourteen feet deep and 
ninety- two feet wide. 4. With* the ancient Romans Septem- 
ber was the seventh month ; with us September is the ninth 
month. 5. The Roman consuls held power for one year. 

^ See p. 143, note. ^ Apud, with accusative. 



146 



IRBEOUIiAB YEBBS : Yol5, KolOy Malo. 



6. In the five hundred and fiftieth year of the city Scipio 
was consul. 7. Five and twenty languages were known to 
King Mithridates. 8. In the first month of the year there 
are thiiiy-one days. 9. A Roman legion had five thousand 
foot-soldiers and three hundred horse-soldiers. 



315. 

annus, -I, m., year, 

auriSy -is, f., ear, 

December, -bris, h. [decern], 

December, Often as adj. 
Diana, -ae, f., Diana, goddess of 

the chase. [as adj. 

Februarius, -I, h., February, Oft. 
Idas, -uum, f., plur., the Ides of 

the month, (244. 1.) 



VOCABULARY. 

lingua, -ae, f., tongue, language. 
Martius, -i, m. [Mars], March. 

Often as adj. 
Mithridates, -is, h., Mithridates, 

king of Pontus. 
OS, 5ris, N., mouth, face, 
September, -bris, m. [septem], 

September, Often as adj. 
spatium, -i, n., room, space, period. 



-«>oJ<Ko^ 



316. 



CHAPTER XLVIII. 1. 
IRREGULAR VERBS. 



Volo, velle, volul, - 
N516, nolle, nolui, - 
MSlo, m^lle, mSLlui, 



-, be willing, will, wish. 
-, be unwilling, will not, 
— , be more willing, prefer. 







INDICATIVE. 




PRES. 


vol6 


n515 


mai5 




vis 


n5n vis 


mSLvis 




vult 


n5n vult 


mSvult 




volumuB 


n51umus 


m&lumu8 




vultis 


non vultis 


mSLvultis 




volunt 


ndlunt 


milunt 


Imper. 


volSbam 


nolSbam 


m&lSbam 


FUT. 


volam 


nolam 


m&lam 


Perf. 


volul 


nolui 


m§lul 


Plup. 


volueram 


n51ueram 


mSLlueram 


p.p. 


voluero 


noluer5 


ni&luer5 



IBBEGULAB VEBBS : YoI5, Nolo, MSld. 



147 





i 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 




Fres. 


velixn 


nolim 


mSlim 




veils 


nolia 


m&lis 




veUt 


ndUt 


mUit 




vellmus 


n51imu8 


millmuB 




velltis 


nolitia 


mailtis 




velint 


nolint 


mftlint 


Imper. 


. vellem 


nollem 


millem 




vellSs 


nolies 


m&lies 




vellet 


n511et 


mSQlet 




vellSmus 


noll6mu8 


m&llSmus 




velietis 


nolietis 


m&llStis 




vellent 


nollent 


m&llent 


Perf. 


voluerlm 


n51ueriin 


mSluerim 


Plup. 


voluissem 


n51uissem 
IMPERATIVE. 


mSluissem 


Pres. 


( Wanting) 


noli 
nolite 


( Wanting) 


Put. 


( Wanting) 


[ndlit5, etc.] 
INFINITIVE. 


( Wanting) 


Pres. 


velle 


nolle 


mSQle 


Perf. 


voluiBse 


noluiase 
PARTICIPLE. 


mSUuisse 


Prfs. 


volSns 


nolens 


(Wantina) 



31 7. Learn the tenses of the indicative and infinitive of vol6, 
n515| and mai5, and the present imperative of n51o. 

2. 

318. EXERCISES. 

1. 1. Nos scribere volunius, tu vis legere, ille puer ludere 
vult. 2. Cur in horto ambulare volunt? 3. In horto ambu- 
lare malunt quod ibi sunt fontes et arbores. 4. Volebantne 
vitia sua excus&re? 5. Noli excusare vitia tua. 6. Nolite 



148 



IRBEGULAB VEBBS : Yolo, Nol5, Malo. 



oblivisci praeceptorum^ parentum. 7. Tlmoleon malait 
diligi quam metui. 8* Yalere maluerat quam dives esse. 
9. Alien a quisque vitia reprehendere mavult quam sua cor- 
rigere. 10. Volumus ad finem itineris progredi. 

n. 1. Why would you rather read than write? 2. We 
would rather walk in tlie fields with you. 3. Who would 
not rather be praised than blamed ? 4. They will be un- 
willing to accept your gift. 5. Do not forget,' boys, the 
precepts of your teacher. 6. Do not forget, my boy, the 
lesson which I have explained. 7. He listened because he 
wished to learn. 8. He would not' blame another's fault ; 
he greatly desired to correct his own. 9. We wish the same 
(things) as* you. 10. Our friends will wish the same 
(thing) as ourselves. 



319. 



VOCABULARY. 



aliSnuSy -a, -urn, adj. [alius], 

belonging to another, another^s. 
ainbul9» 1, walk, take a walk. 
conigOy 8, •rexf y -rectum [com, 

reg9, keep straight'],make straight, 

re/orm, correct, 
dOlgOy 8, 'lext, -lectum [dls, 

apart, legSy choose"], esteem, love, 

Cf. am9. 
ez-cSso, 1 [causa], excuse. 
ex-pllcSy 1, -avi, -Stum, and -ui, 

-itum [plicS]^ unfold, explain. 
ibi, adv., there. Ct, ubi, where. 
iter, itineris, n. [eo, 327. 1], 

journey. (262.) 
ludo, 3, lOsI, ISsumy play. 
malOy malle, malui, [ma- 

gis, volo], wish rather^ prefer, 

would rather. 



maxime, ady. (sup. of magts, 
more), most, especially, greatly, 

metuo, 3, -ui, -Otum [metus], 
fear. Cf. timeo. 

nolo, nolle, nolul, [n5n, vo- 
lo], be unwilling, will not, not wtsh. 

praeceptum, -I, n. [praecipi5], 
maxim, precept. 

pr5-gredior, 3, -gressus [gradi- 
or], go forward, advance. 

quod, conj., because. Cf. quia. 

re-prehendS, 3, -di, -hensum, 
hold back, restrain, reprove. 

Tlmoleon, -ontis, m., Timoleon, a 
Corinthian. 

valeo, 2,-ui, -itum,6e strong or well. 

vitium, -i, "s., fault, blemish, vice. 

volo, velle, volul, , be willing, 

will, wish, desire. Cf. desldero. 



1 From praeceptum. 

2 Cf . L 6. 



" Was unwilling. 
^ See p. 128, note 5. 



IBBEGULAB VERBS: Fero. 



149 



amo, love, not implying and not excluding esteem ; the common word. 
dillgSy love unselfishly and with esteem ; more restricted in mean- 
ing than amo. 

volo means both less and more than wish, namely, consent and will ; 

very much used. 
desidero means wish ardently, with the notion (which volo has 

not) of lacking or missing the thing much desired ; more restricted 

in meaning than volo. 

3. 

320. FOR TRANSLATION. 

Multl homines volunt quidem recte facere, sed non faciunt ; 
nam velle et facere non idem est. Saepe homo recte agere 
vult, sed vires desunt. Multi peccata sua excusare quam 
deponere malunt. Saepe aliefia peccata vituperare quam 
nostra corrigere malumus. Multi sua sorte non sunt con- 
tent!, sed aliena appetere malunt. At cur non feliciter vivere 
mavis ? Felix is est qui recte agere vult recteque agit. 



-ooj^jo**- 



CHAPTER XLIX. 1. 

321. THE IRREGULAR VERB Fero. 

FerOi ferre, tuli, ISLtum : hear^ carry, endure, 

INDICATIVE. 





ACTIVE. 


PARSIVJS. 


Pres. 


fero ferimuB 


feror ferimur 




fers fertiB 


f erris, or -re f erimini 




fert ferunt 


fertur feruntur 


Imper, 


ferfibam 


ferfibar 


FUT. 


feram 


ferar 


Perf. 


tall 


ISLtuB Bum 


Plup. 


tuleram 


ISLtuB eram 


F. P. 


tulero 


latuB era 


Pres. 


SUBJUNCTIVE, 
feram ferar 


Imper. 


ferrem 


ferrer 


Perf. 


tulerim 


ISLtuB aim 


Plup. 


tulissem 


ISLtUB eaaem 



160 IRREGULAR VERBS: Fero. 



IMPERATIVE. 
ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

Pres. fer^ ferte [ferre] feriminl 

FuT. ferto fertote fertor 

ferto fenintd fertor fenintor 









INFINITIVE. 




Pres. 




ferre 




ferri 


Perf. 




tiilisse 




l&tuB esse 


FuT. 




l&turuB esse 


l&tum iri 








PARTICIPLES. 




Pres. 
FuT. 




ferSns 
laturus 








Ger. 


ferenduB 








Perf. 

• 

GERUND. 


IStUB 




G. 


ferendi 


AaifUB 




D. 


ferend5 








Ac. 


ferendum 






Ab. 


ferendd 








Ac. 


ISLtuin 


SUPINE. 

Ab. 


Ittu 



322. Compounds of fer6 are conjugated like the simple verb. 
Observe the changes suffered by certain of the prepositions in the 
following : 

ab- auferS, auf erre, abatulT, ablSLtum. 

ad- adfero, adferre, attuli, allSLtum (adl). 

com- confero, conferre, contuH, collttuin (conl). 

dis- diffe.ro, differre, distuli, dilSLtum. 

ex.- effero, ef ferre, eztull, Sl&tum. 

in- infero, Inferre, intuli, illSLtum (inl). 

ob- offero, offerre, obtuli, oblttum. 

sub- suffero, sufferre, sustull, sublSLtum. 

323. Learn the tenses of the indicative, the imperative, and 
the present and perfect infinitive, active and passive, of fer5. 

^ For fere ; dico, daco, facio, fero, have imperative present 
second singular die, due, fac, fer. 



IRREGULAR VERBS: Fer6. 161 

324. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Aufert, aufertur. 2. Auferet, auferetur. 3. Abs- 
tulit, ablatus est. 4. Conferre, conferri'. 5. Conferont, 
conferuntur* 6. Conferent, conferentur. 7. Contulerant, 
collati erant. 8. Distuleiiint, dilati sunt. 9. Distulerit, 
dilatus erit. 10. Distulisse, dilatus esse. 11. Differebant, 
differebantur. 

II. 1. We bear, we are borne. 2. We were bearing, we 
were borne. 3. We have borne, we have been borne. 
4. We shall bear, we shall be borne. 5. We had borne, 
we had been borne. 6. Bear thou, bear ye. 7. To offer, 
to be offered. 8. Ye shall offer, ye shall be offered. 9. To 
have offered, to have been offered. 10. Ye offer, ye will 
offer. 11. Ye are offered, ye will be offered. 

2. 

325. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Ferte patienter^ labores. 2. Bene ferre magnam 
fortunam disce. 3. Ferte patienter quae* mutari non 
possunt. 4. Non omnis ager qui seritur fert fruges. 5. Be- 
nignum regem n5n tulistis ; jam ferum et barbarum fertote. 
6. N5lite differre peusum quod hodie facere potestis. 7. Im- 
perator militibus defessis auxilium attulit. 8. In unum locum 
eoUatum est ex agris omne frumentum. 9. Longa^ nobis 
est omnis mora quae gaudia diffeil;. 10. Caesar omnibus 
qui contra se arma tulerant veniam dedit. 

II. 1. They bore labor with patience. 2. They did not 
endure a good king ; now they are enduring a bad one.* 
3. We cannot put off our tasks. 4. We shall learn to bear 
our good fortune well. 5. They bore with patience that* 
which they could not change. 6. The robbers bore off the 

1 What might be substituted for the adverb ? See 144, 145. 
a See p. 130, note 3. » Tedious, * Omit. * Id. 



152 



IBBEGULAB VERBS: Eo, FlO. 



booty which they had seized. • 7. Do nolr^ bring me that 
which I do not want. 8. Delays which postpone our joy are 
always tedions. 9. The townsmen carried their all' with 
them out of the town. 



326. VOCABULARY. 

ad-fero (affero), adferroy at- ferus^ -a, -um, adj., wild, cruel. 



tuliy adlatum, bear to, bring, 
au-fer5, auferre, abstuli, ablS- 

tum [ab(s)]9 bear off, carry 
away. 

auxlUuniy -i, n., help, aid. 

barbarus, -a, -urn, adj., foreign, 
barbarous, 

beni£^us,-a, -um, a,dj., kind , good. 

con-feroy conferre, contuli, 
collfitum (conlStum), bring 
together, collect ; se conferre^ be- 
take one's self. 

dif-ferSy differre, distuli, dOa- 
tum [dig, apart], bear apart, 
scatter, put off, postpone, 

ef-fero, efferre, extuli, elatum 
[ex], bear out, bring forth. 



frames, -um, f., -plur., fruits. 

gaudlum, -f, n. [g^udeo, re- 
joice], joy, delight. 

in-feroy inferred intuli, illatum 
( inla turn )y6ear in,cause; bellam 
inferrey to make war, w. dat. 

Jam, adv., already, now, at last, 

mora, -ae, f., delay. 

of-fero, offerre, obtuli, oblatum 
[ob, before], present, offer, 

patienter, ady. [patiensl^ pa- 
tiently, with patience. 

sero, 3, sevi, satum, sow, plant. 

Buf-fero, sutferre, sustuli, sub- 
Ifitum [sub], undergo, endure. 

venia, -ae» f., indulgence, kind- 
ness, mercy. 



-a-o>^0«- 



327. 



CHAPTER L. 1. 
IRREGULAR VERBS. 



B6, Ire, il [ivi], Itum, go, 

Fi5, fieri, factus sum (supplies pass, to facio), be made, become. 



INDICATIVE. 



Eo. 



FCo. 



Pres. eo 
Is 
it 



im.us 

itis 

eunt 



fiB 

fit 



flmuB 

fitia 

flunt 



1 Compare I. 6. 



3 ITieir all, omnia sua. 






IBRBGTJLAK VIBRBS : E5, Fio. 



163 





E5. 




PIS. 


Imper. 


ibam 




fiebain 


FUT. 


ib5 




flam 


Perf. 


ii 




factus sum 


Plup. 


ieram 




factus 'eram 


F. P. 


iero 




factus ero 


PRE8. 


SUBJUNCTIVE, 
earn 




flam 


Imper. 


Irem 




fierem 


Perf. 


ierim 




factus Sim 


Plup. 


iissem 

IMPERATIVE. 




factus essem 


Pres. I 


Ite 


n 


me 


FuT. Its 


Itote 






Its 


eunto 






Pres. 


INFINITIVE. 
Ire 




fieri 


Perf. 


iisse 




factus esse 


FUT. 


itHniB esse 

PARTICIPLES. 




factum Iri 


Pres. 

FUT. 


iSns, Gen. euntis 
itiiruB G 






ER. 


faciendus 






faol!nB 


G. 


GERUND, 
eundi 


SUXkf • 


AC&w wUO 


D. 


eund5 






Ac. 


eundum 






Ab. 


eiindo 

SUPINE. 







Ac. itum Ab. itil 

1. The root of eo, namely i, is changed to e before a vowel, 
except in perf. plup. and fut. perf., and in nom. sing, of pres. part. 

2. Compounds of e6 generally form the perfect in it instead 
of <ifl. The simple verb rarely, if ever, has frf , iveram, etc. 

3. The % of fI6 is long except when followed by er, and in fit. 

328. Learn the tenses of the indicative, the imperative, and 
the present and perfect infinitive of e5 and fI5. 



154 IBBBGITLAB YEBBS: £5, Fio. 

329. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Nolite Telle id quod fieri non potest. 2. Amici 
Alexandra reges fact! sunt. 3. Nemo nascitur sapiens, nemo 
casu fit bonus. 4. Leve fiebat onus, quod bene ferebatur. 

5. Apud yeteres Romanos ex agricoHs fiebant oonsnles. 

6. Omnes fere^ homines senectute fiunt prudentiores. 

7. Quidam amnes subeunt terram rursusque in terram red- 
eunt. 8. Alpes nemo ante Hannibalem cum exercitu trans- 
iit. 9. Miltiades Painim insulam expugnare non potuit et in 
patriam rediit. 10. Fopulus solet non nunquam' dignos 
praeterire. 

II. 1. That has been done which you wished. 2. My 
friends, you become wiser by old age. 3. Men never be- 
come good by chance. 4. Who will cross the river with me? ' 
5. The generals crossed the mountains with a large part* 
of their forces. 6. Light become the burdens that are 
patiently borne. 7. Our friends have gone away, but they 
will return. 8. The people passed by many worthy men. 
9. The inhabitants of the city went out with their horses 
and wagons. 10. The generals return to* their country with 
prisoners and booty. 11. Do not* cross the very deep river. 

2. 

330. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Septies Marius, qui CimbrSs et Teutones duobus 
acerrimis proeliis vicit, consul f actus est. 2. Socrates aequo 
anim5 diem supremum obiit. 3. Ariovisti c5piae intra 
annos quattuordecim tectum non subierant. 4. Autumno 
multae aves in alias terras proficiscuntur, at vere novo 

1 Fere is often thus placed be- ' See 265. 3. 

tween an adjective and its noun. * See p. 21, note 1. 

^ Non nunquaniy not never = ^ To = into, 

sometimes, * See 818. 1. 6 and 6. 



IBREOULAB YEBBS : £o, Fio. 



165 



redeunt. 5. Abeunt omnia unde orta sunt. 6. Alexander 
consilio^ fortitudineque omnes anteibat ; omnes labores 
sublbat. 

II. 1. In winter^ the days become shorter and the nights 
longer. 2. After the battle many perished of cold* and 
hunger. 3. Cicero was made consul^ by the Romans. 
4. By the prudence {consilium) and valor of Scipio, Hanni- 
bal was compelled to return into Africa. 5. We ought to 
meet our last day with equanimity.* 6. Alexander came off 
victorious^ from all his battles. 



331. 



VOCABULARY. 



ab-eo, -ire^ -iiy -ituniy go off, come 

off, go away, (327. 2.) 
aequusy -a, -uniy adj., level, equal; 

calm. 
ante-eo, -ire, -ii, , go before, 

surpass. 
apud, prep, with ace, with, in, 

near, among. 
Ariovistus, -i, m., Ariovistus, king 

of a German tribe. 
autumnusy -i, m., autumn. 
cogo, 3, -egi, -fictum [com, 

ago], drive together ; compel. 
copia, -ae, f., power, abundance, 

wealth; plur. troops, forces, 
debeo, 2, -ui, -itum, owe, ought. 
ex-eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, go out. 
ferS, adv., nearly, for the most part, 
intra, prep, with ace, within. 
Marius, -i, m., Marius, a famous 

Roman general. 
nSscor, 3, nStus, be bom. 



ob-eo, -Ire, -ii, -itum, go towards, 
meet. 

Parus, -i, f., Paros, an island in 
the ^gean Sea. (11. 4.) 

per-eo, -ire, -ii, , perish, 

praeter-eo, -ire» -ii, -itum, go by, 
pass by, omit. 

red-eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, return. 

re-fero, -ferre, -tull, -IStum, 
carry borck. 

rursuB, adv. [re-vorsus, re- 
verts], turned back, back, again. 

septies, num. adv. [Deptem], seven 
times. 

sub-eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, go under, 
enter, undergo. 

tectum, -i, n. [tego, cover], cover- 
ing, shelter, roof. 

Teutones, -um, m., the Teutons, a 
German tribe. 

trfins-eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, go over, 
cross. 



1 See 260. 
^ Compare I. 4. 
• Ablative. 



* Compare 1. 1 ; also 47. 
B Compare I. 2. 



• Victor. 



156 PREPOSITIONS. 



3. 

932. COLLOQUIUM. 

TixTRus ET Meliboeus. 
T. Aliquis januam piilsat. I, puer, apcri januam. 

door knock open 

[^Meliboeus trlsti vultu passibus tardls introit,'] 

steps slow enter 

Salve, amice, diu me non adisti. Cur iste vultus tristis? 

how do you do 

M. Eheu ! mi Tityre, abeo e mea patria. 

T. Cur abis ? Quo abibis ? Noli relinquere liaec arva 
dulcia. i«»^« fi®***" 

M. Quid tibi vis? Meos agros militibus impiis donavit 

what would you have me do wicked has given 

Octavianus. Magna pars gregum interiit. Ipse peril. 

am undone 

T. Minime, amice ; adi ad Octavianum ; ille est benignus, 
neque vult te perire. Tu agros recipies. 

M. Parvae spes mihi sunt redeundi.; tamen ibo, ut tu 
mones ; Octaviano ad pedes me proiciam. 

T. Et redibis in agros tuos ; redibit pax aurea. Vale, mi 
Meliboee, es bono animo. 

keep up your courage 

M. Et tu vale, bone Tityre. 



-oojoioo- 



CHAPTER LI. 1. 
Prepositions. 

333. Thus far several prepositions have been used in the exer 
cises, some followed by the accusative and some by the ablative. 
These are the only cases in Latin that follow prepositions. 

Prepositions followed by the Ablative. 

a (ab, abs), away from, by. 6 (ex), out of, from, 

absque, without, prae, before, in comparison with. 

c5rain, in presence of pr6, before, for, 

cum, with, sine, without, 

dfi, from, concerning, tenus, as far as, up to. 



EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE. 157 



1. In, meaning into, to, towards, for, that is after verbs denoting 
motion, takes the accusative. 

2. In, meaning in, on, aty that is after verbs denoting rest^ takes 
the ablative. See 334. 

3. Sub, under, up to, after verbs of motion, takes the accusative ; 
after verbs of rest, the ablative. 

4. Remember that all prepositions except the ten mentioned, 
and in and sub, are followed by the accusative only. 

Expressions of Place. 

334. Examine the follomng : — 

1. In oppid5, in the toum. 8. Athfinb, at (in) Athens. 

2. In n&vi; on shipboard. 9. Corinth^ ai (m) Corinth. 

3. Ad montem, to the mountain. 10. ThiLriXB, ctt (in) Thurii. 

4. Bx AQrlB, from the Jields. 11. CaxthfksLni, at (in) Carthage. 

5. In Italia, in Italy. 12. Rdmae, at (in) Rome. 

6. In italiam, to Italy. 13. Romam, to Rome. 

7. XSx Italia, from Italy. ^ 14. R5mft, from Rome. 

Observe the ways of denoting the place in, on, at, to, from which. 
In English we always ^ use a preposition with the noun of place, 
as the examples show. So in Latin (see examples 1-7), except 
with names of towns. ^ For these a rule may be inferred from the 
examples &-14. 

336. Rule op Syntax. — With names of towns — 

1. The place in or at which is expressed by the 
locative. (See 14, 2 ; 40 ; 1 75.) 

2. The place to which, by the accusative without 
a preposition.^ 

8. The place fron^ which, by the ablative without 
a preposition.^ 

1 Except in the case of the word the Accusative of liimit, be- 
come, after a verb of motion. cause it denotes the limit, or end, 

^ Names of small islands are of motion, 
often treated like names of towns. * This ablative is the ablative 

* This accosatlTe may be called of separation. (128, 129, 130.) 



158 EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE. 

336. DomuSy home^ housey and rus, the country^ have the con- 
struction of names of towns : 

domi^ at home. rurlp in the country, 

domiim, (to) home. rUs, to (into) the country. 

dom5, from home, rare, from the country. 

2. 

337. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Consules in sedem suam processere.' 2. Forsena 
rex Infesto cum exercitu R5mam venit. 3. Romani ex 
agris in urbem demigrant. 4. Nova Homae dignitas creata 
est, quae dictatura appellata est. 5. Tarquinius Cumas se 
contulit. 6. Missi sunt Homa ad Coriolanum oratores de 
pace. 7. Is de foro domum se recipiebat. 8. Erat quidam 
Athenis qui se sapientem profitebatur. 9. Regulus in Afri- 
can! trajecit. 10. Delude Romam missus est, sed mox 
Carthaginem rediit. 11. Roma missi sunt Cai'thaginem 
legati. 12. Roman! duas clades in Hispania acceperunt. 

13. Tunc Scipio ex Sicilia in Africam profectus est. 

14. Hannibal ex angustiis evasit. 

II. 1. The consul set out from Rome with a large army. 

2. We have removed from the city into the country. 

3. Then the general retreated ^ into Campania. 4. I have 
lived in Athens three years.' 5. Tarquin remained at 
Cumse a long time. 6. Scipio defeated Hannibal at Zama. 
7. Regulus returned from Africa to Rome. 8. Afterwards 
he was sent back from Rome to Carthage. 9. CaBsar 
carried on war in Gaul eight years.' 10. Cicero was born at 
Arpinum. 11. The consul proceeded to Athens with his 
army. 12. From Athens he sailed* to Italy. 13. Do you 
remain (imperative) at home ; I will return to the army. 

14. Shall you come home soon? 

— - 

1 From procedSy perfect tenie. ^ See 313. 

* See I. 7, and 289. « See 272. II. 6. 



EXPRESSIONS OF PIiACE. 159 

3SS. VOCABULARY. 

angustiaey -aruniy f., plur. [an- infestus, -a, -urn, adj., hostile, 

gustuSy narrow], narrow pass, troublesome, dangerous. 

Cf. Eng. narrows, orator, -oris, m. [oro, speak, 

appello, 1, address, call, name. plead], orator, ambassador, 

Arpinum, -I, n., Arpinum, a town Porsena, -ae, m., Porsena, an 

in Italy. Etruscan king. 

AthSnae, -Srum, f. plur., Athens, pro-fiteor, 2, -fessus [fateor], 

Carthag5, -inis, f., Carthage, a acknowledge, confess, declare, 

city in Africa. re-mitto, 3, -misl, -missum, send 

Ck>riolanu6, -I, m., a surname of back, 

C, Marcius, a Roman consul. sedes, -is, f. [sedeo, sit], seat, 

Cumae, -arum, f. plur., Cumce, a abode, 

town in Campania. Tarquinius, -i, m., Tarquin, a 

dS-migro, 1, emigrate, remove, Roman king. 

dictatnra, -ae, f. [dictator], tra-icio, 3, -jeci, -Jectum [trfins, 

office of dictator, dictatorship, Jacio], throw across, pass over, 

dignitas, -fitls, f. [dig^us, cross. 

iDorihy], worth, dignity, office. turn, adv., then, at that time, 

S-vSdo, 3, Svasi, evasum, go Zama, -ae, f., Zama, a town in 

forth, escape, Africa. 

3. 

339. FOR TRANSLATION. 

The Battle of Cannae, b.c. 216. 

Hannibal in Apuliam pervenerat. Adversus eum Roma 
profecti sunt duo consules, Aemilius Paullus et Terentius 
Varro. Paullo^ cunctatio Fabi* magis placebat ; Varro 
autem, ferox' et temerarius, acriora sequebatur consilia. 
Ambo consules ad vicum, qui Cannae appellabatur, castra 
communiverunt. Ibi deinde Varro invito eollega * aciem in- 
struxit et signum pugnae dedit. Hannibal autem ita consti- 
tuerat aciem, ut Romanis^ et* solis radii et ventus ab oriente 

1 For the case, see 343. * His colleague unwilling = 

^ Fabius Maximus, whose policy against the wishes of his colleague. 

had been one of prudence, or See 412. 

rather, of extreme caution. ^ To the Romans, dative with 

* Impetuous. adversi. * Both, 



160 ADDITIONAL PRINCIPLES OF SYNTAX. 



pulverein adflans^ ad vers! essent.^ Victus caesusque est 
Romanus exercitus ; nusquam graviore vulnere afflicta est 

res publica. 

[^Continued on p, 177.] 



■oo>«=;o«- 



CHAPTER LIL 
ADDITIONAL PRINCIPLES OF SYNTAX. 

340* Excimine the following : — 

1. Aitex obii&\sl\iaif one of the consuls, 

2. VnxiBmSiitxim,, one of the soldiers, 

3. Quis vestrum ? who of you? 

4. Nihil novi^ nothing (of) new. 

5. Satis pecuniae, enough (of) money, 

6. UnuB ez mllitibuB, one of the soldiers, 

7. Minimus ez illlSi the youngest of them, 

m 

The first five of the examples illustrate what is called the 
Partitive Genitive, the word in the genitive denoting a whole, and 
the word which it limits a part of that whole ; 6 and 7 illustrate 
another way of expressing the partitive idea. 

341. Examine the following : — 

1. Catillna fuit ingeni5 mal5, Catiline was (a man) of bad 

disposition, 

2. Iccius summft n5bilit&te fuit, Icdus was (a man) of the 

highest rank, 

3. Puer afidecim ann5rum, a hoy of sixteen years, 

4. Vestis mSLgnl pretl, a garment of great value, 

5. Vir summae virtHtis, a man of the highest courage. 

The above are examples of the Descriptive Ablative and the 
Descriptive Genitive. Observe that in each instance the abla- 
tive or genitive is limited by an adjective, and that ther adjective 
and noun together denote a quality or characteristic of that which 
is described. 

^ Present participle of adflo. ^ Were an annoyance. 



ADDITIONAL PRINCIPLES OF SYNTAX. 161 

342. • Examine the following : — 

1. R6gl Bervi5, / serve the king, 

2. CIvitfttX prodest, he benefits the state. 

3. Caesarl placuit, it pleased Ccesar. 

4. Fr&trl persuftdet, he persuades his brother, 

5. Crfide mihi, believe me, 

6. LSgibus cIvitatdB p&r6bat, (220. 1. 2). 

7. Interdiim amicis nocet, (272. 1. 8). 

. Observe that the verbg, which in English have a direct object, 
are followed in Latin by the dative (the case of the indirect object). 
Such verbs should be carefully noted as they occur in the exercises. 
They may be summed up in the following — 

« 

843. Rule op Syntax. — Many verbs sigrnifying 
to please or displeasCf benefit or injure, command or 
obey,' serve, resist, believe, threaten, perstiade, and 
the like, take the dative. 



. Examine the following : — 

1. MftgnS flsul nostrb fuit, t^ was of great service to our men, 

2. Est mihi oUrae, it is {for) a care to me, 

3. Equitfttum aiudli5 Caesari miserant, they had sent cavalry 

to aid Ccesar {for aid to Ccesar), 

4. Quinque coh5rt6B castris praeaidio relinquit, he leaves 

five cohorts to defend the camp {for defence to the camp). 

• 

Observe in each of the above sentences two datives, one trans- 
lated (literally) with for^ the other with to. In 1 and 2, flsul and 
oUrae are like the predicate nominative, which is ofte.n used where 
we might expect this dative ; in 3 and 4, aiudlio and praesidid 
denote a purpose. This dative for which is sometimes called the 
Dative of Service. The two together are sometimes called the 
DouUe Sative. 

Observe instances of the foregoing constructions as they occur 
m the eicercises and reading lessons. 



162 DERIVATION. 



CHAPTER LIII. 

DERIVATION. 

S45. Some derivations have been indicated in the yocabti- 
laries by separating the parts of compound words, and, beginning 
with 221, by putting words in brackets. The bracketed words, 
however, are not to be understood as the primitives or origi- 
nals of the words against which they stand, as is customarily 
the case in lexicons and special vocabularies, but that they are 
connected toith them in formation from a common root or stem. The 
habit of observing such relationships is the important thing. The 
following list is selected from previous vocabularies for further 
study of the subject : — 

1. am5| love; amicus, loving, friendly ; sunloitia, friendship ; in- 

imlcns (for in-amlcua), unfriendly, hostile. 

2. 9Lf^er, field, land, soil; agri-cola (col5, cultivate'), one who cultivates 

the soil, frzrmer; agri-cultflra, cultivcUion of the soil, agriculture. 
Col5 also means dwell, hence incola, inhabitant. Meaning of 
incolo ? 

3. clvis, citizen; clvilis, pertaining to a citizen; cIvitSs, the condi- 

tion of a citizen, or a body of citizens, state. Like civXIis, form 
and define adjectives from the stems of paer and hoatis. 

4. reg5, rule; rSac (regs), ruler, king; rSg^a, ruler, queen; r6- 

gnum, kingdom ; r6gn5, be king, reign ; rSgula, rule. 

5. faci5, do; facinua, thing done, deed; facilia (that may be done), 

easy; difficilia (for dia-facilis), not to be done, difficult. 

6. n5Bc5, know; nomen (that by which a thing is known), name; 

n5min5, v., name; n5bilis (that can be known), well known^ 
noble, cf. facilia. 

7. f aga, flight ; fugio, flee. liber, adj., free ; llber5, v., free. 
metna, ii.,fear; metu5, Y.,fear. laua, n., praise; laudo, v., praise. 
timor, n .,fear ; timed, \.,fear. diBc5, learn ; disclpulns, learner, 
d5, give; ddnnm, gift. moved, move; mdtus, motion, 
fLxi6tflow; fluviiiB, fltlmen, stream, river. 

dominoB, lord, master; domina, mistress; dominor, be master. 

8. aunim, gold; aureus, of gold, golden. 
lignum, wood; Ugneus, of wood, wooden. 



DERIVATION. 163 



f errum, iron ; f erreus, of iron, iron, 

argentum, silver. Form an adjective from the stem of argen- 
tum, and define it. 
9. al5| nourish; alimentum (that which nourishes), food, pro- 
visions, 

mone5, remind; monuxaentum (that which reminds), monument. 

5rno, adorn; meaning of orn&mentum ? 

10. pulcher, beautiful; pulchritudo, beauty, 
fortis, brave; fortitiido, bravery. 
turpis, base ; turpitiid5| baseness. 

altuB, high. Form a noun from the stem of altus, and define it. 

11. Ign&vuB (not busy), idle; ign&via, idleness. 
memor, mindful; memoria (mindfulness) ^ memory. 
piger, lazy; pigritia, laziness. 

prJidSna, wise^ prudent ; prudentia, wisdom, prudence. 

sapiSns, wise; sapientia, wisdom. 

amicus, friend ; amicitia, friendship. 

Form a noun from the stem of inixnicus, and define it. 

12. equuB, horse ; eques, horseman. 

pSs (stem ped), ybo^; ped^B^ foot-soldier, 

13. ar5, v., plough; ar&truniy n. (thing to plough with), plough. 
(rdd5y gnaw) ; rostrum (that which gnaws), beak, snout, hence 

beak of a ship. 

14. vir, man; virtHs, manliness, virtue. 
servus, slave ; servitfis, slavery, 

cdnsul, consul; cdnsul&tus, office of a consul, consulship. 
magister, master; magistr&tus, office of a magister, magis- 
tracy, also magistrate, 

15. perlculum, danger; periculdsoSy/tiZZ of danger, dangerous. 
frons, leaf; frondSsus, covered with leaves, leafy, 
studium, zeal; meaning of studiosus? 

16. aude5, dare; audSLz, daring, 
rapi5, seize; rapSz, grasping. 
tene5, hold ; meaning of tenSLz ? 

17. scrlbS, write ; scriptor, writer. 

vincS (victum), conquer; victor, conqueror,' 
d6fend5, defend; dSfSnsor, defender. 

From stem of am5, love, form a word meaning lover; from stem 
of aadi5, hear, in the same way, a word meaning hearer. 



164 THE SUBJUNCTIVE: FORMS. 

18. tUlus, any; niilliui, not any. 
sci5y know ; nesci5, knov) not. 

19. homo, man; htLmftnus (belonging to a man), human. 
mors, death ; mortftlia (belonging to death), mortal. 
alius, another; aliSnus (belonging to another), another^s. 

20. Observe also the force of the various prefixes, ft, ad, dfi, dis, in, 

prae, pr5, re, sub, etc., as in ft-initt5, ac-c6d5, dS-scendd, 
dl-mitt5, In-fer5, prae-sum, pr5-cSdd, re-fer5, sub-e5, etc. 



-»OrO>00- 



CHAPTER LIV. 1. 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Sequence op Tenses: Pbactice on Forms. 

346. Learn the subjunctive of sum (73) and its compounds 
(292, 293). 

The chief use of the subjunctive is in subjoined, that is, de- 
pendent, clauses. 

347. Examine the following: — 

1. Audi5 ubi sit, fuerit, futiirus sit, / hear where he ts, has been 

or was, is going to be. 

2. Audivl ubi sit, fuerit, futflrus sit, / have heard where he is, 

has been or was, is going to be. 

3. Audiam ubi sit, fuerit, futurus sit, / shall hear where he is, 

has been pr was, is going to be. 

4. Audlverd ubi sit, fuerit, futfLrus sit, / shall have heard 

where he is, has been or was, is going to be. 

5. Audifibam ubi asset, fuisset, futurus asset, / heard where 

he was, had been, was going to be. 

6. Audivl ubi asset, fuisset, futfLrus asset, / heard where he 

was, had been, was going to be. 

7. Audiveram ubi esset, fuissat, futfLrus asset, / had heard 

where he was, had been, was going to be. 



SEQUENCE OF TENSES: FORMS. 165 

Notice what tenses are used in the principal clauses of each of 
the preceding groups of examples. Those in the first group — the 
present, perfect definite,^ future, and future perfect — are called 
primary or principal tenses. Those in the second group — the 
imperfect, perfect indefinite,^ and the pluperfect — are called 
secondary or historical tenses. 

Observe also that primary tenses of the subjunctive are used in 
the first four, secondary in the last three. 

348. Rule of Syntax. — Primary tenses of the 
subjunctive follow primary tenses of the indicative^ 
and secondary follow secondary. 

Observe that the subjunctive in the foregoing examples is trans 
lated like the indicative. 

349. Examine the following : — 

1. NSm5 adest quin sit fortis, no one is present who is not brave* 

2. Quia adest qum sit fortis ? who is present who is not brave f 

3. NSmo dubitat quin sit fortis, no one doubts that he is brave, 

or his being brave* 

4. Non dubium est quin sit fortis, there is no doubt that he is 

brave f or of his being brave. 

5. N5n dubito quin sit fortis, / do not doubt that he is brave, 

or his being brave. 

Observe (1) that the subjunctive follows quin; (2) that quin 
is used after negative expressions and questions that expect a 
negative answer ; (3) that the subjunctive clause with quin (com> 
pounded of qui, who, and n6, not) may be variously rendered. 

2. 

350. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Quis dubitat qum sint fortes? 2. Nemo dubitat 
qum vita sit brevis. 3. Non dubito qum adfuerint. 4. Non 
dubiam erat qum essent fortes. 5. Quis dubitabat qum 

^ That is, the perfect translated with have or has. 
3 That is, the perfect translated without have or has. 



166 THE SUBJUNCTIVB: FORMS: Ut. 

fuissent fortes ? 6. Nemd dubitayerat quln adfuisset ; ad- 
fuissent. 7. N5n est dubium quin possit ; possint ; potuerit ; 
potuerint. 8. Quis dubit&bat quin posset? possent? potuis- 
set? potulssent? 9. Non est dubium quin praests ; praesltis ; 
praefueris ; praefueritis. 10. Quis dubitayerat quin afuisset? 
afuissent? 

II. 1. I do not doubt that he is present ; has been present ; 
is absent ; has been absent. 2. Who doubted that he could? 
they could? we could? you could? 3. They do not doubt 
that he is at the head of (prdesum) ; has been at the head of. 
4. Who has doubted his surviying? their suryiying? 5. Who 
doubted their injuring? haying injured? 6. There is no 
doubt that he can ; we can ; 3'ou can ; they can. 7. There 
was no doubt that he could ; I could ; they could. 



351. Learn the subjunctive, active aud passive, of am5 (86) 
and mone5 (112). 

1. Observe that in the active voice the imperfect subjiinctive 
can be formed readily from the present infinitive, and the pluper- 
fect subjunctive from the perfect infinitive. Compare the perfect 
subjunctive with the future perfect indicative. 

352. Eosamine the following : — 

86 armant ut pUgnent, they arm themselves that they may fighij 
in order that they may Jight, to Jighty so as tojight, in order to 
Jight, for the purpose of fighting. 

Observe that the various equivalents of ut ptignent have a 
common notion or idea, that of purpose, 

353. Rule op Syntax. — ut with the subjunctive 
may be used to denote a purpose, and may he vari- 
ously translated. 

354. Review the indicative and imperative of e5, go (327). 



THE suBJUNcnvB: forms: Ut. 167 

355. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. It Ut luOnstret et moneat. 2. Ibat ut monstraret et 
moneret. 8. lit ut monstret et moneat. 4. lit ut mon- 
straret et mon€ret. 5. Ibunt ut monstrent et moneant. 
6. lerunt ut monstrarent et monerent. 7. lerant ut mon- 
strarent et monerent. 8. Non dubitavi quin monstrayisset 
et monuisset. 9. Quis dubitaverat quin monstrayissent 
et monuissent? 10. Nemo dubitavit quTn monstrayissemus 
et monuissemus. 11. Non est dubium quin monstremus et 
moneamus. 

II. 1. He goes to see and praise. 2. They go for the 
purpose of seeing and praising. 3. We will go in order to 
see and praise. 4. Who will not go that he may see and 
praise? 5. You will go to see and praise. 6. They have 
gone to see and praise. 7. He has gone for the purpose of 
seeing and praising. 8. He went in order to see and praise. 
9. Go (^plur.) to see and praise. 10. He was going that 
he might see and praise. 11. Who doubts his haying seen 
and praised? 12. No one doubted that they had seen and 
praised. 

4. 

356. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. El (els, mihi, nobis) imperatut* — 
conetur, conentur, coner, conemur. 
2. El (eis, mihi, nobis) imperabat ut — 

conaretur, conarentur, conarer, conaremur. 
8. Quis dubitat quin — 

conatus sit, conati sint, conatus sim, conati simus? 
4. Nemo dubitabat quin— 

cdnatus esset, conati essent, conatus essem, conati 
essemus. 

' Translate Hiua: JSs orders Aim to try (that he try); them to try (thai 
they try). 



168 THE STTBJTJNCTIVB : POEMS: Ut AND No. 

5« Eum (e6B, me, nos) monet ut — 

tueatur, tueantur, tuear, tueamur. 

6. Eum (eos, me, nos) monebat ut — 

tueretur, tuerentur, tuerer, tueremur. 

7. Quis dubitat quin — 

tuitus sit, tuiti sint, tuitus sim, tuita simus? 

8. Nemo dubitabat quin — 

tuitus esset, tuita essent, tuitus essem, tuiti essemas. 

II.* 1. They will order bim* (them, me, us) to imitate. 

2. They have ordered him (them, me, us) to imitate. 

3. Who doubts his* (their, my, our) having imitated? 

4. They ordered him (them, me, us) to imitate. 5. Nobody 
doubted his (their, my, our) having imitated. 6. They 
advise him (them, me, us) to promise. 7. They advised 
him (them, me, us) to promise. 8. There was no doubt 
that he (they, I, we) had promised. 

5. 

357. Learn the subjunctive, active and passive, of reg5 (180), 
audi5 (223), oapi5 (235). 

358. The conjunction n6, tn order that not, that not, in order not 
to, so as not to, lest, is used to denote a negative purpose, just as at 
denotes a positive purpose. See 352, 353. 

359. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Eum (eos) monet ut — 

regat, regatur, audiat, audi&tur, 

regant, regantur, audiant, audiantur. 

2. Eum (eos) monuit ut — 

regat, regatur, audiat, audiatar, 

regant, regantur, audiant, audiantur. 

8. Eum (e5s) monebat ut — 

regeret, reger§tur, audiret, audlretur, 

regerent, regerentur, audlrent, audirentur. 



1 Imitate the arrangement in I. ^ Dative. 

• That is, Oat he, they, I, we, have imitated. 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE : FORMS : Ut AND Ke. 169 



4. Eum (eos) monuit ut — 

regeret, regeretur, auduret, audiretur, 
regerent, regerentur, audlrent, audlrentur. 

5. Te (vos) monet ne — 

capias, capiatis, capiaris, caplamini. 

6. Me (nos) monuit ne — 

capiam, capiamus, capiar, capiamur. 

7. Me (nos) monebat ne — 

caperem, caperemus, caperer, caperemur. 

8. Me (nos) monuit ne — 

caperem, caperemus, caperer, caperemur. 

II. 1. They advise him (them) — 

to lead, to be led, to find, to be found. 
2. They warn him (them) — 

not to receive, not to be received. 
8. They will advise him (them) — 

to lead, to be led, to find, to be found. 

4. They were warning him (them) — 

not to lead, find, receive^ 

not to be led, be found, be received. 

5. Who doubted that he (they) — 

had led, had found, had received, 

had been led, been found, been received? 

6. 

360. Learn the subjunctive of e5 (327), and ferO (321). 

361. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Me hortatur ut eam; feram. 2. Eos hortamur ut 
eant; ferantur. 3. Yds hortanturut eStis; feratis. 4. Eum 
hortali sunt ut iret; ferret. 5. Me hortati sunt ne eam; 
feram. 6. Te hortabantur n@ Ires ; ferres. 7. Eos hortali 
erant ut Trent; ferrent. 8. NOn dnbium erat quln iis- 
sent; tulissent. 9. N5n est dubium qnln lerlt; tnlerit. 
10. Nem5 dnbit&bat quIii fret ; ferrStor. 



170 THE SUBJUNCTIVE: FORMS: Ut AND Ne. 



II. 1 . He commands that he (they, I, we) go ; bear ; 
be borne. 2. He was commanding that he (they, I, we) 
should go ; bear ; be borne. 3. There is no doubt of his 
(their, my, our) having gone ; borne ; been borne. 4. There 
was no doubt that he (they, I, we) had gone ; borne ; been 
borne. 

7. 

362. EXERCISES. 

I. 1 . Imperator exercitum in collem subduxit, ut f ortunam 
belli experiretur. 2. Pater Horati populum orabat ne se 
orbum faceret. 3. Illud facit ut hostes circumveniantur. 
4. Consul ciiravit ut plebs agros coleret. 5. Non dubium 
erat quTu Roman! auxilium ferrent. 6. Manlius edicit ne 
quis^ extra ordinem pugnet. 7. Omnes occldentur ut vires 
hostium frangantur, aut omnes dimittentur ut beneficio obli- 
gentur. 8. Non est dubium quin terror animos omnium 
civium occupaverit. 9. Incidit^ ut eo tempore Hasdrubal 
ad eundem portum veniret. 10. Scipio uxorem oravit ne 
corpus suum Romam ref erretur. 

II. 1. The ambassadors beg the senate to render aid to 
their ^ kingdom. 2. The ambassador begged the senate to 
render aid to his* king. 3. Nobody doubts that Hannibal 
is brave. 4. Nobody doubted that Hannibal had fought 
bravely. 5. Thej- did this that they might surround the 
enemy. 6. This they do in order to surround the enemy. 

7. Scipio begs his wife not to carry his body back to Rome. 

8. Scipio begged his wife not to carry his body back to 
Rome. 9. It turned out that the soldier received a wound 
on the head. 10. We will draw up the soldiers on a hill to 
try the fortune of war. 

^ Ne quisy lest any one = that no one. 

^ After verbs meaning to happen, to turn out, and the like, ut means 
that, but not in order that, 

' Suiis, because their means their own, and not of them. 
^ Suiis. 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE : RELATIVE OF PURPOSE. 171 

363. VOCABULARY. 

circum-veniOy 4, -veni, -ventuniy Manlius, -i, h., Manlius, a Roman 

surround, general. - 

collls, -is, M., hill. Cf . mons. monstrS, 1, show, point out. 

Conor, 1, attempt, ob-ligo, 1, hind, put under ohliga* 

euro, 1 [cnra], care for, take care, tion, oblige. 

di-mittOy 3, -misi, -missum, send oc-cido, 3, -cidi, -cisam [oby 

away, send off. ca^do, cut^, cut down, kill, 

e-dicoy 3, -dixi, -dictum, speak occupo, 1 [ob', capiS], take pos- 

out, declare, proclaim, session oj", seize, 

S-venio, 4, -veni, -ventum, come orbus, -a, -um, adj., bereaved, 

forth, turn out, happen . Cf . accido. ch ildless. 

extra, prep. w. ace, without, out- oro, 1 [os, mouth"], pray, beg. 

side of. Cf. intra. plebs, -bis, f., the common people. 

frango, 3, fregi, fractum, break. senatus, -as, h. [senex], council 

Hasdrubal, -alis^ m., Hasdruhal, of elders, senate. (345. 14.) 

brother of Hannibal. sub-dnco, 3, -dnxi, -ductum, 

hortor, 1, urge, encourage. draw from under, draw up, 

in-cido, 3, -cidi, -casum [cado], uxor, -oris, f., wife. Cf. coi^unx. 

faU into, happen, befall. vis, vis, f., strength, power. (262.) 



H>o;«<oo- 



CHAPTER LV. 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE: EELATIVE OF PURPOSE. 

[It ifl snggested that the turning of English into Latin be now deferred till after 
the Beading Lessons, pp. 211-222, have been finished.] 

364:« In all the Latin sentences in the preceding lesson in 
which ut and nS are used with the subjunctive, except 362. 1. 9, 
the dependent clause expresses a purpose. And, on the other hand, 
in the English sentences all the dependent clauses expressing pur- 
pose ("to render aid,*'* ^^not to carry" etc.) had to be turned into 
Latin by ut or n6 with the subjunctive. But the Latin often 
expresses a purpose by means of a relative pronoun followed by 
the subjunctive. See the first six sentences below, 

365. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Ancus legatum mittit ut res repetat. 2. Ancus 
legatum mittit qui res repetat. 3. Legati venerunt ut pacem 



172 THE SUBJUNCTIVE : RELATIVE OF PURPOSE. 

peterent. 4. Legal! venerunt qui pacem peterent. 5. Pater 
fnio equom dedit ut equitaret. 6. Pater fOio equum dabat 
qui eum veheret. , 7. Ad singulas urbes senbemus ne muros 
diruant. 8. Non dubium est quin Cato ad urbes scrlpserit. 
9. Quis dubitavlt qum Cato imperavisset ut urbes muros 
diruerent? 10. Romulus urbem fecit quae asylum esset; 
Romulus urbem facit quae sit asylum. 

II. 1. A horse was given to the boy by his father, for^ 
him to ride. 2. A father sent a messenger to Rome to 
speak' to his son. 3« A father sends a messenger to Rome 
to speak' to his son. 4. Romulus makes proclamation that 
no one* shall leap* over his wall. 5. Romulus proclaimed 
that no one should leap over his wall. 6. We will warn 
them not to leap* over our walls. 7. Romulus sent messen- 
gers to invite' neighboring people to his games. 8. The 
father will give his son a horse for him to ride. 9. Who 
doubts that a kind father gives his son books ? 10. Nobody 
doubted that the father had given his son many things.* 

366. VOCABULARY. 

al-loquor, 3, -locntus [ad], speak ftnitimus, •% -uniy adj. [finis], 

to, address. bordering on, neighboring, 

AncuSy -if H.y Ancus, a Roman imperS, 1, order, command, with 

king. dative. Cf . Jubeo with ace. 

asylum, -i, v., a place of refuge, Indus, -i, h. [Indo], game, play, 

asylum, nnntius, -i, m., bearer of news, 
Cato, -onis, m., Cato, a famous messenger. 

Roman censor. re-peto, 3, -ivi, -li, -itum, seek 
di-ruo, 3, -rui, -rutum, tear again, demand back; res repe- 

asunder, destroy. tere, demand restitution. 

equito, 1 [eques], act the eques, tran-silio, 4, -ii, and -ul, 

ride. [salio, leap"], leap over or across. 

1 That he might ride. * Present subjunctive. 

s Translate in two ways. ^ See 362. 1. 10. 

' See 862. 1. 6, and note. * Many things, multa* 



THE SUBJtrNCTIVE : Ut AND Xe. 173 

CHAPTER liVI. 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE : Ut and y^. 

d67« The subjunctive with ut to denote purpose has been illus- 
trated (352). But the subjunctive with ut has other uses. 

368. Eocamine the following : — 

1. Tantus eat mllitum ardor ut ad bellum diicantur, so great 

is the ardor of the soldiers that they are led to war, 

2. Accidit ut n5n doml esaem, it happened that I was not at 

home, 

3. FabriciuB ade5 inops dScSssit ut nihil rellquerit,' Fa- 

briciiM died so poor as to leave nothing. 

In these examples the dependent clause denotes a result, Com* 
pare the translation of ut and the subjunctive in purpose clauses 
and in result clauses. That not in result clauses = ut ndn. Cf . 358. 

369. Still another use of the subjunctive with ut 
and ne is illustrated in the following sentences : — 

1. Tixne5 ut veniat, I fear that ?ie is not coming, or will not come, 

2. Timed ut vSnerit, I fear that he has not come, 

3. TimSbam ut vSnisaet, I feared that he had not come, 

4. Timed n6 veniat, I fear that he is coming, or unll come 

5. Timed nS vSnerit, I fear that he has come, 

6. TimSbam nS vSniaset, 1 feared that he had come. 

An inspection of the foregoing examples shows that ut and nS 
seen sometimes to exchange meanings. 

After verbs of fearing, ut is translated that not, and n6, that. 

Observe that in 1 and 4 the present subjunctive may be trans, 
lated as a future. 

370. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Pomp€jus ita egit ut a Sulla, diligeretur. 2. Is, ut 
SuUae* subveniret, milites collegit. 3. Postea in* Sicilian) 
profectus est, ut earn provinciam fi Carbone reciperet. 



^ An exception to 348. ^ See 343. > See 838. 1. 



174 THE subjunctive: Ut AND Ne. 

4. Catillnae exercitos adeo acriter dimicavit, ut nem5 super- 
esset. 5. Accidit ut esset plena luna. 6. Atticus sic 
Graece loquebatur, ut Athenis natus videretur. 7. Atticus 
Athenis ita vixit, ut omnibus civibus esset carissimus. 

8. Ndn dubito quin nostrl milites hostes superaverint. 

9. Non est dubium quIn semper fidem servaveritis. 

10. Timeo ut sustine&s labores. 11. Metuo ne malum 
consilium capias. 12. Metuo ut sustinueris labores. 
13. Quis metuit ne malum consilium capiam? 

Point omt the purpose clauses in the above. 

II. 1. The boy so acts that he is loved by all. 2.. They 
so acted that they were loved by all. 3. He will so act as to 
be^ loved by all. 4. He has so acted as to be loved by 
all. 5. They will not doubt our having come.^ 6. They 
had not doubted our having come.' 7. I fear that you are 
not well. 8. I feared that you were not well. 9. I fear 
that you are sick. 10. I was afraid that you had been sick. 

11. The enemy are fighting so spiritedly that no one will 
survive.* 12. They have fought so sharply that not one has 
survived. 13. We will set out for* SidHy in order to receive' 
that province. 

371. VOCABULARY. 

ac-cld5y 3, -cidly [ad, cado], col-lig5, 3, -l@gl> -ISctam [com, 

/aU upon, fall out, happen. Cf. lego], collect. Also conllgo. 

evenlo and incido. di-mico, \, fight, contend, 

ad-eo, adv. {to this), thus far, so, Graece, adv. [GraecusJytnGVeeiE;. 

so very. loquor, 3, locStus, speak, talk. 

AtticuSy -If M., Atticus, a friend of sub-venio, 4, •veni, -ventaniy 

Cicero. come to the aid of, aid, assist^ 

Carbo, -5nl8, m., Carho, a Koman. with dative. Cf . succurro. 

Catllinay -ae, m., Catiline, a fa- 8iistine5,2,-tlnui,-tentuin [sub^ 

mous Roman conspirator. teneo], hold up, hear, endure. 

1 As to he, ut, etc. * Pres. subj. 

* lliat we have come, * See I. 3, and note. 

* That we had come. * Kot infinitiye. 



THB SUBJUNCTIVE: Cum. 175 



CHAPTER LVII. 1. 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE: Cum. 

372. The subjunctive occurs very frequently in de- 
pendent clauses beginning with cum, meaning (1) when^ 
while^ a«, of time; (2) since^ because^ a«, of cause or 
reason; (3) although, of concession: 

1. Cum ServiuB in domo Tarquinl esset, mir&bile accidit, 

while Servius was in the house of J^arquinf a wonderful thing 

happened. 
2. Cmn Tarqalnioa occbus esset, fijua nzor popnlum aUo« 

ofLta esti when Tarquin had been killed^ his w\fe addressed 

the people. 
3. TuUia, cum domum rediret, super corpus patrls carpen- 

tum Sgit, Tulliay as she was returning home, drove her 

wagon over the body of her father. 

An inspection of the above examples shows that — 

(1) The tenses of the subjunctive are the imperf. and pluperfect. 

(2) The cum clause marks the time of the act of the principal 
clause, the verb of which is in the perfect. 

(3) The sentences may be called narrative sentences, 

373. Rule of Syntax. — Cum temporal, that is, 
cufn in narrative clauses, is followed by the imper- 
fect and pluperfect subjunctive to mark the time 
of the action in the principal clause. 

374. Examine the following : — 

1. Cum hulc 16gl sen&tus repHgnSret, Caesar rem ad popu- 

lum dStulit, since the senate opposed this law, Ccesar referred 
the matter to the people, 

2. Cum d5 impr5vl85 vSnlsset, RSmi 16g&t5s miserunt, since 

he had come unexpectedly, the Remi sent ambassadors. 

3. Cum vita mettls plSna sit, amlcitiSs par&te, since life is 

full of fear, form friendships. 

4. Cuxa m6 interrog&veris, respondSb5, as you have asked me, 

I toill answer. 



176 THE SUBJUNCTIVE: €um. 

5. Nihil mfi adJUvit cum posset, he gave me no aid (aided me 
in nothing)^ although it was in his power. 

Notice that — 

(1) All the four tenses of the subjunctive are used. 

(2) The cum clause states the cause or reason of the act of the 
principal clause ; or denotes a concession, indicated in English by 
though, admitting that, etc. 

375« Rule op Syntax. — Cum causal op conces- 
sive is followed by the subjunctive in all its tenses. 

1. Cum followed by the present or perfect subjunctive is almost 
always causal, and may be translated since or as; followed 'by the 
imperfect or pluperfect it is very often temporal. 

2. Cum temporal and the subjunctive can often be translated 
in some other way better than by when or as with the indicative. 
Thus, in 372. 2, we might translate, After the killing of Tarquin, 
etc. ; and in 3, Tullia, returning homey or Tullia, on her way home, 

376. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Cum jussi essent invicem dicere, unus orsus est. 
2. Fyrrhus, cum tot Eoman5s mortuos videret, manus ad cae- 
lum sustulit. 3. Cum explorat5res ceplsset, eos per castra 
circumduxit. 4. Quae cum ita sint,^ perge. 5. Cum sit in 
nobis consilium, cur dubitamus? 6. Cum de impr5vis5 
venerit Caesar, ad eum legatds mittemus. 7. Cum amicl 
adsint, gaudemus. 8. Cum^ nox appropinquaret, abierunt. 
9. Cum nox appropinquavisset, abierunt. 10. Caesar, cum 
frustra misisset, solus naviculam conscendit ne agnosceretur. 

II. 1. When one had begun ,^ the rest became (were) silent. 
2. Pyrrbus, having seen* the bravery of the Romans, spoke 
these words. 3. Since he has seen the bravery of the 
Romans, he raises his hands to heaven. 4. Since night is 

1 Since these things are so = such of night ; or, since night was ap- 

being the case, proaching, 

^ Cum may be translated as ^ See 373. 

temporal or causal : on the approach * Pgrrhus, when he had seen. 



THE STTBJtTNCTIVB : Cum. 



177 



approaching, we will go off. 5. When our friends had 
arrived, we went to Boston. 6. On the arrival of our 
friends we went to Boston. 7. While Csesar was embarking 
in a boat, no one recognized him. 8. As^ Csesar was alone, 
he was not recognized. 9. As^ I was telling him a story, he 
suddenly laughed. 10. As^ they. had prudence, we did not 
hesitate. 

377. VOCABULARY. 

a-^gno8co,3,-g^ovi9-gnituin, [ad, in-viceniy adv., hy turns, in turn. 



(g)no8c59 know], recognize, 

ap-propinquoy 1 [adj, approach. 

Bostoniay -ae^ f., Boston. 

cSteiiy -ae, -a, adj., the rest. 

clrcuiii-dac5y 3, -xi^ -ductum, 
lead around, 

coDHscendOy 3, -di, -scSnsum 
[scandSy dimh], ascend, embark, 
go on hoard, 

dubitO) 1 [dubius], doubt, hesitate. 

dubiusy -ay •um, adj., doubtful. 

gaudeoy* 2, gSvisiis suniy be 
glad, rejoice. 

Im-pro-viso, adv. [video], unex- 
pectedly. 



JubeSy 2, Jassiy Jassum, bid, 

order. Cf. impero. 
mortuus, -a, -um [P. of morlor], 

dead. 
navicula, -ae, f. [navis], little 

vessel, boat. 
ordlor, 4, orsus, begin, undertake. 
pergOy 3, perrexiy perrectum 

[per, regS], go on, continue. 
taceo, 2, tacui, taciturn, be silent, 

sag nothing about. 
tollo, 3, sustuli, sublStum, raise, 

lift up. 
tot, adj.jindecl., so many, Cf . quot. 



2. 



378. 



FOR TRANSLATION. 
The Battle op Cann^. — Continuea 

Aemilias FauUus tells obrutus cecidit. Quem^ cam medi^ 
in ptigna sedentem in saxo oppletum cruore conspexisset qui^ 



^ The 05 of reason, or of time t 
^ Four common verbs, audeS, 
dare, gandeo, rejoice, soleo, be 
accustomed, fido, trust, have the 
passiTe form in the perfect, and 
hence are called semi-deponents. 

' Translate first mentally, tak- 
ing the words as thej stand, ren- 



dering cum, when; then recast 
this preliminary translation, be- 
ginning with cum quidam tribn- 
nus, and rendering quem, him, 

Follow this method, when a 
Latin sentence appears difficult; 
but keep a sharp eye on the ter- 
minations of the words. 



178 THE SUBJUNCTIVB : INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 



dam tribtinus militum : "Cape," inquit, *' hunc equum et fuge, 
Aemili. Etiam sine tua morte lacrimaram ^ satis luctusqae 
est.*' Ad ea consul ;' " Tu quidem macte virtute esto.' Sed 
cave,^ exiguum tempus 6 manibus hostium evadendi perdas/ 
Abi, nuntia patribus, ut urbem muniant ac,'^ prius qnam 
hostis victor adveniat, praesidils firment. Me in hac strage 
meorum militum patere** exspirare." Alter consul cum paacis 
equitibus Venuslam' perfugit. Consulares aut praetoril 
occiderunt ^ yiginti, senatores capti aut occisi sunt tnginta, 
nobiles viri trece'nti, militum quadragintS mHia, equitum tria 
mHia et quingentl. Hannibal in ^ testimonium victoriae suae 
tres modios auredrum anulorum Carthaginem misit, quos de 
manibus equitum Eomanorum et seuatorum detraxerat. 



-•Oja:j0<>- 



CHAPTER LVIII. 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE: INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 
3 79. Examine the following : — 



Direct. 

1. Quia est? who is hef 

2. Ubi BuxnuB? where are wet 

3. Cur ridSB ? why do you laugh f 

4. Quern vldisti? whom have 

you seen f 



Indirect. 

Sci5 quiB sit, / know who he ts. 
Sci5 ubi BunuB, / know where 

we are. 
Scio ciir rIdeSUi, / know why you 

laugh, 
Scio quern vTderis, / know 

whom you have seen. 



1 See 340. 5. 

^ Supply dixit or respondit. 
But it is livelier without a verb. 

^ Perhaps the literal transla- 
tion of this phrase is, be thou 
blessed in (or Jbr) thy courage; 
macte for mactus^ because t3 
is here almost more of a yocative 
than a nominatire. 



* Supply ne after cavS, beware 
lest you lose = beware of losing. 

^ Connects moniant and fir- 
ment. 

^ Imperatire from patior. 

■^ Account for the case. 

^ From occldo. But occisi, 
in the next clause, from occIdS. 

® For ; in expresses purpose. 



THE SUBJUNCTIVE: INDIRECT QUESTIONS. 179 

Compare each of the foregoing examples in the left hand column 
with the corresponding one on the right. Observe that each depen- 
dent clause in the right hand column begins with an interrogative 
word, and contains the substance of a question, though not a 
question in form. Such dependent clauses are called Indirect 
Questions. Observe the mood, and how it is translated. 

380. Rule of Syntax. — indirect questions take 
the subjunctive. 

1. The commonest interrogative words introducing indirect 
questions are quis, whof cur, wJiyf num, whether f ubi, where f 
quo, whither ? unde, whence f quot, how many f 

381. EXERCISES. 

[Read again the remarks and rule, p. 165.] 

I. 1. Scit quid agas. 2. Scit quid egeris. 3. Sciebat 
quid ageres. 4. Sciebat quid egisses. 5. Audivi quid agat. 

6. Audivi quid egerit. 7. Audlvi quid ageret. 8. Audivi 
quid egisset. 9. Audiveram quid ageret. 10. Audlveram 
quid egisset. 

II. 1. Volo scire unde veneris. 2. Die* mihi num meam 
sor5rem videris. 3. Nescio unde veniant tot milites. 
4. Quaeram num omnia feliciter evenerint. 5. Speculabimur 
quot homines in urbem ineant et quot exeant. 6. NasTca 
hominem interrogavit num manibus ambulare solitus asset. 

7. Quaerebat quae^ civitates in armis assent. 8. Quidam 
homo interrogatus est quae naves essent tutissimae. 9. Die 
mihi quid in manu habeas. 10. Caesar omnem equitatum 
mittit, qui videat' quas in partes* hostes iter faciant. 

III. 1. He sees who is walking; has walked. 2. They 
see who are walking ; have walked. 3. We shall see who 
walk ; have walked. 4. We knew why he was laughing ; had 
laughed. 5. You knew why I was laughing ; had laughed. 

^ See p. 150, note. • Compare 365. I. 2 and 4. 

^ See 279. 3. * Into what parts = in what direction. 



180 THE subjunctive: 

6. They wondered why he was praised ; had been praised. 

7. They will wonder why I am praised ; have been praised. 

8. Do you not wonder why we are praised; have beeb 
praised? 9. I wonder whether he has been admonished; is 
being admonished. 10. They wondered whether we were 
admonished ; had been admonished. 

382. VOCABULARY. 

interrogOy 1, ask, inquire, ros^y 1» os^, question, 

NSsicay -ae, m., Nasica, surname scio, 4, sclviy scitum, hnow, 

of one of the Scipios. soleo,^ 2, solitusy be accustomed. 

nuniy' interrog. adv., whether, in« speculor^ 1, spy out, watch, 

troducing indirect questions. totusy -a, -um, adj.,' safe, 

InterrogOy ask a question, inquire, and nearly limited to that sense. 
rogo, ask a question, but much more commonly ask a favor ^ make 

a request, 
quaerOy ask a question, but much used in the sense of seeking to 

gain or to know, searching into. 



■ooj*:o«- 



CHAPTER LIX, 1. 
THE SUBJUNCTIVE : WISHES AND CONDITIONS. 

383. Examine the follomng : — 

1. Utinam pater veniat ! would that father would come ! I wish 

father would come J that father would come! 

2. Si pater veniat, laetus aim, if father should come, I should 

he glad, 

3. ntinam pater adesset! would that father were here! 

4. SI pater adesset, laetus essem, if father were here, I should 

be gladm 

5. XTtinaxn pater adfuisset ! would that father had been here ! 

6. SI pater adfuisset, laetus fuissem, if father had been here, 

I should have been glad, 

1 Introducing direct questions, it indicates that the answer no is ex- 
pected, but does not usually admit of translation. » gee p. 177, n. 2. 



WISHES AND CONDITIONS. 181 

(1) In 1 and 2 what time do the words loovld corner should came, 
should bet pomt to ? Plainly not to the past, nor to the instant pres- 
ent, but vaguely to the future ; and this vague future is expressed 
in Latin by the present subjunctive. The wish and the condition 
referring to the future may be fulfilled ; the father may come. 

(2) In 3 and 4 the wish and condition refer to the present ; and 
this present is expressed by the imperfect subjunctive. The wish 
and condition are plainly contrary to what is the fact; the father w, 
in fact, not present, 

(3) In 5 and 6 the tense of the subjunctive offers no difficulty. 
The wish and condition are plainly contrary to what was the fact; 
the father was^ in fact, not present, 

384. Rule of Syntax. — In wishes and conditions 
the present subjunctive is used of what may come 
true, the imperfect subjunctive of what is not true, 
the pluperfect subjunctive of what was not true. 
The same mood is regrularly employed in the con- 
clusion of such conditional sentences. 

The indicative is not used in wishes. The use of the indicative 
in conditional sentences is easily understood. 

385. Eocamine the following : — 

1. SI pater adest, bene est, if father is present, it is well, 

2. SI pater aderat, bene erat, if father was present, it was well, 

3. SI pater aderit, bene erit, if father shall be present,^ it will 

be well. 

Observe that in examples 1 and 2 a condition is stated without 
implying anything. In example 3, as the time is future, that which 
is supposed may be fulfilled. This form, then, of stating a supposi- 
tion is almost exactly equivalent to that of the present subjunctive 
in 383 ; it is only a livelier way of putting it. 

^ In English we commonly use etc.) present, it will he well. Do not 

a present form in such conditions be deceived, when translating into 

that refer to the future. Thus we Latin, by this apparent present. See 

say. If he is {t<Hnorrow, next week, if the conclusion contains a future. 



182 



THE subjunctive: 



386. EXERCISES.! 

I. 1. SI vict5riam certain videam, nunquam pugnem. 

2. Si me virum bonum judicares,^ non me corrumpere velles * 

3. Dictator/ si adfuisset, rem non melius gessisset. 

4. Varro, si Caflhagiuiensium dux fuisset, temeritatis 
poenas dedisset.^ 5. SI patrem tuum eras videam, quid 
dicat? 6. Non profectus essem, nisi Caesar jussisset. 
7. SI recte facias, lauderis. 8. Si maneat Marcus, gaudea- 
mus ; sin autem eat, tamen eum laudemus. 9. SI leo 
accederet,* omnes fugerent. 10. Utinam f rater meus viveret 
classemque iterum duceret ! 11. Utinam mater nobis fabulam 
narret ! 12. Utinam tecum ^ in agrls ambulavissem ! 

II.' 1. Would that I were walking in the fields with you 
to-day ! 2. I wish you had been walking® with me^ yester- 
day. 3. O take^ a walk with us in the fields to-morrow! 
4. If 3'ou should see victory certain, my friend, should you 
not fight? 5. I should not now be setting out if Caesar did 
not order it. 6. If you were acting rightly, you would be 
praised. 7. If you had acted rightly, you would have 
been praised. 8. I wish® you would act rightly, so as 
to^*^ be praised. 9. If we should see a lion, we should flee. 



1 In translating these sentences, 
render the present subjunctive in 
such a way as to indicate vaguely 
future time ; thus, videam . . . pog- 
nenky should see . . . should Ji^t. 

2 Compare 383. 4, and read 
again 383 (2). 

* Notice the position of this 
word, which is the subject of ges- 
sisset. It may be translated as it 
stands, first. 

* Given punishinents of =■ paid 
the penalty for, 

^ If a lion were coming, not were 



to come, which would be expressed 
by the present subjunctive. 

6 See 265. 3. 

' In turning these sentences 
into Latin, do not be misled as 
to the real time of the verbs ; were 
walking, in the first sentence, de^ 
notes present time. Read again the 
examples, 383, and the remarks. 
See also the varied translation of 
the first example. 

8 Compare I. 12. 

• Compare 383. 1. 
10 Ut. See 352. 



WISHES AND CONDITIONS. 188 



10. I wish I had seen a huge lion. 11. If my brother^ were 
living, he would now be commanding the fleet. 12. Would 
that 3'our brother were alive ! 

387. VOCABULARY. 

ac-eedo, d^-cessi, -ceBBum [ad], JudicS, 1 [Judex], ^W^e, deem. 

go or come near, approach. recte, adv. [rectus], rightly, 

cor-runipo, 3, -rapi, -ruptum siiiy conj. [si, ne], but if, if how- 

[com], break in pieces, destroy ; ever, if 

corrupt, bribe. temeiitSs, -atis, F. [temere], . 

dlct&tor, -oris, m. [dlcto, dic5], chance ; rashness. 

chief magistrate, dictator. uti-nam, adv., would that, O that^ 

immanlSy -e^ adj., huge, immense. I wish that. 

2. 

388. COLLOQUIUM. 

Johannes et Jacobus. 

Jo. Die mihi, Jacobe, unde venias, quid egeris. 

have been doing 

Ja. Rure venio, ubi feriarum partem egi. Et tu ? 

vacation spent 

Jo. Ego iter cum parentibus feci, neque scio quando 
domum revertar. ^**®° 

return 

Ja. Utinam ego quoque iter faciam ! Si parentes ades- 
sent, iter mecum facerent. 

Jo, Ego itineris diuturnitate sum defessus, et gauderem si 
in schola essem. ^®°*^ 

c7a. Yen! mecum in scholam et una ediscamus. 

together let us learn 

Jo. Tecum libenter in scholam Tbo, sed cognOscere velim 

- 'A. A. know should like 

qui Sit praeceptor. 

Ja. Praeceptor est vir doctissimus. Yim Latini scit, 

ever so much 

atque semper est benignus, morosus nunquam. 

pleasant 

Jo. Quid te docet? 

^ Imitate the order in L 3 and 4 ; the subject might, however, be 
placed after si. 



184 THE StTBJUNOTIVB AND IMPERATIVE. 

Ja. Docet nos modum subjunctivum. Ueri, exempli causa, 

for example 

nobis de subjunctive in interrogati5nibus indirecfis explicavit. 

qnestioDB 

Jo. Multa de interrogationibus indirectis audivi, neque 
unquam intellegere potui. Fecitne praeceptor ut tu ista 
intellegeres ? 

c7a. Sane, mi amice, et ego, ut opinor, faciam ut tu quoque 

yes indeed 

eadem intellegas. Si dicam, TJhi est f rater tuv^f interroga- 

question 

turn sit directum ; sin autem, Neacio ubi sit froLter, interroga- 
tum sit indirectum. Intellegisne ? 

Jo. Satis intellego. Sed in hunc diem hactenus. 

BO-BO for enough 



-«*o5<K«>*>- 



CHAPTER LX. 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE AND IMPERATIVE. 

389. Learn the future imperative, active and passive, of the 
regular and irregular verbs, and review the present imperative. 

390. In the last lesson occurred the first illustrations of the 
subjunctive not in dependent clauses, tha); is, in wishes and in the 
principal clauses of conditional sentences. The subjunctive is 
similarly used in commands and appeals, and when so used is 
called the Hortatory Subjunctive. 

391. Examine the following paradigms: — 

Commands and Appeals. 
Positive. Negative. 

moneam, let me advise. n6 moneam, let me not advise. 

monS, or monefts, advise. n6 monueris, do not advise. 

( moneat, j let him advise, or n6 moneat, ( let him not, or he 

\ monuerit, ( he shall advise. n6 monuerit, 1 shaU not, advise. 

moneftmiis, let tis advise. n6 moneSmus, let us not advise. 

monfite, advise. n6 monueritlB, do not advise. 

(moneant, (^et them advise, ^6 moneant, (^et them not, or 

1 monueilnt, j ^' ^^^ **«^' n6 monuerint, j ^^ *^«^ "^^ 

C advise. ( advise. 



THE •UBJUNCTIVB AND IMPERATIVE. 185 

(1) Observe that positive commands and appeals are expressed 
by the subjunctive only, except in the second person ; and negative 
conmiands and appeals, by the subjunctive "with n6. ^ 

(2) Observe also that the present and perfect subjunctive, in 
the third person, are used without essential difference of meaning ; 
and that in negative commands and appeals in the second person 
the perfect ^ only * is given. 

(3) The future imperative is mostly confined to laws and 
maxims: Hoxninexn mortuuxn in urbe n6 sepelitS, thou shcdt 
not bury a dead man toithin the city, Percont&torexn fugit5| nam 
garrulus idem est, avoid a questioner, for he is a hahhler too. 

(4) The preceding paradigms, with the meanings, should be 
thoroughly committed to memory. 

392. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Cotidie scribe ad me, mi fili, quid feceris. 2. Puer 
ad patrem scribit quid fecerit. 3. Mittamus nuntium ad 
Caesarem qui* eum moneat. 4. Ne mecum in litore hodie 
ambulaveris. 5. Ne puerl incauti cultros habeant. 6. Im- 
perator consilium conficiat. 7. Nolite, milites, hostium 
exercitum timere. 8. Ne, milites, hostium exercitum timu- 
eritis. 9. Omnia sua'secum^incolae portaverint. 10. Mihi 
aures praebete, discipuli, et diligenter audita quae dicam. 
11. Ne id quod est falsum dixeris. 12. Leo dixit: Restat 
pars quarta, at ne quisquam^ audeat earn tangere. 

II. 1. They shall not send* a messenger. 2. Let no one 
touch^ the fourth part. 3. Touch not^*^ the fourth part of the 

1 Prohibitions are more com- * The imperative so used is not 

monly expressed by noli (n51ite) common, and not to be imitated, 

with the infinitive. See 318. I. ^ Compare 365. 1. 2 and 4. 

5 and 6. ^ Omnia sua, their all. 

« This form of the subjunctive « See 265. 3. 

in this use is here called the per- ? Let no one. See 279. 6. 

fict, in deference to custom ; it is ^ NS with perfect subjunctive, 

really the subjunctive of the fixture ^ See 1. 12. 

perfedr ^° Express In two ways. 



186 THE SUBJ.UNCTIVB AND IMPBKATIVB. 



booty. 4. Let the pupils listen attentively to the words of 
the master. 5. Do not listen,^ boys, to the counsels of 
the bad. 6. Write daily to your parents what* you are 
doing. 7. Carry your books home' with you and study 
diligently. 8. Do not forget* what* has been said to you 
to-day. 9. Touch not* wine ; let us not touch wine ; they 
shall not touch wine. 10. Let us go out and carry our all 
with us. 



393. VOCABULARY. 

at, conj^ but, Cf . autem. (214.) falsusy -a, -uiii, adj. [fidlS, cfo- 
audeoy^ 2, auBus suniy dare, be ceive], deceptive, fcJse, 

bold. in-cautuBy -a, -um^ adj. [caveojy 
c0n-flci5y 3, -feci, -fectum [com^ incautious, heedless. 

faciS], make, accomplish, carry re-stS, 1, restltiy , stay behind^ 

out. remain. 

cotidley ady. [quot, dies], daily. tango, 3, teti|p, tactuin, touch, 

at, but on the contrary, but for all that. 

Bed, but, without special emphasis. 

autem, but, often to be rendered however; weaker than atorsed. 



394. FOR TRANSLATION. 

Marcus Porcius Cato, Pder. 

M. Porcius Cato jam puer* invictum animl robur ostendit. 
Cum in domo Drusi avunculi sui educaretur, Latini de civi- 
tate impetranda^ Homam venerunt. Popedius, Latindrum 
princeps, qui DrusI hospes erat, Catonem puerum ix>gavit, ut 
Latinos apud avunculum adjuvaret. Cato vultu constant! 

^ Express in two ways. > Jam puer, already a boy = 

^ Compare L 10. even in boyhood. 
B See 336. 7 |>g civitfite impetrandfi, 

^ Id quod. respecting the citizenship to be ob- 

^ See p. 177, note 2. tained = to obtain citizenship. 



THE INFINITIVE. 187 



negavit id se facturum.^ Iterum deinde ac saepius interpel- 
latus* in proposito perstitit. Tunc Popedius puerum in excel- 
sam aedium partem levatum tenuit,* et se abjecturum* inde 
minatus est, nisi precibus obtemperaret ; neque hoe metu '^ a 
sententia eum potuit dimovere. Tunc Popedius exclamasse* 
fertur:' " Gratulemur® nobls,^ Latini, hunc esse tam par- 
vum; SI enim senator esset,^° ne sperare quidem^ jus" civi- 
tatis liceret.^ 

— — ooXKoo 

CHAPTER LXI. 

THE INFINITIVE. 

395. Learn the infinitives of the regular and irregular verbs. 
(86, 112, 180, 223, 235, etc.) 

396. Examine the following : — 

1. ErrSxe est htLmftnuxn, to err is human, 

2. PoBBum vidfire, / am able to see. 

3. Vol6 legere, / wish to read. 

4. Earn sequl b6 jubet, he orders her to follow him(self). 

5. BAturnuB in Italiam vfinisBe dicitur, Saturn is said to 

have come into Italy. 

Observe that in each sentence the infinitive is used in Latin 
precisely as in English. This use of the infinitive, as offering np 
difficulty, has been tacitly illustrated in some of the foregoing 
exercises. 

^ Neg^avit . . . facturuniy de- ^ Exclamfisse = exclfima- 

nied himself to be going to do it = vlsse. 

rejused to do it. ' Pertur = dicitur. 

^ Ferf . part. See amatusy p. 34. ^ Gratulemur, let us congratU' 

* Puerum . . . levStum tenuit, late. See 391. 

held the raised-up boy = raised up ^ Ndbis. See 343. 

and held the boy, ^^ Esset . . . liceret. See 383. 

^ Se aXi^ectUTVLisky that he would ^^ Ne . . . quideniy not even, 

throw {him) down, ^^ Jos civitfttis. Cf. civitftte» 

^ H5c metOy by this fear = by line 2. 
fear of this. 



188 THE INFINinVB. 



397. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Cur me vis corrumpere? 2. Timere incipiebat. 
3. Soror flere incipiebat. 4. Vincere sels/ victoria* uti 
nescTs. 5. Tarquinius Cumas se contalisse dicitur. 6. Pon- 
tern jubet rescind!. 7. Dulce est pro patria morl. 8. Cato 
esse quam videri bonus malebat. 9*. Fueros decet tacere. 
10. Tune Marium audebis occidere ? 11. Nobis est in 
animo' per provinciam iter facere. 12. Caesar ab nrbe 
proficisci maturat. 

Ill 1. Pyrrhus wanted to bribe Fabricius. 2. Fabricius 
could not* be turned from (the path of) honor. 3. Why 
did you begin to weep? 4. Did Hannibal know how* to 
conquer? 5. Tarquin was said to have besieged Rome. 
6. Rome is said to have been besieged. 7. Seeing is believ- 
ing.* 8. The consul was ordered ' to tear down the bridge. 
9. The bridge is said to have been torn down. 10. It is 
pleasant® to live for (one's) friends. 11. We intend to tear 
down the bridge. 12. He is said to have departed from 
Italv. 



398. VOCABULARY. 

a-vertdy 3, -U^ -sum, turn away In-clplSy 3, -cepiy -ceptum [ca- 

froM, avert, pio] (take in hand)^ begin, 

credOy 3, •dldi^ -dltum, trusty matoro, 1 [inataruSyrt/Te], Ao^ten. 

believe, w. dat. (343.) morior,^ 3, mortuus, die, 

decety 2, decuit, , impers. ponB, pontisy m., bridge, 

(p. 200), it is becoming, fitting^ re-BcindOy 3, -scidiy -scissaniy 

proper, tear away, tear doivn, break 

honestSBy -atlsy f. [honestus], down, 

honor, integrity, honesty, soror, -orlSy f., sister, 

1 You know how, • To see is to believe, Cf. 1. 7. 

2 See 304. ^ Use Jubeo. 

* It is in mind to us = we intend, ^ Neuter. Cf . I. 7. 

^ Could not = was not able, ^ Morlor has future participle 

^ See I. 4. moritiirus. 



ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE. 189 



CHAPTER ILXII. 1. 
ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE. 

Indirect Discourse. 

399. Examine the following : — 

Direct. 

1. Homo est, he is a man, 

2. Ignis calet, Jire is hoU 

3. Amicus adest, (his) friend is present. 

4. Mundus SL De5 regitur, the world is ruled hy God. 

Indirect. 

1. BIcit s6 hominem esse, he says that he is a man. 

2. Sentimus Ignem cal6re, we perceive that fire is hot. 

3. Putat amlciim adesse, he thinks that his friend is present. 

4. Sclmas mundum & De5 regf, we know that the world is 

ruled hy God. 

Notice the difference between the direct and indirect forms of 
statement. 

In the second group, compare the English with the Latin. 
Observe (1) that after the leading verb there is nothing in the 
Latin corresponding to the conjunction that; (2) that, while the 
English retains the nominative and indicative of the direct form, 
the Latin has instead the accusative and infinitive. 

The second group illustrates the indirect discourse, so called 
because what some one says, thinks, or knows, is stated in the 
dependent clause indirectly. 

400. Rule of Syntax. — The accusative and in- 
finitive are regularly used after verbs of saying, 
thinking, knowing, perceiving, and the like. 

401. Ruj.E OF Syntax. — The subject of the infini- 
tive is in the accusative. 



190 accusative and infinitive. 

402, Tenses of the Infinitive. 

Present. 

dicit ^ the says that you are writing, 

dicet > t6 BcrlberOi < he will say that you are writing, 

dixit ) \he said that you were writing, 

dIcit \ the says that the letter is being written. 

dIcet > epistulam Bcrlbl, < he will say that the letter is being writteru 
dixit ) \he said that the letter was being written. 



Future. 

dIcit ^ rhe says that you will write, 

dIcet > t6 Bcriptflruin esse, •< he will say that you will write, 
dixit } \he said that you would write, 

dIcit ^ , . C^^ ^f^ys that the letter will be written, 

dIcet >• " turn Irli i ^^ ^^ *^^ ^^^^ '^^ letter will be written, 

dixit ) \he said that the letter would be written. 

Perfect. 

dIcit ^ the says that you wrote (have written), 

dIcet > t6 Bcrlpsisse, < he will say that you wrote (have written^, 

dixit ) (he said that you wrote (had written). 

dIcit \ epistulam t he says that the letter was (has been) written, 
dIcet >- Bcriptam < he will say that the letter was (has been) written. 
dixit ) esse, ( he said that the letter was (had been) written. 



A study of the above table will show that the present infini- 
tive denotes the same time as that indicated by the tense of the 
leading verb; that the future infinitive denotes time after that 
indicated by the leading verb ; and that the perfect infinitive de- 
notes time before that indicated by the leading verb. 

403. Rule of Syntax. — The tenses of the infini- 
tive refer to present, future, or past time, relatively 
to the time of the leadingr verh. 

1 More commonly, fore ut epistula with subj. Also see p. 192, n. 1. 



ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE. 191 

2. 

404. EXERCISES. 

[It will be best to translate each of the following sentences twice ; 
first, literally, just as they stand, then into good English : thus, 
Historic relates two sons to have been to Cornelia = history relates that 
Cornelia had two sons. The eighth thus : The ambassador said him- 
self a pvhlic messenger to he of the Roman people = the ambassador 
said that he was, etc.] 

I. 1. Historianarratduos fTliosfuisse Comeliae. 2. Cor- 
nelia dixit fOios suos esse ornamenta sua. 3. Sclmus matres 
fOios amare. 4. Traditum^ est Caesarem a Bruto et Cassio 
occisum esse. 5. Certum est casu bonum fieri neminem.* 
6. Scio haec vera esse. 7. Marcellus Hannibalem vinci 
posse docuit. 8. Legatus dixit se publicum nuntium esse 
populi Romani. 9. Thales aquam dixit esse initium rerum. 

10. Traditum est Homerum fuisse caecum. 11. Legatus 
dicit montem ab hostibus teneri. 

[Before translating into Latin, cast each sentence mentally into 
the Latin form ; thus the first sentence will be, It is said two sons 
to have been to Cornelia^ or Cornelia two sons to have had; and the 
seventh, We know you the truth to be about to tell. This practice is 
of capital importance.] 

II. 1. It is said that Cornelia had two sons. 2. Have 
we not heard that Cornelia had jewels? 3. I think that you 
will have jewels. 4. We know that Cornelia loved her boys. 

5. Do not* all mothers think that their sons are their, jewels? 

6. I think that the moon will be full to-morrow. 7. We 
know that you will tell the truth. 8. History relates that 
Hannibal was defeated by Marcellus. 9. It is related that 
Homer wrote poems. 10. I know that this has been done. 

11. He said that the enemy held the mountain. 

— —  - - I I r  LT 

1 In the compound tenses of adjective. Here traditum est 

the passive voice the perfect parti- = it is {a thing) related, 
ciple occasionally loses its idea of ^ Subject of fieri* 

time and becomes virtually an * Nonne. 



192 ACCUSATIVE AND INFINITIVE. 

a 

405. EXERCISES. 

[Read the first paragraph, page 191.] 

I. 1. Jiirate vos rem publicam non deserturos esse. 

2. Vox quondam audita est Bomam a Gallis captum^ IrT. 

3. Certum est Uannibalem a Scipione vTctum esse. 4. Ferunt' 
eo die lunam fuisse plenam. 5. Cum Nasica ad Ennium 
venisset, servus dixit Ennium domi non esse. 6. Nasica 
sensit ilium * intus esse. 7. Postea cum ad Nasicam venisset 
Ennius, exclamavit ipse Nasica se' domi non esse. 8. Cato 
dieere solebat acerbos inimicos saepe verum dieere. 9. Abi, 
nuntia te vidisse Gajum Marium in Carthaginis ruinis seden- 
tem {aiUing). 10. Matrona quaedam dictitabat se triginta 
tantum annos habere.^ 

[See second paragraph, p. 191. The first sentence expressed in 
the Latin idiom will be, Ennius says himself at home not to he; the 
third. He thinks himself at honne to he about to he ; the f ourth, Cato 
thought his friends the truth not always to speak (compare L 8).] 

II. 1. Ennius says that he is not at home. 2. He said 
that he had not been at home. 3. He thinks that he shall 
be at home to-morrow. 4. Cato thought that his friends 
did not always tell him' the truth. 5. It is evident that the 
world was not made bv chance. 6. We have sworn that we 
will not desert our leader. 7. The soldiers swore that they 
had not- deserted the republic. 8. It was evident that the 
enemy was being defeated.* 9. Do you not know that the 
enemy are near? 10. It is certain that they are advancing 
towards the town. 

^ Captundy being a supine ^ To have thirty years = to be 

(433), does not change its form thirty years old, 

to agree with Romam. ^ Him = himself; not accusative. 

^ Ferunt = dicunt. ^ Notice that the time of the de- 

• Obserre the difference be- pendent verb is present, with refer- 

tween ilium in 6 and se in 7. ence to that of the leading verb. 



ACCUSATIVB AND INFINITIVE. 



idd 



406, 



VOCABULARY. 



acerbusy -% -urn, adj. [ficer], 

har$h, bitter, 
arbltroFy 1, think, suppose, believe, 
cSn-staty I, -stitity , impers. 

(415) I it is evident, clear, 
de-serSy 8, -ul, -tuiUy desert, aban- 
don, 
EnniuSy -I, m., Ennius, a Roman 

poet 
ez-clamSy 1, cry out, exclaim, 
GaUuBf -ly M., a Gaul, 
hlstoriay -ae, f., history, 
In-lmicusy-ay-umyadj. [ainiciis]^ 

unfriendly, hostile; noun, an 

enemy, (172.) 
IntuSy adv. [in], inside, within, 
jnrSy 1 [Jos], swear^ take an oath. 
MSrcelluSy -i, m., Marcellus, a 

Roman general. 



matrSnay -ae, f. [mater], wife, 

lady, matron, 
nfintiOy 1 [n&ntius], announce, 

report, 
Smamentuniy -i, n. [Srno], orna- 
ment, jewel. (345. 9.) 
populus, -iy M., people. 
pnbllcuSy -a, -um, adj. [popu- 

lus] {pertaining to the people), 

public. (345.19.) 
quondaniy adv., once, fryrmerly, 
sentiSy 4, sensiy sensuin, feel, 

know if>y the senses), see, perceive. 
tantum, adv. [tantus]^ only, 
ThaleSy -is, m., Thales, a Greek 

philosopher. 
tra-dSy 3, -dldi, -ditum [tiflns], 

give over, deliver ; relate, recount, 
verum, -i, n. [verus], the truth. 



4. 

407. FOR TRANSLATION. 

Nasica et Ennius. 

N&sica,' cam ad poetam Ennium venisset,' eique' ab 5stiQ 
quaerentl^ Ennium ancilla dixissct eum domi'^ non esse, sensit 
illam^ domini jussu dixisse, et ilium ^ intus esse. Faucis post 
diebus, cum ad Nasicam venisset Ennius et eum a^ janua 
quaereret, exdamat Nasica se domi non esse. Tum Ennius, 
"Quid? ego non cognosco vocem,** inquit,' "tuam?" 



1 Subject of sSnsit. 

^ Ad . . . venlssety had come 
tOf that is, to call on. 

• To him, dat. of is. See 270. 2. 

^ Pres. part, of quaero, in the 
dat. with eiy to him asking for. 



B See 336. 

^ Refers to ancilla^ and is the 
subject ace. of dixisse. 
7 That is, Ennius. 
^ A JSnuSy at the door. 
' Observe the position of inquit. 



194 PAKTICIPLES. 



HIc^Nasica: "Homo es impudens. Ego, cum te quaere- 
rem, ancillae' tuae credidi te' domi n5n esse; tu mihi non 
credis ipsi?"* 



-«x>5*Co*»- 



CHAPTER. LXIII. 1. 

PARTICIPLES. 

408* Learn the participles of the regular and irregular verbs. 

1. For declension of a present active participle, see 165. The 
ablative singular generally ends in 6, but in I when the participle 
is used as an adjective. 

2. The other participles, ending in us, d, urn, are declined like 
bonus (71). 

409. Examine the following : — 

/oadit, he falls ) ^ , . 

1. PortisBimS dimicans ) cadet, he wUlfall Y J^9^^'^9J^^ 

(cecidit, he fell ) ^^"^'^y^ 

2. HoBtSs adortUB prdfilgfivit, he attacked and routed (having 

attacked, he routed) the enemy. 

3. EX advenienti aquila pilleum BUBtulit, an eagle took off his 

cap as he was approaching (to him approaching), 

4. Iie5nidSs BuperfituB cSdere noluit, Leonidas, (though) over- 

powered, would not yield. 

5. R5ma. ezpulauB AthSn&a ibit, (if) expelled from Rome, he 

will go to Athens. 

6. EpiBtulazn Bibi commiBsam dStulit, he delivered the letter 

(which had been) intrusted to him, 

7. ES. r6 commotuB in Italiam rediit, he returned into Italy 

(because he, was) alarmed at this event, 

8. N5b moritUrl BaldtfimuB, we, (who are) about to die, salute you. 

9. Ob vlrginSB raptfis, on account of the seizure of the maidens 

(maidens seized). 

1 An adverb, hereupon, » Subject ace. of esse. See 401 

s Dat. after credidi. See 343. « Emphasizes mihi. (270.4.) 



PAETICIPLBS. 195 



Study the above examples with reference first to the tenses 
of the participles, and observe that the time of the participles is 
present, past, or future, relatively to the time of the leading verb. 

Notice how the participle is translated in each example ; only 
in the first is it oest translated literally. What the Latin expresses 
by a participle we very often express by a clause beginning as, 
though, if, because, etc., by a relative clause, or by a verb coordinate 
with one following. 

2. 

410. EXERCISES. 

[It will be best to translate every sentence literally, then into 
good English.] 

I. 1. Remus irndens murum transiliit. 2. AbT hinc, 
oblita^ fratrum, oblita^ patriae. 3. Legato res repetenti' 
superbe responsum est^ a Latinis. 4. FaliscI statim beneficio 
Yicta portas Romanls aperuerunt. 5. Filius Manli Latinum 
ex equo excussum transHxit.^ 6. Roman! necessitate vTctT 
legatos mittunt. 7. Hunc Fabricius vinctum reduci jussit. 
8. Hannibal causam belli quaerens Saguntum evertit. 9. Ea 
re commotus in Italiam rediit armis injuriam acceptam 
vindicaturus.' 10. Missos® a senatu legatos honoriQee 
excepit. 

[Cast each of the following sentences into the Latin idiom 
before attempting to translate. Thus, Romulus killed Remus laugh- 
ing at (ace. in agreement with Remus) ; Horatius stabbed his sister 
forgetful (oblltaxn) ; to the ambassadors demanding, etc.] 

II. 1. Romulus killed Remus because he laughed at his 
wall. 2. Horatius stabbed his sister with his sword because 

^ Feminine of the perf. part. ^ RespSnsum est, it was re' 

oblitus, from obliviscor. Trans- plied = answer was made. 

late, Thou who hast forgotten (lit., ^ Excussum transflxit, struck 

having forgotten), off and stabbed. See 409. 2. 

^ To the ambassador demanding ^ About to avenge, i.e., in order 

= to the ambassador who, demanded, to avenge, 

or when the ambassador demanded, ^ Compare 409. 6. 



196 



PARTICIPLES. 



she was forgetful of her country. 3. The Latins answered 
the ambassadors^ haughtily, when they demanded restitution. 
4. The Gauls entered the open houses. 5. To the Romans, 
as they came out of the pass, the light was sadder than 
death' itself. 6. The old men went forth to meet^ Manilas^ 
as he was returning to Rome. 7.^ They bound the prisoner 
and brought him back to the city. 8. The letter which had 
been written by the boy was delivered. 9. The Romans 
never despaired, though they were often defeated.* 10. Cae- 
sar received the senate sitting,^ when they came^ to him. 



411. 



VOCABULARY. 



corn-moves, 2, -mSvi, -mStam, 

shake, disturb, excite, alarm, 
dS-ferSy -ferre^ -tuliy -latum, 

{bring doum), deliver, 
d.e-sper5y 1, be hopeless, despair, 
e-vertOy 3, -tiy -sum, overturn, 

overthrow, destroy, 
ex-cutio, 3, -cussly -cussum 

[quatlo]^ shake out, strike off, 

drive away, cast out, 
Falisciy >orum, m., the Faliscans, 

a people of Etruria. 
hinCy adv. [hie], from this place, 

hence, 
ir-iideS, 2, -risi, -risum [in], 

laugh at, ridicule, Jest, mock, 
liatinus, -a, -um [Latium], 

Latin ; noun, a Latin, 



necessltas, -Stis, f. [necessej, 

necessity, constraint, 
ob-viam, adv., in the way ; with 

verb of motion, meet; w, dat. 
pateo, 2, -ui, , lie open, be 

open; part, patens, open, 
porta, -ae, ¥,,gate, door, Cf . Janua. 
re-dnco, 3, -xi, -ductum, lead 

back, bring back, 
senior, -oris, h. & f. (comp. of 

senex, old] , elder, old person, 
statim, adv. (sto), [standing there), 

on the spot, immediately, at once. 
superbS, adv. [superbus], 

proudly, haughtily. 
trans-figo, 3, -Hxl, -fixum, 

pierce through, pierce, stab. 
vindicS, 1, claim, avenge, punish. 



1 Dative. 

3 See 211, 212. 

* To meet, obviam. 

* Compare I. 7. 



^ Not the last word : the Romans 
often defeated, etc. 

^ In agreement with Ccesar, 
7 Had come. See 873. 



PABTICIPLES: ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 197 

9 

CHAPTER LXIV. 

PARTICIPLES: ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 

412. Examine the following : — 

r the sun rising, \ 

^ » S^ J token the sun rises, > the shadows flee away, 

tenebrae, / j*i • • ^^i \ 

' (. at the rising of the sun, ) 

( the signal having been given, ) 
Data Bigna, vlrglnes \ j^„ ,j^ ^ ^ ^^ . ( the maidens 

raptae.unt, (at (he given signal, ) -^^ »<^'?- 

(he reigning, \ 

ZS5 rfignante, bellum i . z • • ( 

^ -Imhis reign, > a war arose. 

exortuxn est, J t'j i • • \ 

V while he was reigning, J 

( the war having heenjinished, \ 
consul. beUC cfinfeo- 3 ^j^^^ ^^ ^^ n>as finished, [ '** '^<^»' ''«- 
ta. Ramam redlit. ^ j^^„gji„i,j^ ^^ „„^^ \ turned to Rome. 

( you (being) leader, '\ 

T6 duce, hoBtSs vin- V/* j j ( ^^ shall conquer the 

"S Vyou are our leader, > ^ 

cSmuBy J . . 7 ^ \ enemy, 

K unth you for a leader, ) ^ 

C M. and P. (being) consuls, 

MeasaUfi et FlsSiie \ r n^ \ t> i 

< when M, and P, were consuls, 

\in the consulship ofM, and P. 

rthe sky (being) clear, 
SerSnd cael5, < when the sky is clear, 

(. in a clear sky, 

1. The foregoing examples illustrate the very common construc- 
tion called the Ablative Absolute. 

2. In the first four examples there is a noun (or pronoun) in the 
ablative, and a participle agreeing with it. In the last three there 
is no participle expressed, but instead, another noun or an adjective. 

3. Carefully compare the Latin with the English translation, 
and observe that each ablative absolute may be rendered by a 
clause beginning with when, while, or if (in other instances because, 
although, etc.), the Latin noun in the ablative becoming the subject 
of the clause in English, and that this noun refers to a different 
person or thing from the subject of the leading verb. 



198 PARTICIPLBS: ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 



4. We may also sometimes translate the participle in the abla- 
tive absolute by a verb coordinate with a following verb. Thus 
the fourth might be translated, The consul finished the war and 
returned. 

5. If I wish to express in the Latin, While he was reigning^ he 
carried on war, he being the subject of both the principal and sub- 
ordinate clauses, I say, la rSgn&ns bellum gesBit; but if I v^ish 
to express. While he was reigning^ war arose, he being subject of 
the subordinate clause, and war of the principal, I use the ablative 
absolute, thus, Ed rSgnante, bellum exortum est. 

6. In the fourth example notice the change of idiom. We 
might say. The consul, having finished the' war, returned to Rome; but 
the Latin has no perfect active participle corresponding to having 
finished; therefore, in Latin the perfect passive participle must be 
used in the ablative with the noun bellum. The same idea may, 
of course, be expressed by a cum clause. See 372. 

7. From the nature of deponent verbs (passive form with active 
meaning), it will be seen that the English participle with having 
may be directly expressed in Latin, if there is a deponent verb of 
the right meaning ; thus, Ccesar having encouraged his men, Caesar 
mllitSB hortStus. 

8. Most instances of the so-called ablative absolute may be 
resolved as the ablative of time,' means, cause, etc. 

4ia EXERCISES. 

[Translate each ablative absolute in as many ways as possible.] 

I. 1. Stricto gladio, transflxit puellam. 2. Expulsis 
regibus, duo consules creati sunt. 3. Quo facto,^ mutata 
est proell fortuna. 4. Occupata Sicilia, quid postea acturus 
es? 5. Hannibal, viso fratris occlsl capite, dixit: "Agnosco 
fortunam Carthaginis." 6. His paratis rebus, Caesar nulites 
naves conscendere jubet. 7. H5c facto, tutus eris. 8. Al- 
pibus superatis, Hannibal in Italiam venit. 9. Caesar, 
mortuo Sulla, Rhodum secedere statuit. 10. Deletis Teu- 
tonibus, C. Marius in Cimbros se convertit. 

1 When this had been done. What is it literally ? 



PARTICIPLBS: ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE. 199 

[Before trying to translate the following sentences, consider well 
in each case what the probable Latin form of expression, or idiom, 
would be for the subordinate clause, adverbial phrase, etc. ; thus. 
When he had stabbed the girl = the girl (having been) stabbed; When 
Numa was king = Numa (being) king; By hurling their javelins 
= by the javelins hurled.^ 

n. 1. When he had stabbed the girl, he put by his sword. 
2. On the expulsion of King Tarquin, Brutus and CoUatinus 
were made consuls. 3. When Numa was king, the temple 
of Janus was built. 4. Csesar, after he had overcome the 
Gauls, waged war with Pompey. 5. On the death of Cato, 
there was no longer^ a republic. 6. Having learned these 
facts (things), he hastened against the enem}'. 7. The 
soldiers, by hurling their javelins, broke the enemy's line. 
8. Having held a lev}', the consul sets out immediately for 
(ad) the army. 9. O my country, thou hast overcome my 
anger by employing a mother's entreaties. 10. If we do* 
this, we shall all be safe. 

414. VOCABULARY. 

ad-moveOy 2, -mSvi, -mStaniy de-pSno, 3, -posuiy -posltmn, 

[move up, towards), apply, employ. put dovm, put by, lay doum, 

C01P108CO9 3, -gnSviy -gnitiun ex-pellS^ 3, -puli, -pulsum, drive 

[C011I9 (g)nosco]9 learn, recog- out or away, expel, 

nize, know, Janus, -i, m., Janus, the two-faced 

Gollatinusy -I, m., Cdlatinus, god. 

surname of L. Tarquinius. per-f^lngS, 3, -f^egi, -fk*actum 

con-iciOy 3, -JSciy -Jeetum [Ja- [ftrango, break"], break through, 

ci5] {throw together), throw, hurl. ^reak, 

con-tendOy 3, -di, -turn {draw Rhodus, -i, f., Rhodes, an island 

tight), exert one's self, strive, has- in the ^geah. 

ten ; contend. se-cedS, 3, -cSssiy -cessuniy go 

con-vertOy 3, -ti, -sunriy turn apart, withdraw, retire. 

round, turn, change; se conver- statuo, 3, -ui, -atuniy put, place; 

tere, turn one*s self, turn, think, believe, determine. 

dSlectuSy -Ssy M. [deligOy choose strings, 3, -nxi, strictum {dra¥) 

ovf], selection, levy, tight), graze; draw, unsheathe. 



^ iVo longer = nolla Jam. ^ If we do this = this done. 



200 IMPBRSONAIi VERBS. 



CHAPTER LXV. 1. 
IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

415. Examine the following : — 

1. Pluit, it rains, 

2. Tonat, it thunders, 

3. M6 pudet stultitiae meae, / am ashamed (it shames me) of 

my folly, 

4. XSum paenitet sceleris, he repents (it repents him") of his crime, 

5. PflgiiSbSturi fighting was going on (it was being fought), 

6. Caesarl^ pftrendum^ est, Coesar must he obeyed (it must be 

obeyed to Coesar), 

7. Tibi licet eidrci you may go out (it is permitted to you to go out), 

8. H5c n58 facere oportet, we ought to do this (it behooves us to 

do this). 

9. Caesarl placult ut 16g&t08 mltteret, Ccesar determined (it 

pleased Coesar) to send ambassadors, 

(1) Observe in each of the foregoing examples that the leading 
verb has no personal subject either expressed or implied. In 7, 
the subject of licet is the infinitive exire ; in 8, the phrase hoc 
noB facere is the subject of oportet; in 9, the clause ut 16g&t5s 
mltteret is the subject of placult. In each of the first six the 
subject is contained in the verb itself. 

(2) Some verbs, like pluit, tonat, pudet, paenitet, licet, the 
use of which is mostly confined to the third person singular, are 
called IxnperBonal Verbs ; many others, as in the examples pug- 
ASbStur, oportet, placuit, are sometimes used impersonally, 

(3) Examples 7 and 8 show one way of rendering m^iy and must 
into Latin. 

(4) In 3 and 4 notice the use of the accusative and genitive 
after the verbs. 

416. Rule of Syntax. — The impersonal verbs 
miseret, paenitet, piget, pudet j taedet take the accusa- 

1 See 417. 2. a See 425. (4). 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 201 

tive of the person and the genitive of the object or 
cause of the feeling. 

Some examples of verbs used impersonally have already been 
given. See 362. 1. 9 ; 370. 1. 5; 410. 1. 3. 

41 7. Examine the following : — 

Active. Passive. 

1 . FrStri persufidet, he persuades Frfitri persuSdStur, his brother 

his brother, is persuaded. 

2. LSgibuB pftrSbant, they obeyed LSgibuB p£rSbfitur, the laws 

the laws, were obeyed. 

3. Crfidit mihi, he believes me. Mihi crSditur, / am believed. 

4. Amiclii nocent, they injure AmicXs nocStur, their friends 

their friends. are injured. 

Observe that the verbs are intransitive. Compare the active 
and passive in the examples one by one. Observe that in each 
case the passive is expressed by putting the verb in the third 
person singular, leaving the indirect object of the active unchanged. 

418. Rule of Syntax. — Intransitive verbs are 
used impersonally in the passive, the person or thing 
affected (the subject in !English} being expressed by 
the dative. 

419. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Omnes decet recte agere. 2. Diu et acriter pugna- 
tum est. 3. Sequitur ut falsum sit. 4. Eorum n5s miseret.^ 

5. Taedet me vitae. 6. Statuendum^ v5bls ante noctem est. 
7. Licet mihi ex urbe egredi. 8. Nos oportuit* hoe facere. 
9. Traditam est Scipidnem doctum fuisse. 10. Eadem noete 
accidit ut esset luna plena. 11. Obsistitur illis. 12. Cul^ 
parol potuit? 13. Persuadetur consull. 

^ Compare 415. 3 and 4. ' It behooved us to do = we ought 

^ The duty of deciding is to you = to have done. 
you must decide. Compare 425. 7. ^ See 343. 



202 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 



[Observe that the following sentences are modelled closely on the 
foregoing, and on the illustrative examples. Cast each one into 
the Latin form before thinking of the Latin words ; thus the fifth 
sentence will be changed to It disgusts me of the folly, etc.] 

II. 1. It becomes us all to live well. 2. The battle will 
be fought bravely. 3. It followed that* the enemy were 
defeated. 4.' He was ashamed of his cowardice. 5. I am 
disgusted with the folly of the men. 6. What must we do? 
7. What ought we to have done?* 8.* May I take the 
book? 9. It was reported to Csesar that the enemy were 
approaching. 10. It resulted'^ from these circumstances^ 
that^ all were silent. 11. The winds are opposed with 
difficulty. 12. Can the soldier be spared? 13. Are not 
the laws of the republic obeyed ? 



420. 



VOCABULARY. 



decety 2, docuity impers., it is 

seemly, becoming, fitting, 
e-gredior, 3, -gresBus [gradlor], 

go out, go forth, march out, Cf . 

exeo. 
fortiter, adv. [fortis], bravely, 

courageously, 
licety 2, -uity or -Itum est, impers., 

it is permitted, it is lawful, (one) 

may. 
mlserety 2, -itum est, impers. 

[miser], it makes miserable, it 

excites pity, {one) pities. 
ob-sistSy 3, -stiti, -stltuniy oppose, 

withstand, resist, w. dat. 
oportety 2, -uity impers., it is 



necessary, it behooves, {one) must 
or ought, 

parcoy 3, peperei (parsi)) par- 
suiUy spare, w. dat. 

pigety 2, -ulty or -itum est, 
impers., it disgusts, {one) is dis- 
gusted. 

pudety 2, -ulty or -itum est, im- 
pers., it shames, {one) is ashamed. 

pfigno, 1 [pSgna], fght. 

stultttla, -ae, f. [stultaSffoolishI, 
folly, (345. 11.) 

taedety 2, -uit, or taesum est, 
impers., it disgusts, wearies, {one) 
is disgusted. 

vlx, adv., hardly, with difficulty. 



1 A result clause, ut^ etc. 
3 Compare 415. 3. 
• Compare I. 8. 



^ Compare 415. 7. 
^ Fiebat. 
Res. 



FOB TRANSLATION. 208 



2. 
421. FOR TRANSLATION. 

The Death op the Pet Sparrow. 

Lugete, o Veneres Cupidinesque, 
Et quantumst^ hominum^ venustiorum. 
Passer mortuus est meae puellae, 
Passer, deliciae meae puellae, 
Quern plus ilia oculis' suis amabat: 
Nam mellitus erat suamque* norat* 
Ipsa^ tam bene quam puella matrem 
Nee sese a gremio illius^ movcbat, 
Sed circumsiliens modo hue modo illuc 
Ad solam dominam usque pipiabat. 
Qui^ nunc it per iter tenebrieosum 
Illuc unde negant redire quemquam.* 
At vobis male sit,^^ malae tenebrae 
Orci, quae omnia bella" devoratis : 
Tam bellum mihi^ passerem abstulistis. 
O factum male ! ^ io miselle passer ! 
Tua nunc opera ^* meae puellae " 
Flendo turgiduli rubent** ocelli. — Catullus. 

^ For quantum est. Trans- ^ Refers to passer. 

late, aU ye lovely ones, whoever ye ' Subject ace. of redire. See 

are. What is it literally ? 401 and 270. 6. 

^ Depends on quantum. See ^ HI betide you ! 

840. ^ From beUus. 

 Ablative after the compara- ^ Translate my, 

tive plus. See 212. ^^ Factum male^ wofid deed, 

^ Supply dominam. What is it literally ? 

^ For nSverat, but with the ^^ On your account, 

meaning of the imperfect. ^ Genitive after ocelli. 

* With puella. ^^ Turgiduli rubent^ are aU 

f That is, puellae. twoUen and red. 



204 PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS. 

CHAPTER LXVI. 1. 

PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS. 
Future Active Participle. — Gerundive. 

[^Review the participles of the regular and irregular verbs,'] 

422. The future active participle with the verb sum forms the 
First, or Active Periphrastic Conjugation: amfttiirus sum, 
eram, etc., / aniy was, etc., about to {going to, intending to) love. 

4:23. The gerundive with the verb sum forms the Second, or 
Passive Periphrastic Conjugation : amandus Bum, eraxn, etc., 
/ am, was, etc., to be loved; I deserve, ought, etc., to be loved, 

424. PARADIGMS. 

ACTIVE. passive:. 

Indicative. 

Pres. amfitHruB sum amandus sum 

Imper. amfitfLruB eram amandus eram 

FuT. amSturuB er5 amandus ero 

Perf. amSturus ful amandus fui 

Plup. amfiturus fueram amandus fueram 

F.P. amSturus fuer5 amandus fuero 
etc. etc. 

425. Examine the following : — 

1. Non dubitd quin monitHrus sit, / do not doubt that he will 

advise, 

2. Non dubito quIn futflrum sit ut id fiat, / do not doubt that 

(it will happen that it be done) it will be done. 

3. SciSbam quid Scturus esses, / knew what you were going to do. 

4. Pontem faciendum cHrat, he (takes are a bridge to be built) 

has a bridge built. 

5. DSlenda est Carthftgd, Carthage must be destroyed. 

6. Caesarl omnia erant agenda, everything had to be done by 

CcBsar, 

7. Mihi Bcrlbendum est, (the duty of writing is to me) I must 

write. 



PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATIONS. 205 



8. OmnibuB moriendum est, (the necessity of dying is to all) 

all must die. 

9. VobliEi jfldicid fitendam est, (ilie duty of using judgment is to 

you) you ought to use judgment, 

(1) The first three examples show how a future tense may be 
supplied for the subjunctive mood. 

(2) Observe in the fourth example the use of the gerundive 
agreeing with a noun which is the object of ciird, the whole ex- 
pression denoting to have a thing done. 

(3) The last five examples show some uses of the passive peri- 
phrastic conjugation. Notice that the idea of necessity, or duty, 
is prominent in these forms. 

(4) In 7, 8, and 9 the verbs are used impersonally, that is, with- 
out any personal subject, the gerundive being in the nominative 
singular neuter. This impersonal use belongs to transitive verbs 
without an object expressed, and to intransitive verbs. For the case 
of jfldiciS, see 304. 

(5) In the last four examples, Caesari; mihi, omnibus, and 
v5blii, denote in each case the person to whom there is a duty or 
necessity of doing something. This dative is most conveniently 
rendered with by, and is called the Dative of Agent. 

426. Rule of Syntax. — The dative is used with 
the gerundive to denote the person by whom the act 
must be done.^ 

2. 

427. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Quia dubitat quin futuri sitis docti? 2. Quis dubi- 
tat quin ludos visuri simus? 3. Non erat dubium quin 
ludos yisurus esset. 4. Noll dubitare quin eras venturus sim. 
5. Cdgnovi quid acturus sit. 6. Audiam quid acturus sis. 
7. Cognoveram quid acturi assent. 8. Dux castra moturus 
est. 9. Seribenda est mihi epistula. 10. Scribenda erat 

^ How is the agent with a verh in the passive otherwise and com- 
monly expressed? 



206 PEBIPHBASTIG CONJUGATIONS. 

tibi epistula. 11. Oppidum militibus oppugnandum erit. 
12. Hie liber mihi legendus est. 

II. 1. There is no doubt that you are going to be a hero. 
2. I doubt not that you will see the games. 3. Do not 
doubt ^ that he will be present. 4. Do you know what he is 
going to do? 5.* We ought to cultivate virtue. 6.* I must 
give the signal. 7.* We ought to read the poets. 8. The 
commander must be obeyed.^ 9. The boy is not to be 
believed. 10. The town had to be fortified. 

3. 

428. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Quaesivit ex oraeulo Croesus utrum ipse superaturus 
esset. 2. Non erat dubium quin Falisci sese Romanis dedi- 
turi essent. 3. Nisi vinum defecisset, plura et graviora 
dictuii fuimus. 4. Magnam in spem veniebat fore^ ut 
pertinacia desisteret hostis. 5. Cum Scipio, graviter vulne- 
ratus, in hostium manus jamjam venturus esset, filius eum 
periculo llberavit. 6. Hoc censeo et Carthaginem esse 
delendam. 7. Aemilius liberos GraecTs litteris . erudiendos^ 
curaverat. 8. Caesari dandum erat tuba signum. 9. Mihi 
utendum est judicio meo.^ 10. Ita nobis vivendum est, ut 
ad mortem parati simus. 

II. 1. I will ask of the general whether he is going to 
advance. 2. Who doubts that the Romans will surrender 
themselves to the Faliscans? 3.^ If words had not failed, I 
was going to write a longer letter. 4. I think the enemy 
will be defeated. 5. When Caesar was on the point of 

^ Noli dubltare. How else ^ Fore = futfirum esse, to be 

may this be expressed ? about to be, may be omitted in 

* Express in two ways — by translation, 
using oportety and then by the ^ Compare 425. 4, and (2). 

gerundive. ^ See 425. 9. 

' Lit. it must be obeyed to the 7 Compare I. 3. 

commander, Cf . 415. 6. 



PERIPHBASTIC CONJUGATIONS. 



207 



starting^ for Rome, he received a letter from Pompey. 

6. My opinion is^ that the town ought to be besieged. 

7. These things must not be despised by^ us. 8. A wise 
man will have his boys trained* in Latin literature.* 9. The 
citizens • must obey the laws. 10. The soldiers must use 
their own judgment. 



429. 



VOCABULARY. 



AemllluSy -i, m., JEmilius, a Bo- 
man consul. 

censeOy 2, -ui, -um^ estimate; 
think, deem, be of opinion. 

Croesus, -i, h., Croesus, king of 
Lydia. 

de-doy Sy-dldiy-dltuniy {put away 
from one*s self) surrender, de- 
liver up, 

de-fidoy 8, -feci, -fectum [fa- 
cto] , {make away from) revolt; 
fail, be wanting, 

de-slstOy 3, -stitiy -stitum, {stand 
off or apart) leave off, cease, de- 
sist. 

doctusy 'SLy -van, adj. [P. of 
doceS], learned, 

graviBf -ey adj., heavy, serious. 



g^aviter, adv., heavily, seriously, 

Ita, adv., thus, so. 

Jamjamy adv., already ; Jamjam 

ventnruSy on the point of coming, 
Jadlclumy -i, n. [Jfidic5], judg- 
ment, opinion, 
op-pugnOy 1 [ob]} attack, assault, 

besiege, 
orSculum, -i, n. [or5], oracle, 
paratnsy -a, -um, adj. [P. of 

pars], ready, prepared, 
pertinacia, -ae, f. [pertlnSx,;7er- 

sistenf], perseverance, obstinacy. 

(345.11.) 
signum, -i, n., mark, sign, signal. 
ntOFy 3, nsusy use, employ, w. abl. 
utrum, adv., whether, Cf. num, 

382. 



JndicSy censeoy existimoy arbitror, puto, and opinor, all mean 
think; but the first four imply more deliberation and reflec- 
tion ; primarily think as a judge, a magistrate, an appraiser, an 
arbiter; hence, in general, of official, authoritative opinion. 
Puto and opinor imply rather private, personal judgment or 
opinion. 



1 On the point of starting = al- 
ready about to start, 

2 This I think, Cf . I. 6. 
« See 425. (5). 



* Cf. I. 7, and 425. (2). 
^ Compare 232. I. 4. 
^ A civlbusy to distinguish the 
agent from the indirect object. 



208 gebund: gbrunbivb: strpiNE. 



CHAPTER I^XVII, 

GERUND. — GERUNDIVE. — SUPINE. 

430. Learn the gerunds and supines of the regular and irregu- 
lar verbs. 

Gerund. 

431. Examine the foUowirig : — 

G. Caesar loquendl finem facit, Ccesar makes an end of 

speaking, 
Cupidua est t6 audiendl, he is desirous of hearing you. 
D. Aqua fltilis est bibend5, water is useful for drinking, 
Ac. Inter pflgnandum trigint& n&vfis captae sunt, during the 

fight {amid the fighting) thirty ships were taken, 
Ab. Mfins discendS alittir, the mind is strengthened by learning, 

1. The above examples illustrate the use of the gerund in its 
several cases. It will be seen that the germid is used like the 
English verbal noun in ing. The nominative is supplied in Latin 
by the infinitive ; e.g,^ vidSre est crfidere, seeing is believing. 

Gerund and Gerundive. 

432. Examine the following : — 

G CSnailia i urbem dSlendl, ) plans for (of) destroying 

( urbis dfilendae, > the city, 

D ODeram dat i *6^^" colendS (rare) ) he devotes himself to 

( agria colendis, ) tilling the fields, 

Ac. VSnSrunt ad \ P^°®°* petendum (rare) > they came to sue 

( p^cem petendam, > for peace, 

Ab. Occup&tus ( litter&s scrfbendd (rare) > / was engaged in 
sum in ( litterla acribendis, > writing letters, 

1. What is to be particularly studied in the above examples is 
the difference between the gerund and the gerundive construction, 
as shown within the braces. Observe (1) that the gerund is put 
in the required case, and has its object in the accusative; (2) that the 
noun is put in the required case, and the gerundive agrees with it. 



GERUND: GBRtrKDIVB: SUPINB. 209 

2. Except in the genitive, where the two constructions are 
about equally common, the gerundive construction is almost always 
preferred. 

8. Notice that the accusative of the gerund or gerundive with 
ad denotes a purpose. This construction is much used. In what 
other ways may a purpose be expressed? 

Supine. 

433. Examine the following : — 

1. L6g&tl R5mam veniunt p&cem petittum, ambassadors oome 

to Rome to sue for peace. ** 

2. Id perfacile est factfl, that is very easy to do, or to be done. 

Observe in the first example that the supine petltiun has the 
same meaning as ut petant, qui petant, or ad petendam ; that is, 
it expresses pm^se. This use is common after verbs of motion. 

434. Rule of Syntax. — The supine in um is used 
after ve^rbs of motion to express purpose. 

In the' second example the supine in fl answers the question 
in what respect t Perfacile factfi, easy in respect to the doing. This 
use is common after adjectives. 

The supine in U is really an ablative of specification. See 260. 

435. EXERCISES. 

I. 1. Multi convenere studio^ videndae novae urbis. 
2. Ars pueros educandi difficilis est. 3. Ea' aquae causa' 
hauriendae descenderat. 4. Brutus ad explorandum cum 
equitibus antecessit. 5. Milites ad domum custodiendam a 
rege missi sunt. 6. Neraini dubium est quia Fabius rem 
Romanam cunctando restituerit. 7. Is opportunus visus 
est locus communiendo praesidio. 8. Omnis spes evadendi 
adempta est. 9. Legates ad Caesarem raittunt auxilium 
rogatum. 10. Quod optimum est factu, faciam. 

^ From a desire ; abl. of cause. * The ablative causa, for the 

3 She. See 270. 3. sahe of, follows its genitive. 



210 



gerund: gerundive: supine. 



II. 1. You will have time to lead (of leading) out the 
army from that place. 2. He undertook the war for the 
sake^ of destro3'ing the republic. 3. Bodies are nourished 
by eating and drinking. 4. While drinking* we conversed 
about many things. 5. Many leaders had assembled to 
see' Scipio. 6. Night put* an end to the fighting. 7. This 
seems (to be) a suitable place for building a house. 8. The 
enemy had entertained' the hope of getting possession of 
the camp.* 9. A multitude of men came together to wit- 
ness' the ganjies. 10. It is difficult to say what he will do.'' 



496. 



VOCABULARY. 



ad-lmSy 3, -emiy -emptum 

[eino], take away, remove. 
alo, S, -ui, -turn, nourish, strengthen, 

support. 
ante-cedOy 3, -cessi^ -cessuiiiy go 

before. 
auxiliuniy -I, n. [augeo], help, 

aid, support ; pi. auxiliaries. 
col-loquor, 3, -locntus [com], 

speak together, converse. 
com-mnniSy 4, (fortify strongly) 

secure, intrench. 
con-veniSy 4, -veni, -ventum 

[com] 9 come together, assemble. 
cunctor, 1, linger, hesitate. 



edSy edere or Ssse, edi, Ssum or 

essum, eat. 
ex-plSrO) 1, search out, examine, 

explore; reconnoitre. 
Fabius, -i, m., Fabius, a Eoman 

general. 
hauriSy 4, hausi, 'haustuniy 

draw (water"), drain, drink up. 
opportSnus, -a, -um, adj.,^^, con- 
venient, suitable; opportune. 
re-stitu5, 3, -iii, -fitam [statuo], 

(replace) give back, return, restore. 
sus-cipiOy 3, -cepi, -ceptum 

[suby capio], undertake. 



^ Causa. See p. 209, note 3. 
3 Inter bibendum. 

* Express in three ways. 

* Put an end to = make an end of. 
^ Entertain the hope = come into 

the hope. 



^ What case with potior ? 

^ Why must the subjunctive 
be used ? What tense of the sub- 
junctive to express future time ? 
What form expresses the ina- 
mediate future? 



READING LESSONS- 



LETTERS: Cicero to his Wife Terentia. 

437. B.C. 49. 

SI vales, bene est, vale5.^ Da operam' ut convalescas. 
Quod opus^ erit, ut* res tempusque postulat, provideas* atque 
administres ; et ad me de omnibus rebus quam^ saepissime 
lltteras mittas. Vale. 

438. B.C. 49. 

S. V. B. E. E.' V. Valetudinem tuam velim^ cures* dili- 
gentissime.^^ Nam mihi et^ scriptum et nuntiatum est te'^ in 
febrim subito incidisse. Quod ^ celeriter me f ecista de Caesa- 
ris litteris certiorem," fScisti mihi gratum. Item posthac, sT 
quid^ opus erit,^* si quid accident novi,^' facies^ ut sciam. 
Ciira ut valeas. Vale. 



1 The Komans often hegan 
their letters with these five words, 
or rather with the abbreyiations 
S. V. B. E. V. 

* Give labor = try, 

' An indeclinable notm, need; 
opus esty is necessary. 

^ What indicates that ut does 
not mean in order that f 

* The hortatory subjunctive. 
See 890. 

^ Q^am strengthens the super- 
lative ; gnam saepiBslmSy as tiften 
08 possible, 

^ For ego. 

* / could vriih ; Told, / wish. 



^ Equivalent to ut cGres. 

^^ Notice the emphatic position 
of the adverb, after the verb. 

'^ Et . . . ety both , , . and, 

^ Subj. of incidisse. See 401. 

i« In that, 

^^ FecistI . . . certl5ren|| made 
more certain = informed, ^^ 

w Anything ; quid is regularly 
used instead of aliquid after siy 
nisly ne, and num. 

1* See note 3, above. 

*^ Of new; partitive genitive. 

1® A future equivalent to the 
imperative. Facles ut sclam, 
inform me. What is it literallj % 



212 



BSADINa LESSONS. 



499. 



B.C. 46. 



SI valSs, bene est.^ Constitueramus, ut' ad te antea 
scripseram, obviam CicerOnem^ Caesari mittere ; sed muta- 
vimos cdnsilium, quia de illius^ adventa nihil audiebamns. 
De ceteris rebus, etsi nihil erat novi,* tamen quid velimus® 
et quid h6c tempore putemus* opus^ esse ex Sicca® poteris 
cdgn5Bcere. Tulliam adhuc mecum teneo. Valetudinem 
tuam cura' dUigenter. Vale. 



440. 



B.C. 46. 



*^S. V. B. E. V. Nos neque de Caesaris adventu neque 
de Etteris quas Fhilotomus habere dicitur, quidquam" adhuc 
oerti ^ habemus. SI quid erit certi, f aciam te statim certio- 
rem.^ Valetudinem tuam fac" ut cures. Vale. 



^ Compare this form of begin- 
ning a letter with those of the two 
preceding. 

^ Compare the use of ut in 
437, line 2. 

^ That is, his son Cicero. 

* That is, Caesar's. 

* Genitive neuter of novus de- 
pending on nihU. Compare the 
same word in 438, and the note. 

^ Translate the words quid ve- 
limusy etc., just as they stand. 

'" Compare opus erit in 437 
and 438, and the note. 

* A friend of Cicero. 

* Compare with this the begin- 
ning and the ending of 438. 

10 Observe how nearly this letter 



can be translated in the order of 
the Latin words. 

11 Anything at aU. To express 
anything at all, after a negative 
word, as here after neque, the 
Eomans used quidquam, not 
aUquid. See 279. 6. 

12 Genitive neuter of certus, 
depending on quidquam. Com- 
pare novi in 438 after quid, and 
in 439 after nihil. 

18 Compare fecisti certiorem 
in 438, and the note. 

1* See p. 160, note. Fac ut 
cures, he sure to take care. What 
is the literal meaning ? Compare 
with this the endings of the two 
preceding letters. 



READING LESSONS. 



S18 



441. 



FABLES. 
Db Vitiis Hominuh. 



Juppiter n5bis^ duas peras imposuit : alteram,' quae nos- 
tris vitiis replete est, post tergum nobis dedit; alteram' 
autem, qua' aliorum vitia eontinentur, ante pectus nostrum* 
suspendit. Quare non videmus quae'^ ipsl peccamus; si 
autem alii peccant, statim eos vituperamus. 



442. 



MULIEB ET GaLLINA. 



Mulier quaedam habebat gallmam, quae ei' cotidie 6vum 
pariebat aureum. Hinc suspicari coepit illam^ auri massam 
intus celare, et gallinam occldit. Sed nihil in ea repperit, 
nisi quod' in aliis galllnis reperiri solet.^ Itaque dum 
majoribus divitiis inhiat,^® etiam minores" perdidit. 



443. 



VULPES ET UVA. 



Vulpes uvam in vite conspicata^ ad illam subsiliit omnium 
virium suarum contentione,^ si earn forte attingere posset. 



1 With imposuit; has placed 
en U8, 

^ Alter . . . alter, the one . . . 
the other. 

' Qua = in quS perfi. 

^ Compare ante pectus nos- 
trum with post tergum nSbis. 

^ What we nn = what sins we 
commit. On ipsi, see 270. 4. 

« For her. 

"^ niam = illam gallinam^ 
subject of celare. 

" Nisi quod = praeter id 
quod. 

* Is wont = is usuaUy. 



1° Gapes for = is greedy for. 
Notice here a peculiarity of the 
Latin: the present is used after 
dum, though the perfect perdi- 
dit follows. The English idiom 
requires us to translate such a 
present bj the imperfect, was 
greedy for. 

^^ Supply the Latin noun in the 
proper form. 

12 Perfect participle of c5n- 
spicor, agreeing with vulpes. 
Translate by the present parti- 
ciple. 

!• With the exertion. 



214 



READING liBSSONS. 



Tandem defatigata inani labore discedens, ''At nunc etiam/ 
inquit, " acerbae* sunt, nee eas^ in via repertas' toUerem."* 



444. 



RusTicus ET Canis Fidelis. 



Eusticus in agros exiit ad opus suum. flliolum, qui in 
eunis jaeebat, rellquit cani*fideli atque valido custodiendum.^ 
Adrepsit anguis immanis, qui puerulum exstincturus erat. 
Sed custos fidelis corripit eum dentibus acufis, et, dum eum 
neeare studet,® eunas simul evertit super exstinctum anguem. 
Paulo post ex arvo rediit agricola ; cum cunas eversas cruen- 
tumque canis nctum videret,* ira accenditur.^ Temere igitur 
custodem filioli interfecit ligone, quern manibus tenebat. 
Sed ubi cunas restituit," super anguem occisum repperit 
puerum vivum et incolumem. Paenitentia facinoris^® sera^ 
fuit. 



445. 



PUER MeNDAX. 



Puer in prato oves pascebat,^ atque per jocum clamitabat, 
ut sibi auxilium ferretur, quasi lupus gregem esset adortus. 
Agricolae undique succurrebant, neque^ lupum inveniebant. 
Ita ter quaterque se elusos a puero viderunt. Deinde" cum 
ipse" lupus aggrederetur, et puer re vera^® imploraret au- 



1 The plural, as if fivae had 
been nsed. 

3 Eas repertasy them found = 
if I had found them. 

' Would I pick them up. 

^ The so called dative of the 
agent with custodlendum. 
Translate, left for his . • . dog to 
guard. 

^ Literally, to be guarded* 

6 See p. 213, note 10. 

' For the subjunctive, see 373. 

® Present for perfect, called 
historical present. 



® Translate as if it were resti- 
tuerat ; after ubl^ ut, and post- 
quaniy meaning when, the perfect 
indicative is commonly used, but 
it is best rendered by the plu- 
perfect. 

1° Translate, ,/br the deed. 

11 Too late. 

12 The imperfect, denoting cus- 
tomary action ; render, used to tend, 

18 But . . . not. 
1* See p. 106, note 1. 
16 Meallif. See 270. 6. 
1*^ Re vera, in earnest. 



READING LESSONS. 



215 



xilium, nemo gregi subvenit,^ et oves lupl praeda* sunt factae. 
Mendaci homini^ non credimus, etiam cum vera dicit. 



446. 



Senex et Mobs. 



Senex quidam ligna in silva ceciderat,^ et, fasce in ume- 
ros sublato,* domum redire coepit. Cum f atigatus esset * et 
onere et itinere, deposuit ligna, et, senectutis^ et inopiae^ 
miserias seeum reputans, clara voce invocavit mortem, ut se 
omnibus malis® liberaret. Mox adest® mors et interrogat 
quid vellet. Tum senex perterritus : " Pro ! hune Kgnorum 
faseem, quaeso, umeris^^ meis imponas."" 



447. 



VuLPEs ET Leo. 



Vulpes nunquam leonem viderat. Cum huTc forte occur- 
risset, ita exterrita est, ut paene moreretur^ formidine.^ 
Eundem conspicata est iterum. Tum extimuit ilia quidem, 
sed nequaquam ut an tea. Cum tertio" leoni obviam facta 
esset, adeo non perterrita fuit,^ ut auderet^ accedere propius 
et colloqui cum eo. 



^ Cf. succurrS. See 343. 

How does the meaning help come 
from the primitive meaning ? 

2 Predicate nominative. 

» Why dative 1 See 343. 

^ From caedo, not cado. 

^ From toUo, not suffers. 

• For the subjunctive, see 373. 

^ Notice the order: the geni- 
tives coming first are made em- 
phatic. 

B Abl. of separation. See 130. 

9 See p. 214, note 8. 
^^ Umeris . . . ImpSnaSy cf. 
nSbis . . . imposuit in 441. 



^^ Quaeso imponas = quaeso 
ut impooas. 

' 12 ig this clause a purpose or 
result clause ? See illustrative ex- 
amples, 352 and 368. 

Are the clauses beginning with 
cum temporal or causal? Read 
again the illustrative examples, 
372 and 374. 

18 affright. 

1* JTie third time. 

^ To such a degree was not 
frightened = was so far from being 
frightened. 



316 



BEADING LESSONS. 



448. C-a:SAR'S GALLIC WAR, I., 1-^. — B.C. 68. 

1. Gallia est omnis ^ dlvisa in partes tres ; quarum unam 
iDcoIunt Belgae, aliam' AquitanI, tertiam qui^ ipsorum lingaa^ 
Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua,'^ institulis, 
legibus inter se * differunt. Gallos ^ ab Aquitanis Garumna 
flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. Horum omnium 
fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a eultu atque humani- 
tate proviuciae ^ longissime absunt, minimeque ^ ad eos merca- 
tores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad efleminandos ^ animos 
pertinent important; proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans 
Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum^^ continenter bellum gerunt 
Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gall5s ^ virtute ^ prae- 
cedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis " cum Germanis conten- 
dunt, cum aut suis ^ finibus eos ^^ prohibent, aut ipsT in eorum 
finibus ^^ bellum gerunt. Eorum " una pars, quam Gallos obti- 
nere dictum est, initium capit a ^^ flumine Rhodano ; continetur 
Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum ; attingit etiam 
ab ^ Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum ; vergit ad septen- 



^ omnis : as a whole, 

^ allam : alteram in the sense 
of secundam would be more com- 
mon. 

^ QHi: supply mentally ii^ as 
antecedent. 

^ Ipsorum llnguS: tn their 
oum tongue. 

^ llnguli: 200. 

^ inter se : from each other. 
What literally 1 

7 Gallos: that is, the Celtic 
Gauls. 

^ provinclae: not reckoned a 
part of Gallia. 

^ minime . . . saepe : very sel- 
dom. 



1^ efiPgminandSs : 432 (2). 

11 quibuscum : 265, 3. 

^ reliquos Gallos : the rest of 
the Gauls, 

1^ virtute: see linguS and 
reference. 

14 proeliis: 144, 145. 

1^ suis : refers to HelvetiS^ the 
subject. 

^^ eos . . . e5rum: refer to 
Germanis ; ipsi, to Helvetii. 

1^ finibus: territories, 

18 ESrum : of their country, 
though grammatically referring to 
Hi omnes, or Horum above. 

1^ initium caplt S. : begins at, 

^ ab : on the side of. 



BEADING LESSONS. 



21T 



triones. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, per- 
tinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in 
septentrionem et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna 
flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et earn partem Ocean! quae est 
ad Hispaniam ^ pertinet, spectat ^ inter occasum soils et sep- 
tentriones. 

2. Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus 
Orgetorix. Is M. Messala^ et M. Fisone consulibus regni 
cupiditate indactus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit, et civitati ^ 
persuasit ut de finibus suis cum omnibus eopiis exirent : per- 
facile esse,* cum® virtute omnibus praestarent, totlus Galliae 
imperio ^ potiri. Id hoc f acilius eis persuasit,® quod undique 
loci' natura Helvetii continentur ; '^ una ex parte" flumine 
Eheno latissimo atque altissimo, qui agrum^^ Helvetium a 
Germanis dfvidit ; altera ex parte monte lura altissimo, qui 
est inter Sequanos et Helvetios ; tertia ^ lacu Lemanno et 
flumine Rhodano, qui provinciam nostram ^* ab Helvetiis divi- 
dit. His rebus fiebat^ ut^® et minus late vagarentur et 
minus facile finitimis ^^ bellum inferre possent ; qua ex parte ^® 
homines^' bellandi cupidi magno dolore adficiebantur. Pro 



^ ad Hispaniam: next to Spain. 
^ spectat : it lies or faces. 

* M. Messalfi . . . cSnsulibus : 
412, 6th example. The Romans 
indicated the year by naming the 
consuls. This was in b.c. 61. 

« civitati: 342 and 343. 

^ perfaclle esse : (^saying that) 
it was very easy. 403. 

^ cum . . . praestarent: since 
they surpassed. 375. 

7 ImperiS: 304. 

^ Id . . . persuasit : he per- 
suaded this (Id) to them (eis) = 
he persuaded them to this course the 
more easily on this account (hoc)* 

• loci : of their country. 



^ contineotur: has not the 
same meaning in chap. 1. 

^^ una ex parte : on one side. 

^^ agrum: country. 

^^ tertia : i.e., tertia ex parte. 

^^ provinciam nostram : see 
p. 216, n. 8. 

^^ His rebus flebat: the con- 
sequence of this was. Lit., it was 
coming about from these things, fle- 
bat: 327. 

^^ ut . . . vagarentur: see 
368. 

17 ffnitimis : 117. 

1^ qua ex parte: and for this 
reason, qua=et ea, parte=causS* 

Id homines : (being) men. 



218 



BEADING liBSSONS. 



multitudine autem hominam et pro gloria belli ^ atque f ortitu- 
dinis angustos * se fines habere arbitrabantur, qui in longi- 
tudinem milia passuum * ccxl, in latitudinem clxxx patebant.* 
3. His rebus adduetl ct auctoritate Orgetorigis permotT, con- 
stitaerunt ea quae* ad proficiscendum pertinerent comparaie, 
jumentorum et carrorum quam maximum^ numerum coemere, 
sementes' quam maximas facere, ut in itinere copia frumentl 
suppeteret, cum proximls eivitatibus pacem et amicitiam con- 
firmare. Ad^ eas res conOeiendas biennium sibi satis esse 
duxerunt;* in tertium annum ^° profectionem lege conflr- 
mant. Ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deligitur. Is sibi " 
I6gati5nem ad civitates suscepit. In eo itinere persuadet Cas- 
tico," Catamantaloedis filio, Sequano, eujus pater regnum ^ in " 
Sequanis multos ann5s obtinuerat et a senatu populi Roman! 
amicus appellatus erat, ut ^ regnum in civitate sua occuparet, 
quod pater ante habuerat ; itemque Dumnorigi Aeduo, fratrl 
Divitiaci, qui eo tempore principatum in civitate obtinebat ac 
maxime plebl acceptus erat, ut idem conaretur^^ persuadet, 
eique filiam suam in matrimonium dat. Perfacile ^^ f actu esse 
illis probat conata perficere, propterea quod ipse suae civi- 



1 glSria belli : renown in ivar. 

^ angustos : too narrow, 

B milla passuum : thousands of 
paces = miles. 340. The Roman 
passus was five feet, and a thou- 
sand of them made a Roman 
mile. Was this longer or shorter 
than our mile ? 

^ patebant: extended. 

^ ea quae : such things as, 

^ quam mSxlmum nume- 
rum: the greatest possible num- 
ber, 

'^ sementes . . . facere: to 
make the greatest possible sowings = 
to sow as much land as possible. 

^ Ad . . . conficiendas : 432. 



^ duxerunt : the^ thought, 
^^ in tertium annum : for the 
third year, Mark the force of 
in. 

11 sibi : upon himself. 

12 Castic5 : see p. 217, n. 4. 
1^ regnum: sovereignty, 

1* in: among. 

1^ ut . . . occuparet : to seize ; 
depends on persuadet. 

1^ ot idem conaretur: to 
make the same attempt, 

17 Perfacile . . . perficere : to 
accomplish their undertakings^ (co- 
nata perficere) he proves to them 
to be very easy to do (facta). On 
facto, see 433, 2. 



BEADING LESSONS. 



219 



tatis imperium obtenturus esset : ^ n5ii esse dubium' quin totius 
Galliae plurimum ^ Helvetii possent ; se ^ suis copiis suoque 
exercitu illls regna conciliaturum confirmat. Hac oratione 
adducti inter se ^ fldem et jusjurandum dant, et regnd occu- 
pato,^ per tres potentissimos ac firmissimos popul5s totius 
Galliae ^ sese ^ potiri posse sperant. 

4. Ea res ^ est Helvetiis per indicium ^^ enuntiata. Moribus 
suis Orgetorigem ex vinclis " r ausam dieere ^ coegerunt Dam- 
natum ^^ poenam sequi oportebat ut Tgni cremaretur. Die con- 
stituta ^^ causae dictionis Orgetorix ad judicium ^ omnem suam 
familiam ad hominum nulia decern undique coegit, et omnes 
dientes obaeratosque su5s, quorum magnum numerum babe- 
bat, eodem conduxit ; per eos ne ^^ causam diceret se eripuit. 
Cum civitas ob eam rem^^ incitata armis ius suum exsequi 
conaretur, multittidinemque hominum ex agris magistrates 



^ obtentarus esset : was about 
to get. Observe that obtlneo 
has not the sfine meaning as be- 
fore. 

^ n5n esse dublum : depends 
npon a verb of saying, understood. 
400. 

* plarimum . . . possent : were 
the strongest. 

^ sS : that he, subject accusative 
of condlllitGrum (esse). 401. 

^ inter se . . . dant : they give 
afnong themselves = they exchange, 

* regnS occuplito : if they 
should seize the supreme power, 
412. 

^ t5tf us Galliae : find potior 
with the ablative in chap. 2. 

^ sSsS: subject accusative of 
posse. 

^ Ea rSs : this conspiracy. When 
rSs occurs, consider what word 
other than " thing '' will best ex- 



press the meaning. Note where it 
has already occurred. 

^° per indicium : that is, per 
indices^ through informers, 

^^ ex vinclis: we should say, 
in chains, 

^ dieere: plead. 

^3 Damnatum . . . cremftrS- 
tur: the clause ut . . . cremli- 
retur explains poenam ; the pun- 
ishment of being burned alive was 
bound (oportebat) to follow, if he 
should be condemned. With dam- 
natum supply euniy which is the 
object of sequiy as poenam is 
the subject accusative. 

^^ Die cSnstltnta : on the day 
appointed. 136. 

^^ Judicium : trial. 

^^ ne . . . diceret : depends on 
se eripulty he escaped pleading his 
case. He overawed the court. 

^"^ rem : act. See note 9. 



220 



BEADING LBSSONS. 



cogerent,^ Orgetorix mortuus est ; neque abest suspicio, ut ^ 
Helvetii arbitrantur, qiiln ^ ipse sibi mortem consciverit. 

5. Post ejus mortem nihilo minus ^ Helvetii id quod con- 
stituerant facere conantur, ut^ e finibus suis exeant. Ubi 
jam se ad eam rem paratos esse arbitratl sunt, oppida sua 
omnia numero ad° duodeeim, vicos ad quadringentos, reliqua 
prlvata aedificia ineendunt; frumentum omne praeterqaam 
quod seeum portaturl erant^ comburunt, ut domum reditionis 
spe sublata ^ paratiores ad ® omnia perieula subeunda essent ; 
trium mensium *® molita eibaria sibi quemque " domo efferre 
jubent. Persuadent^* Rauracis et Tulingls et Latobrlgis fini- 
timis uti eodem iisl** consilio, oppidis suis vIcTsque exustis, 
una cum iis" proficiscantur ; Boiosque, qui trans Rhenum 
incoluerant et in agrum Noricum transierant Noreiamque 
oppugnarant, receptos " ad se socios *® sibi adscTscunt. 



^ cogerent : after cum, like 
cSnSretnr. 373. 

2 ut: as. 

^ quin . . . consciverit: but 

that he himself decreed death to him- 
self = that he died by his own hand. 

The golden rule for discovering 
the meaning of a Latin sentence 
is, Take the words in the Latin 
order. Four-fifths of the follow- 
ing chapter may be read mentally 
this way. Try it. When once the 
meaning is clear, translate; that 
is, render into good English. 

^ nihilo minus : none the less. 

^ ut . . . exeant : that is, to go 
forth from their country. 

^ ad : about. 

7 portatnri erant: 422. 

^ sublSta : from tollo, remove, 

* a;d . . . subeunda: see ad 



eas res cdnficlendas, chap. 3, 
and the note; sut^eunda, from 
subeS: 327. 

^^ trium mensium: for three 
months. 

1^ quemque : 279y 4. 

^2 Persuadent Rauracis . . . 
uti . . . proficiscantur : find the 
same constructions with persua- 
des in chap. 3. 

18 fisi: from ntor. Translate, 
to adopt the same plan, burn their 
towns and villages, and set out with 
them. But how literally ? 

1^ cum lis: that is, with the 
Helvetii. 

1^ receptos . . . adsciscunt: 
it is best to translate receptos as 
if it were reclpuunt et. 

1^ socioSy as allies f appositiye 
to Boios. 



BEADIKG LESSONS. 



221 



449. VOCABULARY. 

For words not found here, see general Vocabulary. 



acceptusy -a, -urn, adj. [P. of ac- 
cipio], acceptable^ agreeable, 

ad-dacOy 3, -xi, -ctum, influence, in- 
duce, 

ad-flclo (af-), 3, -feci, -fectam 
[facio], move, affect, 

ad-BCiscOy 3, -scivi, -scitum, take to 
one's self, take, 

A.eduiy -drum, m. plu., the uEduans, 

Aeduusy -a, -um, adj., jEduan, 

angustusy -a, -um, adj., nairow, 

antOy adv., before, 

AquitSniy -orum, m. plu., the Aqui- 
ianians. 

Aquitfinlay -ae, f., Aquitania, a 
province of southern Gaul. 

biennluniy •!, v. [blsy annus], 
space of two years, 

Boliy -drum, m. plu., the Boii, 

CastlcuSy -1, M., Casticus, 

CataraantaloedeSy -is, m., Cata- 
mantaloedes. 

Celtae, -arum, m. plu., the Celts, 

cibliriusy -a, -um, adj. [cibus], 
pertaining to food; as noun in 
plu., provisions, supplies, 

co-emSy 3, -emi, -emptum [com], 
bug up. 

com-baroy 3, -bussi, -bustum [or5], 
burn up, destroy, 

com-meoy 1 [e5], come and go, resort, 

com-parSy 1, furnish, procure. 

con-clllOy 1 [concilium^ meet- 
ing], bring together, gain over, win. 

con-diieSy 3, -xi, -ductum [com], 
lead together, collect, 

c5n-firm59 1 [com], establish, ap- 
point, assure, assert. 

con-JilrStlOy -dnis, f. [co^JnrS, 
conspire], conspiracy. 



c5n-sciscOy 3, -sciyi, -scltum [com]- 

adjudge. 
continenter, ady. [contlnens] 

continuously, incessantly, 
con-tineSy 2, -ui, -tentum [coni4 

teneS], bound, hem in. 
cotidlanusy -a, -urn, adj. [quof^ 

dies], daily, 
cremSy 1, burn, 
cultusy -us, M. [colOy cultivate] 

civilization, culture. 
cupidusy -a, -urn, adj. [cupiS], 

desirous, 
de-llgo, 3, -leg], -lectum [lego} 

choose out, select. 
dlctlOy -5nis, F. [dico], a saying, 4 

pleading. 
ditissimusy -a, -um, same as divi' 

tissimus, richest, 
divldOy 3, -visi, -visum, divide, sepa* 

rate, 
IMvltiacuSy -1, H., Divitiacus, 
Dumnorix, -igis, h., Dumnorix. 
ef-fSminOy 1 [ex, fSmlna, a ief 

male], make effeminate, weaken, 
ex-sequoFy 3, -BecvLtus, follow out; 

assert, maintain. 
extremusy -a, -um [superl. of ex- 

ter"], furthest, remotest, extreme, 
ex-Qr5, 3, ussi, ustum, bum up, 

consume, 
facile, adv. [facilis], easily, 
familia, -ae, f. [famulus^ slave], 

household ; dependants. 
Garumna, -ae, m., the Garonne, 
Helvetliy -drum, m., the Helvetians, 
Helvetiusy -a, -um, Helvetian, 
hamanitasy -atis, f. [homanus], 

refinement, 
Im-porto, 1 [in], bring in, import. 



222 



BBADIKG LESSONS. 



In-cendOy 1, -di, -censum [candS, 
glow], set fire to, bum, 

In-dtSy 1, incite, arouse, 

In-dBcSy 8, -XI, -ductum, bring into ; 
arouse, persuade, induce, 

inferior^ -idris, adj. [comp. of in- 
ferusy below], lower. 

uiBtltBtuiiiy -i, N. [instltuS], cus- 
tom, habit. 

JQmentiuiiy -i, n. [Jiing9], beast of 
burden. 

JBra, -ae, m.. Jura, a mountain. 

Jfis-Joranduiiiy juris-jorandi, n. 
[JoSy Jtlro], oath, 

mte, ady. [llitiia], widely, exten- 
sively, 

mtitodSy -inis, f. [latus], breadth, 
width. 

liatobrigly -orum, m. plu., the La- 
iobrigi, 

leglltio, -oniB, f. [ISgSy depute], 
embassy. 

liemannuSy -i, h., iMke Geneva, 

longltiidOy -inis, f. [longus], 
length. 

m&trimSnluiiiy -i, n. [mfiter], 
marriage. 

Mlitronay -ae, m., the Mame, 

mercfitoFy -oriB, h. [mercor, 
trade], trader ^ merchant. 

Messalay -ae, m., Messala, a Roman 
consul. 

molOy 3, -ui, -itum, grind. 

nihiluiiiy -i; N., nothing, 

nobilltasy -atis, f. [nSbllls], the 
nobility, the nobles, 

NorSiay -ae, f., Noreia, 

Norlcus, -a, -um, adj., of Noricum. 

oby prep. w. ace, on account of 

ob-aerfitusy -i, m. [aes], debtor. 

Orgetorlxy -igis, m., Orgetorix. 

per-faclliSy -e, adj., very easy. 

per-flclSy 8, -feci, -fectum [facio], 
make thoroughly, perform, accom- 
plish. 



peF-moveSy 2, -nidyi, -mdtum, move 
thoroughly, excite, arouse,^ 

per-BuftdeSy 2, -suasi, -suasuni, 
persuade, induce. 

per-tlneOy 2, -uI, -tentum [teneo], 
reach, extend ; tend, concern. 

PisSy -onis, M., Ptso, a Roman con- 
sul. 

plnrlmiuiiy adv. [plorlmus], 

most; very much. 

prae-cedOy 3, -cessi, cessum, go be- 
fore ; surpass, excel, 

praeter-quaniy adv., beyond, ex- 
cept. 

princlpatusy -us, m. [princeps], 
pre-eminence, sovereignty. 

privatusy -a, -um, adj. [P. of pri- 
t5], private, isolated, 

probSy 1, show, prove. 

profectlOy -onis, f. [profldscor], 
setting out, departure, 

propterea quody because. 

Ranraciy -drum, m. plu., the Rau- 
raci, 

redltlSy -onis, f. [redeS], return. 

RhodanuS) -i, m., the Rhone. 

semen tlsy -is, f., sowing, 

septemtriOy -onis, m., in plu., the 
seven stars of the Great Dipper ; 
north. 

Sequana, -ae, f., the Seine, 

Sequaniy -orum, m. plu., the Sequa- 
nians, 

Sequanusy -a, -um, adj., Sequanian, 

sup-petOy 3, -lYi, -ii, -itum [sub], 
be at hand, in store, 

susplciSy -onis, f. [suspicor], sus- 
picion, 

Tullngiy -orum, m. plu., the Tulingi, 

unfi, adv. [anus], at the same time, 
together, 

vergSy 3, no perf. or sup., turn, 
slope, lie. 

vinculum, (vindum) -i, n. [vln- 
do], bond, diain. 



VOCABULARIES. 



LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



Ih this Yocabnlary words inclosed In brackets are, In most cases, those which are 
given in Latin lexicons and special vocabularies as the primitives of those against 
which they are set. Bat, except in compounds, it would be more correct to regard 
the bracketed words as connected with the others in formation from a common 
root or stem. It is on this ground that such instances will be found as metus 
referred to metuHf and m^tu5 to metus. Neither is, strictly speaking, derived from 
the other, but both are formed from the stem metu. 

Words printed In Qothlo Itallo tyi>e are at once derivatives and definitions. Many 
other more or less remotely derived words, not definitions, are added in smaiIi 

CAPITALS. 

It will be seen that comparisons of words In reference to meaning are much more 
frequent than is usual in special vocabularies. This has been done from the convic- 
tion that the pupil should make such comparisons frequently from the outset. 



fi or ab 

fi or ab» prep. w. abl., awayfrom^ by. 
ab-dOy 8y odidiy -ditum, remove^ con" 

ceal. Cf . celo. 
ab-docOy 3y -duxl, -ductum, lead 

away, take off, 
ab-eOy -Ire, ^i, 4tum, go fiom, go 

off, go away, (327.) 
ab-lcl5, 3, -Jeciy •jectum [jaci5], 

throw off, throw down, 
ablesy -etis, y,^ fir-tree, (11. 4.) 
ab-Bum^ -esse, &f ui, he away, absent, 

distant ; with fi or ab and abl. 
Sc, conj.y see atque. 
ac-cedOy 3, -cessi, -cessum [ad], go 

or come near, approach. Accede. 

Cf. appropinquo. 
ac-cendSy 3, -dl, -censum [ad, and 

supposed candd], kindle, inflame, 
acciddy 3, -cidi, [ad, cado],yaZ/ 

npon,faU out, happen. Accident. 

Cf. incido and evenio. 
acciploy 8, -cepi, -ceptum [ad, 

cajHo], (take to), receive, accept; 

suffer. 



ad-imo 

accosSy 1 [ad, causa], accuse. 
Seer, acris, acre, adj., sharp, keen; 

active, (160.) Acrid. Cf.acutus. 
acerbus, -a, -um, adj. [acer], bitter, 

sour, harsh. 
aclesy -ei, p. [acer], edge; order of 

battle, 
Scriter, adv. [ftcer], sharply, eagerly, 
acotoSy -a, -um, adj. [acuo, <Aarpen], 

sharp. Cf. acer, 
ady prep. w. ace, to, towards, near, 
ad-e5y ady., to this, thus far ; so, so 

very, 
ad-eo, -Ire, -il, -itum, go to, ap» 

proach, visit, (327.) 
ad-ferSy adferre, attuli, allatum 

(adl), bear to, bring, (321.) 
ad-hocy adv., hitherto, up to this time, 
ad-flOy 1, blow upon, 
ad-icloy 3, -jeci, -jectum [jacio], 

(throw to or against"), add, join to, 
ad-lm5y 3, -emi, -emptum [emo], 

{take to one's self from another), 

take away, remove. 



ad-ipiflcor 



226 



alienus. 



ad-lplBOor, B, adeptus [apiicor], 

geif obtain. Cf . potior. 
ad-JiingOy 8, •junxi, •junctum, add. 

Join, AixnrvcT. 
ad-JuvOy 1, -jfiyi, -Jfitum, aid, help. 
ad-mlnlstrO, 1, manage, do, per* 

form, admin/ster, 
ad-mlroFy 1, wonder at, admire. 
ad-modum^ adv., very, 
ad-moveSy 2, -moTi, -motum {move 

up or tovoards), apply, employ. 
ad-orior» 4, -ortus {rise up against), 

attack. Cf. aggredior. 
ad-rSpOy 8, -repei, -reptmn, creep 

towards, steal slowly up. 
ad-spicld (asp), 8, -^pexi, -^pec- 

tum [ad, specio], lock at; look, 
adapectiUy -us, m. [adspici5], sight, 

appearance, aspect. 
ad-sum, -esse, -fui (afihii), be pres- 
ent, stand by, side with, w. dat. 
adolescSnSy -entis, m. and f. [ado- 

lesco, grow"], youth, young person. 

Adolescence. Cf. javenis. 
ad-veniS, 4, -yeni, -yentom, come 

to, arrive. Cf. pervenio. 
adventusy -us, m. [advenio], ap- 
proach, arrival. Advent. 
ad-versuB, prep. w. ace, against, 

towards. 
ad-versusy -a, -urn, adj. [P. of ad- 

yerto], opposite, opposed, adverse; 

res adyersae, adversity, 
aedlflcium, -i, n. [aedifico], build- 

ing. Edifice. 
aediflcSy 1 [aedis, facid], build. 
aedis (es), -is, f., building, temple; 

plur., house. 
aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj., siek, 

weak, feeble. (71.) 
AemlliuSy -i, m., JEmiiius, a Boman 

consul. (79.) 
aequalis, -e, adj. [aequus], equal; 

jiniiQ, eqwd in age, companion. 



aequusy -a, -nm, adj., level, equal; 

ccdm, 
fiSr, &eriB, m., air, 
aereuB, -a, -um [aes], of copper, (^ 

bronze, 
aesy aeris, n., copper, bronze; money, 
aeatfiSy -&tis, f., summer, 
aestusy -us, m., tide, 
aet&Sy -atis, f., age, time of Ufe, 

(106.) 
af-fligl^ 8, -XI, -ctnm [ad], cast 

down, prostrate, ruin, 
Africa, -ae, f., Africa, 
AfHclEniis, -1, X. [Africa], Afri- 

canus, surname of Scipio, 
Afkicus, -1, M., south-west (wind), 
ager, agri, m., field, territory, Cf . 

campus. (65.) 
afl^ger, -eris, m. [ad, ger5], {what is 

carried to, i.e.) materials for a 

mound; mound, rampart. 
aggredior, 3, -gressus [ad,gradior], 

go to ; attack, AGG&BSSiyE. Cf . 

adorior. 
agltS, 1 [frequentatiye of ago], 

diaJce, disturb, vex,* chase. Agi- 
tate. 
Sgn5sc5, 3, -novi, -nitum [ad, 

(g)ndsc5, Icncw], recognize, Cf. 

cogndsco. 
ag5, 3, egi, actum, drive, lead; act, 

do, 
agrlcola, -ae, m. [ager, cold], 

farmer, 
agrI cultara, -ae, f. [ager, cold], 

agricuhure, Cf . agricola. 
Sla, -ae, f., wing, 
albusy -a, -um, adj., white, Cf. 

candidus. 
Alexander, -dri, m., Alexander, 

king of Macedon. 
alienus, -a, -um, adj. [alius], 

belonging to another; another^s. 

Alien. 



alimentum 



227 



ar5 



aUmentuniy -I, n. [alo], nourish^ 

ment, Jbod, provisions. 
aliquandSy adv. [alius], at some 

time, ever ; formerly, once. Cf.olim. 
aliqulSy -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. 

pron., some one, some. (279.) 
aliuSy -a, -ud, adj., another, other; 

alius • • • alius, one . • . another, 

(201.) 
al-loquor [adl], 8, -locutus [ad], 

speak to, address, 
alOy- 3, -ui, 4tum and -turn, nourish, 

support, strengthen; keep, 
Alpesy -ium, f., the Alps, 
alter, -era, -eruni, adj., the other (of 

two); alter . . . alter, the one ...the 

other; a8num.adj.,«econ(f. (200.) 
altusy -a, -um, adj., high, deep. 
amboy -ae, -o, num. adj., both. 
ambulSy 1, walk, take a walk. 
America, -ae, f., America. 
amicitlay -ae, f. [amicus], friend- 

ship. 
amlcusy -a,-um, adj. [^amo], friend- 
ly; norm, fiiend. 
S-mittSy 3, -misi, -missum, send 

away, let go, lose. Cf . perdo. 
amnls, -is, m., river, (154, 172.) 
amSy 1, love, like, be fond of. (319.) 
ampluSy -a, -um, adj., large, splen- 

did, renovmed. Ample. 
an, conj., or, used in the second 

member of a double question. 
ancilla, -ae, f., maid-servant, 
ancora, -ae, f., anchor, 
AncuSy -1, Ancua, fourth king of 

Rome. 
Androclus, -i, m., Androc/us, 
angfulSy -is, m., snake, serpent. (154.) 
ang^stiaey -arum, f. [angustus, 

narrow"], narrow pass. Cf. Eng. 



** narrows." 



animaly -alls, n. [anima, breath], 
Umng being, animal* (149.) 



animus, -i, m., mind, soul, spirit, 

(273.) 
annus, -i, m., year. Annual. 
anser, -eris, m., goose. 
ante, prep. w. ace, before. 
antes, adv. [ante], before. 
ante-ced5, 3, -cessi, -cessum, go 

before. Cf. anteeo. 
ante-e5, -ire, -ii, , go before, 

surpass. Cf. antecedo. 
antiquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante], 

old, ancient. Antiquity. Cf, 

vetus. 
finulus, -1, M., ring, finger-ring, 
aper, apri, m., vnld boar, 
aperio, 4, -ui, -tum, open. 
apertus, -a, -um, adj. [P. of ape- 
rio], uncovered, open, 
ap-peilo, 1 [2i6!], address, call, name. 

Appeal. 
ap-peto, 3, -ivi, or -ii, -itum [ad], 

seek after, strive for, 
ap-proplnquo, 1 [ad], come. near, 

approach. Cf. accedo. 
apto, \,fit, apply, adjust. Adapt. 
apud, prep. w. ace, with, by, near, 

among. 
ApQlla, -ae, f., Apulia, a division 

of Italy. 
aqua, -ae, f., water. Aquatic. 
aqulla, -ae, f., eagle, 
ara, -ae, f., altar. 
aratrum, -i, n. [aro], plough. 
arbltror, 1, think, suppose, believe, 

(429.) 
arbor, -oris, f., tree. 

arceS, 2, -ui, keep off, 

arcus, -us, h., bow. Arc. 
Ariovlstus, -i, h., Ar/oristua, king 

of a German tribe. 
arma, -orum, n. [armo], arms, 

weapons, tools. 
armS, 1 [arma], arm, equip. 
ar5, 1, plough. 



Arpinnm 



228 



bonum 



Arplnum, -i, v., Arpinum, a toum 

in Italy, 
ars, artis, f., art, 
anruniy -i, n. [aro], ploughed land, 

field. 
arx, arcis, f., citadel, (163.) 
AscalaphuS) -I, m., Aaca/aphua. 
Asia, -ae, f., Aaia. 
asper, -era, -erum, adj., rough, harsh, 

severe. Asperity. 
asylum, -^i, n., place of refuge, aay- 

lum. 
at^ conj., hut. (393.) 
ater, -tra, -trum, adj., black, sable. 
Athenae, -arub), f., Athens. 
Athenlensls, -e, adj., [Athenae], 

of Athens, Athenian, 
at-que (before vowels and conso- 
nants, ac before consonants only ) 

[ad, tn addition^t and also, and 

especially, and. Cf . et and -que. 
atroxy -5cis, adj. [ater], savage, 

fierce, harsh, cruel. Atrocious. 
Attlcus, -1, M., Atticua, a friend of 

Cicero. 
attingo, 3, -tigi, -tactum [ad, 

tango], touch, approach, arrive at^ 

reach. 
auctoFy -oris, m. [augeo. increase^, 

maker, author. 
auctoritas, -atis, f. [auctor], coun- 
sel, advice, authority. 
audScter, adv. [audax], boldly. 
audaxy -acis, adj. [auded], daring, 

bold, (164). Audacious. 
aude5, 2, ausus [audax], dare, be 

bold. (p. 177, note 2.) 
audlS, 4, hear, listen. (223.) 

Audience. 
aa-fer5, auferre, abstuli, ablatum 

[ab(s)], bear off, carry atoay. 

(321.) Ablative. 
augeo, 2, auxi, aiictum, increase, 

enlarge. 



anreasy -a, -um, adj. [anrum], of 

gold, golden, 
auris, -is, f., ear. 
aurum, -i, n., gold, 
auty conj., or; aut . . . aut, either 

, , ,or, Cf. vel. 
autem, conj. (never the first word)^ 

but, however, moreover. (393.) 
autumnus, -i, m., autumn, 
auxllium, -1, N. [augeo], hdp, aid, 

support; plur., auxiiiariea. 
avarus, -a, -um, adj., greedy, rapa- 
cious. Avaricious. 
a-vertOy 3, -ti, rsum^ turn away 

from, arert, 
avis, -is, F., bird. (154.)* 
avunculus, -I, m. [diminutive of 

avus], (maternal) undo, 
avos, -I, M., grandfather. 



barbarusy -a, -um, adj., foreign, 

barbarous, barbarian, 
beatusy -a, -um, adj. [beo, bless2, 

blessed, happy. Beatitude. 
Belgae, -arum, m., the Belgae, a 

Gallic tribe, 
bellS, 1 [bellum], tvar, carry an 

war. Cf . bellum gero. 
bellum, -1, N. [bell5], war, (38.) 
beUus, -a, -um, adj., pretty, cJiarm- 

ing, lovely. 
bene, adv. [bonus], welL 
beneficium, -i n. [bene, facio], 

benefit, favor. 
benigne, adv. [benlgnus], Jcindly. 
benignus, -a, -um, adj. [bene, 

genus], (of good birth), kind, good. 

Benignant. 
bestla, -ae, f., beast, 
blbo, 3, bibi, potum, drink. Im- 
bibe. 
bonum, -i, n. [bonus], good thing 

blessing; plur., goods, possessions. 



bonus 



229 



caTe5 



bonusy -a, -um, adj., comp. meiior, 

superl. optimus; good, (71, 208.) 

bos, bovis, K« and f., ox, cow, 

(262.) 
Bostonia, -ae, f., Boston, 
bra.ccliiuin, -i, n., arm, 
brevis, -e, adj., short, brief, 
Britaiini, -orum, m., the Britons, 
Britannia, -ae, f., Britain, 
Brotusy -1, M., Brutus, a Boman 
surf^ame. 



C abbreviation fir Gajus, 
cachinnoy 1, laugh aloud, Cf. 

rideo. 
cadS, 3, cecidi, casum^yaZ/. 
caecus, -a, -um, adj., blind, 
caedOy 3, cecidi, caesum, cut, cut 

to pieces; kih, 
caelum, -i, n., sky, heaven, 
caeruleus, -a, -um, adj. [for caelu- 

leua, from caelum], dark-blue. 
Caesar, (J.), -aris, m., Julius CaS' 

sar, c fimous Boman, 
Gains, -1, M. See Gajus. 
ealathns, -I, h., basket. 
calcar, -aris, n. [calx, heel], spur. 

(149.) 
callens, -ends, adj. [P. of calleo, 

be hard"], hard, tough, 
calllditas, -atis, f. [callidus, cun- 
ning], shrewdness, cunning, 
calor, -oris, M. [caleo, be warm], 

heat, warmth. Caloric. 
Campania, -ae, f., Campania, a 

division of Italy, 
campus, -1, H., Jield, Camp. Cf . 

ager. 
candidus, -a, -um, adj. [cande5, 

shine], bright, fair, white. Candid. 

Cf . albus. 
canis, -is, m. and f., dog, (153.) 

Cai^inb. 



Cannae, -9,rum, f., Cannae, a vU- 

lage in Apulia, 
Cannensis, -e, adj. [Cannae], of 

Cannae, 
Cantium, -i, v,, Kent (in Britain), 
canto, 1 [cano], sing. Chant. 
cantus, -us, m. [candj, singing, song, 

(278.) Chant. 
capillus, -i, M., hair (of the head). 

Capillary. 
capiS, 3, cepi, captum, take, seize 

(235); consilium capio, adopt a 

plan. Capture. 
captlvus, -1, M. [capid], captive, 

prisoner, 
caput, -itis, Tx,,head, (105.) Capital. 
CarbS, -onis, m., Carbo, a Boman, 
career, -eris, m., prison. Incar- 
cerate. 
careS, 2, •ul,-itum, be without, want, 
carmen, -inis, n., song, poem, (278.) 
carQ, carnis, y., flesh. 
carpo, 3, -si, -turn, pluck, 
carrus, -i, m., wagon, cart. Car. 
Cartbaginiensis, -e, adj. [Ca]> 

thago], ofCarthage,Carthaginian, 
CartbagS, -inis. f., Carthage, a 

town in Africa. 
Cartbago Nova, a town tn Spain, 
carus, -a, -um, adj., dear, precious, 
castra, -orum, n., camp, 
casus, -us, M. [cado], a falling; mis* 

chance, misfortune, chance, 
catellus, -1, M. [diminutlye of catu- 

lus], little dog, puppy, 
CatiUna, -ae, m., Catiline, a famous 

Boman conspirator. 
Cats, -onis, m., Cato, a celebrated 

Boman censor. 
Cauda, -ae, f., tail. 
causa, -ae, f., cause, reason; causS 

(after a genitive),ybr the sake, 
caveS, 2, cavi, cautum, beware, 

guard against. 



€ed5 



comes 



eSdS^ 8, cesBi, cessmn, ^, depart, 

withdraw; grant, 
celery -eris, -ere, adj., swift. (170.) 

Celesitt. 
celerlteTy adv. [celer], swiftly. 
celOy 1, conceal. Cf. abdd. 
cSnseOy 2, -ui, -Mm, reckon; think, 

deem, be of opinion. Censure. 

(429.) 
centuniy num. adj., indecl., hun- 
dred. Cent. 
Ceresy -eris, f., Ceres, goddess of 

agriculiure, Cebeal. 
certSy adr. [certus], certainty, sure- 

ly^ of course. 
certSy 1, contend, strive, vie with. 
certusy *a, -um, adj., fixed, deter- 
mined, certain, sure; certiorem 

facio, make (one) more certain, 

inform. 
[ceterias], -a, -um, adj. (usually in 

plur. \, the other, the rest. 
cibusy 1, M.,food, Cf. pabulum. 
ClcercS -onis, m., Cicero, a famous 

Roman orator. 
Cimbriy -orum, m., the Cimbri, a 

German tribe. 
cingSy 3, cinxi, cinctum, hind, en- 

circle, surround. 
clrciter, adv. [circus, circle"], 

round about ; about, 
circum-dOcOy 3, -duxi, -ductum, 

lead around, 
circum-sillSy 4, -ii, — ^ [salio], 

jump or hop around. 
circum-veniS, 4, -yeni, -ventum, 

surround; circumyeni, 
civlBy -is, M. and f., citizen. (154.) 
civltasy -atis, f. [ciyIs], (body of 

citizens'), state; citizenship, Citt. 
dSdeSy -is, F., destruction, defeat, 

disaster, 
damltOy 1 [frequentatiye of cla- 

mo], cry out, caU out. Cf . exclamo. 



clilinory -oris, m. [cl&mo], shovi^ 
cry, Clamob. 

clftrusy -a, -um, adj., clear^ re* 
nowned, famous; loud, 

clSssis, -is, F., class of citizens ; 
fleet. (154.) 

dlensy -entis, m., client, (16o.) 

coepiy coepisse (defective verb, 
tenses from pres. stem wanting), 
began, 

coerceSy 2, -ul, ^itum [co(m), 
arceo, inc/oscj, cor\fine, check, re- 
strain, 

cSgndseSy 3, -noyi, -nitum [com, 
(g)ndsco], learn, recognize, know, 
Cf . agndsco. 

cogOy 3, -egi, -Actum [com« &g^]> 
drive iogetJier, compel. 

co-hortor, 1 [co(m), intensire], 
exhort, urge, encourage, 

CoUfitinuSt -!, m., Collatinus, sur- 
name of Lucius Tarquiniiu. 

coUSga (conl), -ae, m. [lego], (one 
who is chosen with another), col- 
league, 

coIligO (conl), 8, -legl, -lectmn 
[com, lego], collect, 

collisy -is, M., hUl. (154.) Cf . m5ns. 

colloquium, -i, n. [colloquor], con- 
versation, colloquy. 

col-loquor, 3, -locatus [com], 
speak together, converse. 

col5, 3, colui, cultum, cultivate, 
till, Cf . incola, agricola. 

colSnla, -ae, f. [colonus, husband^ 
man, cold], colony, 

color, -oris, m., color, 

columba, -ae, f., dove. 

com (col, con, cor, co), primitive 
form of cum, a prefix denoting 
completeness or imion; some- 
times intensive. 

comes, -itis, m. and f. [comitor 
(com, ed)], comrade, companion. 



comitor 



281 



contemplor 



comitor, 1 [comes], accompany, at- 
tend. 

commefitusy -Us, m. [comme5, go 
to and /ro"], passage, trip, expidi- 
tion. 

com-mittS, 3, -misl, -missum, (Join 
together), commit; proelium com- 
mittere, Join battle, engage, begin 
fighting. 

com-modusy -a, *um, adj. (thc.t has 
proper measure), convenient, suit' 
able. 

com-morory 1, stag, linger, delay, 
remain, 

com-moveoy 2, •moyi, •motum, 
(^put in violent motion), shake, dis- 
turb, agitate. Commotion. 

com-mSiilOy 4, (fortify '^^ong^y)* 
secure, intrench. 

com-perlOy 4, -peri, -pertum, ascer- 
tain, learn, find out, 

com-pleSy 2, -pleyi, -plStum, fill 
out, fill up, Cf. impleo. 

com-primo, 3, -pressi, -pressum 
[prem5], press together; check, 
suppress. 

con-cutlSy 3, -cussi, -cussum [com, 
quatio], shake violently, 

c9n-feT^ cdnferre, contuli, colla- 
tmn (conl), [com], bring together, 
collect; se c5nferre, betake one*s 
self. Confer. 

con-flclSy 3, -feci, -fectum [com, 
facio], make, accomplish, carry 
out, 

Bon-flteor, 2,-fe8Sus [com, fateor], 
confess, 

cSn-fligSy 3, -xl, -ctum [com], con- 
tend, fight. Conflict. 

con-iciS, 3, -jeci, -jectum [com, 
jacio], (throw together), throw, 
hurL 

Gon-Junxy -jugisy m. and f. [com, 
ju]igo,yotfi], spouse, wift; husband. 



cSnor, 1, attempt, try. 
c5n-BcendO; 3, -dl^ -scensum, [com, 

scando, climb"], ascend, embark; 

go on board. 
con-sequoFy 3, -cutus [com], fol- 
low close upon ; follow. 
con-sid5y 3, -sedi, -sessmn [com], 

(sit together), encamp, 
cSnslllumy -i, n. [consulo, odnsul], 

advice, counsel, prudence; plan, 

design. 
cSn-slmillSy -e, adj., very similar, 

quite like. 
cSn-spiclSy 3, -spexi, -spectum 

[com, 8peci5, look], look at atten- 
tively; observe, see, behold, 
cSn-spicor, 1, [cdnspicio], see at a 

glance, descry, catch sight of, 
cSnstansy -antis, adj., [P. of con- 

^to], firm, steady, 
c5n-Btaty 1, -stitit, impers., it is evi- 
dent, dear. 
c9n-8titu5, 3, -nl, -utum [com, 

statuo], (place or put together), 

station, place; determine. 
c5n-sue8c5y 3, -suevi, -suetum 

[com], become accustomed; in 

perf., be accustomed, 
c5nsuetad5y -inis, f. [consuctus], 

habit, custom. 
cSnsuly -ulis, M. [^cdnaxdo, considt], 

consul. (134.) 
cSnsulfiriSy -e, adj. [consul], />er- 

tainingto a consul, con sular ; noun, 

ex-consul. 
cQnsulatusy -us, m. [cdnsul], office 

of consul, consulship. 
cSn-somSy 3, -sumps!, -sumptum 

[com], take up completely, con^ 

sums. 
con-temnSy 3, -psi, -ptum [com], 

despise. Contemn. 
contemplor, 1, look at, observe. 

COMTEMPI.ATB. 



con-tendo 



232 



cupi5 



con-tendOy 3, -di, -turn [com], 
(draw tight), exert one* 8 self, strive ; 
hasten. Contend. 

contentlSy -onis, f. [contendd], 
struggle, exertion, effort; conten- 
tion. 

contentusy -a, -um, adj. [P. of 
contineo], contented ; w. abl. 

con-testor, 1 [com, testis, witness"], 
call to witness, invoke, 

con-tine ns, -entis, f. [P. of con- 
tineo, sc. terra], continent. 

con-tine5y 2, -ui, -tentum [com, 
tene5], hold together, hold, con- 
tain, 

contrS, prep. w. ace, against, 

con-valo8COy 3, -valui , [com, 

valeo], 5ircf well, grow strong. Con- 
valescent. Cf. valeo. 

con-venlO) 4,-vcni,-ventum [com], 
come together, assemble, 

con-verto, 3, -ti, -sum [com], turn 
around, turn, change. Convert. 

copla, -ae, f. [com, ops], abundance, 
wealth ; plur., troops, forces, 

cor, cordis, n., heart, 

coram, prep. w. abl., in presence of, 

Corlnthus, -i, f., Corinth, (11,4.) 

Corlolanus, -I, m., Coriolanue, sur- 
name of C, Marcius, a Roman 
consul. 

Cornelia, -ae, f. Cornelia, mother 
of the Gracchi, 

Cornelius, -i, m., Cornelius, a Ro- 
mon family name, 

coma, -us, n., horn, 

corpus, -oris, N., body, (140.) 
Corpse. 

corrigo, 3, -rexi, -rectum [com, 
rego], make straight, reform, cor- 
rect. 

corripiS, 3, -ui, -reptum [com, 
rapid], seize, take hold of, 

cor-rumpo, 3, -rupi, -ruptum, 



[com], break in pieces, destroy*, 

corrupt, bribe, 
cortex, -icis, m. and f., bark, shell, 

rind, 
corns, -1, M., north-west (wind). 
cotidie, adv. [quot, dies], daily, 
eras, adv., to-morrow, 
Crassus, -i, m., Crassus, a rich Bo- 

man, contemporary of Gcesar. 
creator, -oris, m. [creoj, creator. 
creber, -bra, -brum, b.^],, frequent, 

numerous, 
credo, 3, -didi, -ditum, trust, believe; 

w. dat. Credit. 
cre9, 1, make, create; choose, elect. 
Croesus, -i, m., Croesus, king of 

Lydia, 
cradeli8,-e,ad j ., cruel, hard-hearted, 
crudeliter, adv. [crudelis],cri/e/(pr. 
eruentus, -a, -um, adj. [cruor], 

stained with blood, bloody. 
cruoTy -OTIS, M., blood, gore, Cf. san- 
guis. 
eras, cruris, n., leg, 
culpa, -ae, f. [culpo], blame, fault. 

Culpable. Cf. vitium. 
culpS, 1 [culpa], blame, find fault 

with, 
culter, -tri, h., knife. Coulter. 
cum, conj., when; since, as; though^ 

although, (372 ff.) 
cum, prep. w. abl., with. 
Cumae, -arum, f., Cumae, a town 

in Campania, 
cOnae, >arum, f., cradle, 
cunct&tio, -onis, f. [enactor], de- 
laying, delay, 
cunctor, 1, linger, hesitate, 
cupiditas, -atis, f. [cupidus, cupio], 

desire, eagerness. Cupidity. 
Gupid5, -inis, m. [cupidus], Cupid, 

god of love, 
cupiS, 3, -ivi, or -il, -itum, desire^ 

be eager for, Cf . desiderd. 



cur 



233 



desicler5 



ciir, adv. [qua, re], why, wherefore. 
cara, -ae, f. [euro], care, anxiety, 
cOro, 1 [cura], care for, take care, 
ciirr5y 3, cucurri, cursum, run, 
curruSy -us, m. [cmtto], chariot, car, 
cursus, -us, M. [curro], a running, 

course, 
curvusy -a, -um, adj., curved, bent; 

bending, 
cu8todi5, 4 [custos], guard, pro- 
tect] defend, . • 
custSSy -odis, M. and f. [custodio], 

guardian, keeper. Custodian. 
cymba^ -ae, f. boat, Cf. ng.Ticala. 
Cyru^ -1, M., Cyrus, king of Persia, 



OaedaluSy -I, m., Daedalus, builder 

of the Labyrinth, 
damnOy 1, condemn, 
DSreuSy -I, m., Darius, king of 

Persia, 
OatlSy -is, M., Daiis, a Persian 

general, 
de, prep. w. abl., from, about, con^ 

ceming, of; (of time), in, during, 

about, 
dea, -ae, f., goddess, (p. 8, note 1). 
debeoy 2, -ui, -itum, owe, ought. 

Debit, Debt. 
decern, num. adj., indecl., ten, 
I>ecember9 -bris, m. [decem], De^ 

cember. Often as adj. 
decem-plexy -ids, adj. [plic5], ten- 
fold. 
de-cernSy 3, -creyi, -cretum (sepa- 
rate from), decide^ determine; 

decree. 
de-cerpSy 3, -si, -turn [carp5], /j/uc^ 

off- 

decety 2, decuit, impers., it is be- 
coming, Jitting, proper. 

declmusy -a, -um, num. adj. [de- 
cem], tenth. 



de-doy 3, -didi, -ditum (put from 
one's self), surrender, deliver up. 

de-doco, 3, -duxi, -ductum, lead 
away, draw down, launch. De- 
duct. 

de-fatigOy 1, tire out, exhaust. 

de-fendo, 3, -di, -fensum [defen- 
sor], (strike off from), defend, 
protect. 

defensor, -dris, m. [defendd], 
defender, protector. 

de-fero, -ferre, -tuli, -latum (bring 
from), deliver ; report. 

de-fessusy -a, -um, adj., tired out, 
weary. 

de-ficlo, 3, -feci, -fectum [facio], 
(make away from), revolt; fail, be 
wanting, 

de-formls, -e,^dj. [forma], mis- 
shapen, ugly ; base, disgraceful, 

de-lnde, adv. (from thence) ^ then, 
afierwards, 

delectO) \,delighi. 

delectus, -us, m. [delig5], seleC" 
Hon; levy, 

deleS, 2, -evl, -^tum, destroy, De* 

LETE. 

deliciae, -arum, f., def/ght, darling. 

de-migrS, 1, migrate from ; emi' 
grate, remove, 

Demosthenes^ -is, m., Demosthe^ 
nes, a famous Athenian orator, 

denlque^ &dY., finally, at last, 

dens, dentis, m., tooth. Dentist. 

de-pereo, 4, -ii, ,go to ruin, 

perish, be lost, 

de-pono, 3, •posui, -positum, put 
down, put by, lay down. Depo- 
nent. 

de-scend5, 3, -di, -scensum [scan- 
do, climb"], come down, descend* 

de-sero, 3, -ui,-tum, desert, abandon, 

desidero, 1, desire, long for, miss 
(310). Cf.opto, Tolo, and cupia 



d^Uio 



234 



d5niiin 



dS-Blll9y 4, Hiilul [salio, leap'], 
leap down, Cf. subsilio and tran- 
sillo. 

dS-8l8t9y 3, -stiti, -stitum ^stand off 
or apart], leave off, cease ; desist. 

de-sperSy 1 [spes], be hopeless, 
despair, 

de-Buniy -esse, -fui, , be want- 
ing, lack ; w. dat. Cf . deficio. 

dS-trah5, 3, -traxi, -tractum, draw 
off, take away, 

deusy -I, M., god. (262.) 

devorOy 1, swallow up, devour. 

IHana, -ae, f., Diana, goddess of 
the chase. 

dicSy 3, dixi, dictum, say, tell. 

dlctStor, -oris, m. [dicto, dico], 
chief magistrate, dictator, 

dictStora, -ae, f. Rotator], office 
of dictator, dictatorship. 

dlctltS [frequentative of dico], 
keep saying. 

diesy -el, M. and f., day, (253.) 

dlf-feroy differre, distuli, dilatum 
[dis], scatter, separate, put off; 
differ. (321.) 

difficillsy -e, adj. [dis, facilis, /ar 
from easy], hard, difficult. (207.) 

dlg;itu89 -1, V.., finger. Digit. 

dig^tasy -atis, f. [dignus], worth, 
dignity; office. 

dig^uSy -a, -um, adj., worthy. 

dillgensy -entis, adj. [P. of diligo], 
diligent, careful. 

dUigentery adv. [diligens], dili- 
gently. 

dillgentia, -ae, f. [diligens], dili- 
gence, carefulness. 

di-llgOy 3, -lexi, -lectum [lego], 
esteem, love. (319.) 

dimicSy 1, fight, contend. Cf. 
pugnd. 

di-mldlusy -a, -\un, adj. [medius], 
half. 



dl-mlttSy 3y -misiy -muwum, tend 

away, let go. 
di-moveSy 2, -movi, -mdtum (move 

asunder^, separate, drive away. 
di-ru5, 3, dirui, dirutum, tear 

asunder, destroy, Cf. rescindo. 
diS) di (a prefix denoting separa- 
tion), asunder, apart, in different 

directions, Cf. differo, discedo, 

dissimilis, dunittd, diruo. 
DiSy Ditis, M., Dis, another name 

of iHuto. 
dia-cedSy 3, -cessi, -cessum, depart, 

withdraw, go off. 
dlsclpuluBy -1, M. [disco], kamer, 

scholar, pupil. Disciple. 

disco, 3, didici, , learn. 

dls-simillsy -e, adj., (Jar from like), 

unlike, dissimilar. (207.) 
diOy adv., /or a long time, long. 
dives, -itis, adj. (comp. ditior, 

superl. divitissimus), rich. (167. 

8.) 
divitlae, -arum, f. [dives], riches, 

wealth. 
do, dare, dedi, datum, give ; put. 
doceo, 2, -ui, -tum, teach, show, 
doctus, -a, -um, adj. [P. of doceo], 

learned. Doctor. 
dolor, -oris, m., pain, grief. Doir- 

OROUS. 

dolus, -1, M., trick, deceit. 
domicilium, -i, n. [domus] , home, 

abode, 
domlna, -ae, f. [dominus], mistress. 
domlnor, 1 [dominus], be a lard 

and master, rule. Domineer. 
dominus, -i, m. [domina], lord, 

master. . (66.) 
domus, -us, F., house, home ; domi, 

at home. (262, 336.) 
don5, 1 [ddnum], give, present 

Donate. 
donum, -i, v, [do], gift, present, . 



dormiO 



285 



errO 



dormiSy 4, sleep, Dormitost, 
Drfisusy -1, H., Drusua, a Roman, 
dubltS, 1 [dubius], hesitate, doubt. 

Indubitable. 
dabium, -i, n. [dubius], doubt, 
dnbiusy -a, -um, adj. [duo], doubt' 

ful. Dubious. 
ducentiy -ae, -a, num. adj. [duo, 

centum], two hundred, 
daco, 8, -duxi, -ductum [dux], lead, 
Duilius (G.)> >i> M., Caius Dui/iua, 

a Roman general. 
dulciSy -e, adj., sweet, pleasant. 

Dulcet. Cf. suayis. 
duniy ady., while, as long as ; until, 
duo, duae, duo, num. adj., two. 

(811. 4.) 
duo-decim, num. adj., indecl. [de- 
cern], twelve, 
duo^e-trig^nta, num. adj., in- 
decl., twenty-eight, 
dorusy -a, -um, adj., hard. En- 
dure. Cf. difficilis. 
dux, duels, M. and f. [ducd], leader, 
general, Duke. Cf. Imperator. 



ecce, interj., lo I seel see there ! 
e-dic5, 3, -dixi, -dictum, speak out, 

declare, proclaim. Edict. 
edSy edere or esse, edi, esum or es- 

sum, eat, 
SducSy 1, bring up, train, educate. 
e-dOcOy 8, -duxi, -ductum, lead out, 

bring avoay, 
ef-ferOf efferre, extuli, elatum 

[ex], bear out, bring forth, (321.) 

Elate. 
efBLclSy 3, -feci, -fectum [ex, facio], 

bring to pass, effect, complete; 

make, construct, 
^ens, -entis, adj. [P. of egeo], in 

want, needy, destitute. 
ego, pen, pron., /. (264.) 



e-gredlor, 3, igressus [gradior, 

step"], go out, go forth; disembark, 

land, Cf . exeo. 
egregie, adv. [egregius], remark- 
ably, excellently, 
e-gregfius, -a, -um, adj. [grex], re- 

markaUe, excellent. Egregious. 
elegansy-antis, adj., choice, elegant 
elephantus, -i, m., elepfiant, 
e-lodo, 3, -SI, -sum, deceive, mock ; 

elude. 
e-mergOy 3, -si, -sum, arise, come 

forth; emerge. 
emo, 3, emi, emptum, buy, purchase. 
enlm, conj. (never the first word),* 

for. Cf. nam. 
Knnius, -!, h., Enniue, father of 

Roman poetry. 
e-unntio, lysay out, divulge, declare, 

report. Enunciate. 
e, see ex. 
eo, ady. [is], to that place, thither, 

there, 
eo, ire, ii, itum, go. (327.) 
eodem, adv. [idem], to the same 

place, 
!Epirus, -1, F., Ep/'rus, a division of 

Greece. 
epistula, -ae, f., letter, epistle. 
eques, -itis, m. [equus], horseman, 

knight, 
equester, -tris, -tre, adj., [equed], 

(^pertaining to a horseman), eques- 
trian. 
eqult&tuB, -us, m. [equito, eques], 

(body ofequites), cavalry, 
equito,! [eques], (be a horseman), 

ride, 
equus, -!, M., horse, 
ergo, adv., therefore, accordingly, 

Cf . igitur and itaque. 
e-ripio, 3, -ui, -reptum [rapio^ 

snatch out, seize and bear off, 
errSy 1, toander; err, mistake. 



«-radi5 



236 



facio 



S-mdi9y 4, [rudUy rough}, train, 

teach, instruct, 
esseduniy •!, n., two-wheeled war- 

chariot, 
etf codj.y and; et . . . et, both . . . 

and. Cf. atque, ac, and -que. 
ettaniy adv. and conj. [et, jam, 

and now"], also, even. 
et-iA, conj., though, although, 
Buropa, -ae, f., Europe. 
e-vadOy 3, -yasl, -vasum, go forth, 

escape. Eyadb. 
6-venl9» 4, -yen!, •yentom, come 

forth, turn out, happen. EysNT. Cf . 
• accido and incido. 
S-vertSy 3, -ti, -sum, overturn, over' 

throw, destroy. 
5-vol5, 1, fly away. 
ex or e, prep. w. abl., out of, from. 
exSmlnS, 1 [examen, test}, weigh 

out, weigh. 
excelsus, -a, -um, adj. [P. of ex- 
cello], elevated, lofty, high, 
ex-dpiOy 8, -cepi, -ceptum [capio], 

take out, except; receive, wel- 
come. 
ex-clamo, 1, cry out, exclaim, Cf . 

clamito. 
ex-c6s5, 1 [causa], excuse, 
ex-cutlOy 3, -CU881, -cussum [qua- 

tl5], shake out, strike off, drive 

away, cast out. 
ex-eoy -Ire, -ii, -itum, go out, come 

out. Exit. Cf. egredior. 
ex-erceOy 2 [arceo], keep busy, 

employ; train. Exebcise. 
exercltiis, -us, m. [exerceo], (the 

thing trained), army, 
exlgvLus, -a, -um, adj., scanty, small, 

slight, 
expeditioy -onis, f. [expedio], eo?- 

cursion, expedition. 
ex-pellSy 3, -puli, -pulsum, drive 

out or away, expeh 



ex-perlory 4, -pertus, make trial e 

test. EXPEBT. 

ex-pllco, 1, -ayi, -atum, and -ui 

-itum, unfold, explain. 
exploratory -Oris, m. [exploro], a 

searcher out, explorer; spy, scout, 
ex-pl5ro, 1, search out, examine, 

explore; reconnoitre, 
ex-p5nOy 3, -posui, -positum, put 

or set out, expose; draw up, mar' 

shal, 
ex-pag^noy 1, take by storm, assault, 

Cf . oppugno. 
ex-BistOy 3, -stiti, -stitum (stand 

forth), exist, appear. 
ex-spectOy 1, aivait, wait for, ejr- 

pect, 
ex-spirOy 1, breath out, breath one*s 

last, expire. 
ex-stinguoy 3, -nxi, -nctum (quench 

completely), extinguish; kill, de- 
stroy, 
ex-terreSy 2, -ui, -itum, frighten, 

affright. 
ex-tiine8c5,3,-timui, [timeo], 

fear greatly. 
extrS, prep. w. ace, without, out- 

side of, Cf . intra. 
ex-turbOy 1, thrust out, drive away. 



faber^ -bri, m., worker, carpenter. 

Fabric. 
FabiuS) -1, M., Fabius, a famoui 

Roman general, 
Fabriclusy -i, m., Fabricius, a 

famous Homan general, 
^bula, -ae, f. [for, speak"], story, 

tale, fable, 
facillSy -e, adj. [facio], (that can be 

done), easy to do, easy. Facility. 
facinuBy -oris, k. [facio], (the thing 

done), deed; crime, Cf. scelus. 
faciS, 3, feci, factum, do, make. 



*, 



fagrus 



287 



frfiter 



fSgUBy -1, F., beech-iree, (11. 4.) 
Falisciy -drum, m., the Fah'scans, 

a people ofEtruria. 
falsoy adv. [falsus], falsely, 
falsusy -a, -um, adj. [fallo, deceive"], 

deceptive^ false* 
fSma, -ae, f. [for, speak"], rumor; 

fame, renown, 
fames, -is, f., hunger, famine, 
fSSy N., indecL £for, speak], divine 

law; often translated as adj., 

right, lawfuL 
fascia, -is, m., bundle, 
fSatigSy 1, tire out, weary. Fatigue. 
fStuin,-i,N. [for, .«pea^], (that which 

is spoken) , fate, destiny. 
faveo, 2, favi, fautum, he favoraUe 

to, favor, befriend; w. dat. 
febris, -is, f. [ferveo, be hot), fever, 
Februarius, -i, m., February, Often 

as adj. 
fSIidter, adv. [felix], luckily, for- 
tunately, 
fSlix, -icis, adj., lucky, fortunate, 
fera, -ae, f. [ferus], wild animal, 

wild beast, 
fere, adv., nearly^ for the most part, 

almost, about, Cf . paene. 
fero, f erre, tuli, latum, bear, bring ; 

ferunt, they say. (321.) Cf. 

porto and veho. 
ferox, -ocis, adj. [ferus], fierce, 

impetuous, 
ferreus, -a, -um, adj. [ferrum], of 



troti, iron. 



ferrum, -i, n., iron, 

ferus, -a, -um, adj., tvild, savage, 
cruel, 

fidelis, -e, adj. [fides], trusty, faith- 
fid, Cf . f idus. 

fldeliter, adv. [^delis], faithfully. 

fldSs, -€i, F. [fido, trust], trust, faith, 

fidus, -a, -um, adj. [fido, trust], 
trusty, faithful. 



filla, -ae, f., daughter, (p. 8, note 1). 
Cf . nata. 

filiolus,-!, M. [diminutive of fSius], 
little son, 

filiuB, -i, M., son, (79.) Filial. 

ftsMf^\fm\A], end, finish. Finite. 

finis, -is, M., end, boundary, (154.) 

finltimuB, -a, -um, adj. [finis], 
bordering on, neighboring, 

fio, fieri, factus (supplies pass, to 
facio), be made, become, (327.) 

firms, 1 [firmus], make strong, 

firmus, -a, -um, adj. [firmo], stead- 
fast, strong, Fi&m. 

flagr9, 1, bum, 

fleets, 3, -XI, -xum, bend, turn, 

fleS, 2, fievi, fletum, weep, cry, 

flo, 1, blow, 

flSs, fioris, V.,, flower. Floral. 

fliimen, -inis, n. [flu5], (that which 
flows'), river, stream. (172.) 

flu5, 3, fluxi, fiuxum,^oti;. 

fluvlus, -1, M. [fiuo], (the flowing 
thing), river, stream. (172.) 

folium, -1, N., leaf. Foliage. 

fdns, f ontis, h., spring, fount, foun- 
tain, 

fore, for fiiturum esse* 

formidS, -inis, v., fear, terror, 

forte, adv. [fors, chance], perchance, 
perhaps, possibly, 

fortis, -e, adj., strong, brave, cour- 
ageous, 

fortiter, adv. [fortis], bravely, 
courageously, 

fortitadS, -inis, f. [tortis], strength, 
bravery, endurance, fortitude, 

fortona, -ae, f. [fors, chance], for- 
tune, 

forum, -1, N., market-place; forum. 

fi*ango, 3, fregi, fractum, dash in 
pieces, break. Fraction. 

frfiter, -tris, h., brother, Fhatbr- 

NAL. 



fretus 



238 



Hasdrabal 



ft^tusy -a, -um, adj., relying on, 
trusting to; w. abl. 

frigidusy -a, -um, adj. [frigeo, 
freeze^, cold, frigid. 

fk^ndosusy -a, -am, adj. [frons], 
covered with leaves, leafy. 

fronSy frondis, v., leaf, foliage; gar- 
land of leaves. 

fronfly -tie, F., hrow, forehead. 
Fkont. 

fractusy -us, M. [fruor], fruit. Cf. 
frumentum. 

framentSriuSy -a, -um, adj. [fru- 
mentum], pertaining to grain; 
res frumentaria, grain-supply. 

frumentuiUy -i, n. [fruor], com, 
grain. Cf. fructus. 

fruor, 3, fructus, enjoy; w. abl. 
(304.) 

frastra, adv., in vain. 

(frax), frugis, f. (oftener plur. ; 
gen.frugum), [tTVLOT'\, fruit of the 
earth, fruits, Cf. fructus. 

ftiga, -ae, F. [tngib, flee"], flight. 

ftigio, 3, fugi, -itum [fugo, fuga], 
run atvay. Fugitive. 

fugo, 1 [fugio, fuga], put to flight, 
chase, drive. 

ftingor, 3, functus, perform, dis- 
charge ;yr.a.hl. (304.) Function. 



GSJus, gen. Gai (also written 

Caius), H., Caius, a Roman first 

name. 
Galba, -ae, m., Gafba, 
Gallia, -ae, f., Gaa/. 
Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. [Gall us], 

belonging to the Gauls, Gallic, 
gallina, -ae, f. [gallus, coclc], 

hen. 
Gallus, -1, M., a Gaul. 
gaudeo, 2, gavisus [gaudium], fte 

glad^ rejoice, (p. 177, note 2.) 



gandium, -i, n. [gaudedj, joy, 

delight. 
gener, -eri, m., son-in-law. 
gens, gentis, f., clan, family. Gen- 
teel. 
genu, -us, N., knee. (245.) 
genus, -eris, n., birth, race; land, 

nature. Gendeb. 
Gennanus, -a, -um, adj., German ; 

noun, a German, 
gero, 3, gessi, gestom, bear, carry ; 

wage, manage, do, 
gladiator, -oris, m. [gladius], 

(svwrdsTnan), gladiator, 
gladius, -I, M., sword. 
gloria, -ae, f., glory, fame, renown, 
gracilis, -e, adj., slender. (207.) 
gradu8,-us,M.,s/£i/). (245.) GaAi>B. 
Graece, ady. [Graecus], in Greek. 
Graecia, -ae, f., Greece, 
Graecus, -a, -um, adj., Grecian, 

Greek; noun, a Greek, 
grSmen, -inis, n., grass, 
granum, -i, n., grain, seed. 
gratulor, 1 [gratus], congratulate; 

w. dat. 
gratus, -a, -um, adj., acceptaiie, 

pleasing. Grateful. 
gravis, -e, adj., heavy, tenous. 

Grave. 
graviter, adv. [gravis], heavily, 

seriously, 
gremium, -i, n., lap, bosom. 
grex, gregis, v,,Jlock, herd, 
gusto, 1, taste, eat. 

habeS, 2, have, hold. 

habito, 1 [frequentative of habeo], 

inhabit; dwell, live. (194.) 
Hannibal, -alis, m., Hannibal, a 

famous Carthaginian general, 
Hasdrubal, -alls, m., Haadrubal, 

a Carthaginian general, brother of 

HannibaL 



hasta 



239 



imperium 



hasta, -ae, f., spear, 

hauriSy 4, hausi, haiistmn, draw 

(water), drain. Exhaust. 
Hector, -oris, m., Hector, chief of 

the Trojan warriors. 
Henna, -ae, f.. Henna, a city of 

Sicilff. 
heri, ady., yesterday. 
hie, haec, h5c, dem. pron., this, 

this of mine f abl., hoc, on this 

ticcount; as pers. pron., he, she, 

it. (275.) 
hleni8(hiemps), hiemis, f., winter; 

storm. 
hlnc, ady. [hic], ^om this place, 

hence. 
Hlsp&nla, -ae, f., Spain. 
Hlspanus, -i, m., a Spaniard. 
histoiia, -ae, f., history. 
hodie, ady. [hoc, die], to-day. 
Homerus, -i, m., Homer, the earli" 

est and greatest Greek poet, 
homo, -inis, m. and f. (human 

being), man. (138.) 
honestas,-atis,F. [honestus], Aonor, 

integrity, honesty, 
honorlfice, ady., honorably, 
honor, -oris, m., honor, 
honors, 1 [honor'], honor, respect, 
hora, -ae, f., hour. 
HorStius, -1, M., Horatius, Horace. 
horridus, -a, -urn, adj. [horreo, 

shttdder at'],jrightjid, rough, ivild. 

Horrid. 
hortor, 1, urge, exhort, encourage, 
hortus, -1, M., garden, (38.) 
hospes, -itis, m. and f., host, guest, 

guestfriend. Hospital. 
hostis, -is, M. and f., enemy, (140, 

172.) Hostile. 
hflc, ady. [for old form hoc], to 

this place, hither. 
hSmfinus, -a, -nm, adj. [homo], 

hunfan ; cultivated, refined. 




ibi, ady. [is], in that place, there. 
Icarus, -1, Icarus, son of Dcedalus. 
idem, eadem, idem, determ. pron. 

[is], same, (270.) 
idoneus, -a, -iim, BA\,,fit, suitable, 

proper, 
Idas, -uum, f. plur., the Ides (of 

the month). The thirteenth, except 

in March, May, July, and Octo- 
ber; in those months the fif- 
teenth. (244. 1.) 
igltur, conj. (seldom the first 

word), therefore, then. Cf. ergo 

and itaque. 
IgnSvia, -ae, f. [ign&yns], laziness, 

idleness, cowardice, 
ignavus, -a, -iim, adj. [in, not, 

gnayus, busy"], lazy, idle, cowardly, 
ignis, -is, 'NL,,fire, (149.) 
ignSrS, 1 [ignarus, ignorant"], not 

know, be ignorant of. 
ille, -a, -ud, demon, pron., that 

(yonder) ; as pers. pron., he, she, 

it, (275.) 
illOc, ady. [ille], to that place, 

thither, there, 
im&gS, -inis, f., image, likeness, 

picture. (134.) 
imitor, 1, imitate. 
immanis, -e, adj., huge, immense, 

monstrous. Cf . magnus. 
impedio, 4 [in, pes], (entangle the 

feet) J impede, hinder, prevznt. 
im-pell5, 3, -pull, -pulsum [in], 

urge on, impel, prompt, 
imperator, -oris, m. [impero], 

commander, general. Emperor. 
imperium, -i, n. [impero], com* 

mand, authority, power. Empibb. 



ImperO 



240 



XnHsiiin 



imperil^ 1 [impeiiam], ordier, com- 

mand; w. dat. 
impetrOy 1, accompliMh; gain, prO' 

cure, obtain, Cf . adipiscor. 
Impetii8>-us, M. [impeto, rusA upon^, 

attack, onset. Impetuous. 
im-pleSy 2, -evl, -etum [in],^ up, 

Jill full, Jill. Cf . compleo. 
im-plordy 1 [in], cry out to, beseech, 

implore, 
Im-pSnOy Z, -posul, -positum [in], 

put or place upon, 
Improbufly -a, -urn, adj. [in, not, 

probns, good^, bad, wicked, Cf. 

mains. 
im-prS-visSy ady. [video], unex" 

pededly, 
im-pudensy -^ntls, adj. [in], shames 

less, impudent, 
in, prep. w. ace. into, to, against, 

for; w. abl., in, on, (333, 1, 2.) 
in, prefix, in composition with 

nouns, adjectives, and parti- 
ciples, often having negative 

sense. Cf. Eng. un-, in-, not, 
inSnis, -e, adj., empty, useless, 
in-cautus, -a, -um, ti^j,, incautious, 

heedless, 
in-certus, -a, -um, adj., uncertain, 
in-cidOy 3, -cidi, -casum [cado], 

JaU into; happen, befaU, Cf. ac- 

cid5 and Svenio. 
in-cipioy 3, -cepi, -oeptum [capio], 

(take in hand), begin, Cf. ordior. 
in-cognitus, -a, -um, Sid}.,unknoum. 
incola, -ae, h. and f. [incol5], in- 
habitant, 
in-colo, 3, -uT, — [incola], dwell 

in, inhabit, live, dwell, Cf . habitd 

and vivo. 
incolumis, -e, adj., unharmed, safe, 
inde, adv. [is], thence, 
indicium^ -!, n.» discovery, dis* 

dosure. 



tn-eO^ -ire, -iit -itum, go in, enter; 

begin, (327.) 
Inferi, -orum, m. (inferus, bdow"], 

inhabitants of the lower world, the 

dead. Infernal. 
in-fero, inferre, intuli, illatum 

(Inl) (fiear in or against), cause; 

helium inferre, maice war upon; 

w. dat (321.) 
Infestus, -a, -um, adj., hostile, 

troublesome, dangerous. Infest. 
In-ficio, 3, -feci, -fectimi [facio], 

stain, color, 
in-flnitus, -a, -um, adj. [finis], 

boundless, unlimited, infinite, vast. 
Iii-flect5, 3, -zi, -xum, bend; change, 

alter. Inflect. 
in-gredior, 3, -gressus [gradior, 

step'\, enter. 
in-hiS, 1, gape at, long for, 
in-imlcus, -a, -um, adj. [amicus], 

unfriendly, hostile ; noun, enemy, 

(172.) Inimical. 
initium, -i, n. [ineo], beginning. 

Initial. 
inJOiia, -ae, f. [in, jus], injustice, 

injury, wrong, 
i^JQstS, adv. [injQstus], unjustly, 
inopia, -ae, f. [inops, wi^out re- 

sources'^, want, poverty. 
inquam, defective verb, say; in- 
quit (placed after one or more 

quoted words), said he, 
in-stituS, 3, -ui, -utum [statuo, 

place'], fix, determine, undertake. 

Institute. 
instrnctus, -a, -um [P. of instruo], 

furnished, equipped, 
in-struS, 3, -struxi, -structum 

[struo, build], build up, form, in* 

struct, teach, 
insula, -ae, f. , island. Peninsula* 
in-sum, -esse, -fui, , be in, 

among; w. dat. and tit w. abL 



intel-lego 



241 



judicium 



Intel-I^gSy 3, -lezi, -lectnm [inter], 
see into; understand. Intellect. 

inter, prep. w. ace, between, among, 
amid. 

inter-eoy -ire, -ii, -itum, perish, 

inter-duniy adv., sometimes, 

inter-ficioy 3, -feci,' -fectum [fa^ 
cid], kUl, put to death, Cf. nec5 
and occido. 

interior, -us, adj. [no positive], 
inner, interior, 

inter-pellSy 1, interrupt; entreat, 
importune, 

inter-rogo, 1, ask, inquire, question. 
(382.) Intshrogation. 

inter^sum, -esse, -f ui, , he pres- 
ent at or among; w. dat. Cf. ad- 
sum. 

intra, prep. w. ace, within. Cf. 
extra. 

in-tueor, 2, look towards, at, or upon. 
Intuition. 

intoSy ady. [in], within, inside. 

in-veni5y 4, -yeni, -Tentum, come 
upon, find, meet vnth, discover. 
Invent. Cf. reperio. 

in-vicem, adv., by turns, in turn, 
akemately. 

in-victus, -a, -um, adj., unconquer- 
able, invincible, 

invito, 1, invite. 

invf tus, -a, -iiin, adj., unwilling, re- 
luctant, 

in-voco, 1, call upon, invoke, 

io, interj., oA/ oA/ 

ipse, -a, -um, intens. pron., self, 
very. (270.) 

Ira, -ae, f., anger, vxrath; ire, 

ir-rideo, 2, -nsi, -risum [in], laugh 
at, ridicule ; jest, mock. 

is, ea, id, determ. pron., that*, as 
pers. pron., he, she, it. (270.) 

iste, -a, -ud, demon, pron., that (of 
yours). (275.) 



ita, adv., so, thus. Cf. sic. 
Italia, -ae, f., ita//. 
Italus,' -a, -um, adj., Italian. 
ita-que^ conj., and so, therefore, Cf. 

ergo and igitur. 
item, ady. [ita], likewise, also. 

Item. 
iter, itineris, n. [eo], way, road, 

march. (262.) Itinerant. 
iterum, adv., a second time, again. 

Iteration. 
Ithaca, -ae, f., Ithaca, an island in 

the Ionian Sea, 
Itius, H., Itiua, a port in Gaul, 

Jaceo, 2, -ui, [jacio], (he 

throum), lie, 
jacio, 3, jeci, jactum [jaceo], throw, 

cast, hurl, fling, 
jam, adv., already, now, at hut, Cf . 

nunc. 
jamjam, adv., already; jamjam 

yenturus, on the point of coming. 
janua, -ae, f. [Janus], door, Cf. 

porta. 
Janus, -i, H. [janua], Janus, the 

twofaced god. 
jejanium, -i, n. [jejunus], fast, 

hunger, 
Jejanus, -a, -um [jejunium], fast- 
ing, hungry, without food, 
Jocus, -1, M. (plur. joci and joca), 

joke, jest; per jocum, in jest, for 

a joke, 
Jolianniculus, -i, m., little John, 

Johnny, Jack, 
Jubeo, 2, jussi, jussum, bid, order, 

command, Cf. impero. 
jacundus, -a, -um, adj., pleasant, 

agreeable. 
Judex, -icis, h. [judico], judge. 

(105.) 
Judicium^ -i, k. [judico], judg' 

ment, opinion. 



Jfldiod 



242 



loquor 



JBdio9» 1 [jUe±], Judg9. (429.) 
JolliiSy -i, M., Juh'uB, a Roman 

family name, 
JSppitery JoTis, m., Jupiter, the sti- 

preme deity of the Romans, (262.) 
JBrily 1 [jus], swear, take an oath, 
Jfis, juriB, H., right, Justice. (140.) 

Cf.fas. 
JfiBBUSy -US, M. [jubeo], command, 

order, 
JfiBtSy adv. [Justus], rightly, Justi/, 
JuveniSy -is, m. and f., youth, young 

person, Cf. adulescens. 
Juventfis, -fitis, f. [juyenis], the 

secuon of youth, youth, 

liabieniu, -i, m., Labienua, a lieu- 
tenant of CcBsar's. 

labor, H., -oris, labor, 

laborOy 1 [labor], work, toil. 

labrum, -i, k., lip. 

laCy lactis, n., milk. Lacteal. 

liacedaemonliy -onim, m., the 
Lacedaemonians. 

lacrimay -ae, f., tear. Lachtmose. 

lacusy -us, H., ialre, pond. 

Ijaevinusy -i, m., Laevinus, a Ro- 
man consul, 

lapiSy -idis, m., stone. Lapidart. 

Ljatiney adv. [Latinus], in Latin. 

Ijatlnusy -a, -um, adj. [Latium], 
Latin ; noun, a Latin. 

latrOy 1, hark, bark at, 

latro, -onis, m., robber. 

latasy -a, -um, adj., broad, wide. 
Latitude. 

latusy -eris, n., side. Lateral. 

laudSy 1 [laus], praise, iaud, 

laiiSy laudis, f. [laudo], praise, 
glory, fame. 

ISgatuSy -1, M. [Ieg5, depute"], am- 
bassador, lieutenant. Legate. 

leglOy -dnis, f. [lego], (a gathering), 
legion. 



legQy 3, leg!, lectum, gather ; #0- 
led; read. 

leniSy -6, adj., soft, smooth, gentle, 

leSy -onis, m., lion. (134.) 

lepusy -oris, m., hare, 

levisy -e, adj. £lev6], light, (150.) 

levoy 1 [levis],///} up, raise, lighten. 

lexy legis, f., law. Legal. 

llbenter, ady. [libet, it pleases^, 
willingly, gladly; libenter video, 
/ am glad to see, 

liber, -bri, ^., book, 

liber, -era, -erum, adj.,yr«e. Lib- 
eral. (71.) 

liiber, -eri, m., Bacchus, god of 
wine, 

llbere, adv. [liber], freely, fear- 
lessly. 

llberi, -orum, m. [liber], children. 
(60.) 

liberS, 1 [liber], set free, free, lib' 
erate ; w. abl. 

llbertSs, -atis, f. [liber], freedom, 
liberty. 

licet, 2, licuit or licitum est, im- 
pers., it is permitted, (one) may. 

ligneus, -a, -um, adj. [lignum], of 
wood, wooden, 

lignum, -i, n., wood; plur., sticks 
of wood. 

ligo, -onis, M., mattock, hoe. 

lilium, -i, N., lily. 

lingua, -ae, f., tongue, language. 

littera, -ae, f., letter (of the alpha' 
bet); plur., letter, epistle; litera- 
ture. 

litus, -oris, n., shore, beach, bank. 

locus, -i, M. (plur., loci and loca), 
place, position, spot. Local. 

longe, adv. [longus], yar off; wide- 
ly, greatly, much, by much. 

longus, -a, -um, adj., long. Lon- 
gitude. 

loquor, 3, locutus, speak, talk. 



IfLetas 



248 



melior 



lllctiUy -lis, M. [lugeo], moumtng, 

lamentation. 
IficuSy -1, M. [laced, shine'], (open 

pkice in a wood), wood, grove, 
ladOy 3, loBi, lusum [ludus], play, 

InterLUDB. 
IflduSy -1, M. [ludo], game, play. 

lageOy 2, luxi, , mourn, lament, 

lamen, -inis, n. [laced, lux], light. 

Luminous. 
lana, -ae, f. [laced, lux], moon, 

Luna. 
lupus, -1, M., wolf, 
lusclnlay -ae^ f., nightingale, 
luxy lucis, F. [luceo, ihinel, light, 

daylight. 

M.9 abbreviation of Marcus, a Ro- 
man first name, 
macte, adj. [voc. of mactus], he 

honored f he blessed; hail! well 

done ! (p. 178, note 8.) 
maculSy 1, stain, 
mag^s, adr. [m&g(na8)], more, 
magister, -tri, m. [mag(nu8)], 

master, teacher, Cf . praeceptor. 
magistrfitusy -us, m. [magister], 

(the office of a magister), magis- 

iracy, magistrate, 
ToRgnitLcuSf -a, -urn, adj. [mag- 

nnsyfacid], splendid, magnificent, 
magnitSdSy -inis, f. [magnus], 

greatness, size, magnitude, 
mfignus, -a,-um, adj. (comp. m&jor, 

superl. mazimus), great, large, 
m^or, -us, comp. of m&gnus. 

Majob. 
malOy ady. [malus], badly, ill, 

(219.) 
mfilSy m&Ue, malui, [magis, 

Tolo], be more willing, prefer, 

would rather, (316.) 
malum) -i, n., bad thing, evil, 
mfilum^ -i, N., apple. 



maluSy -a, -nm, adj. (comp. pejor^ 

sap. pessimas), bad, evil; baleful, 

(208.) Cf. improbus. 
m&ne^ adv., in the morning, 
maneoy 2, mansi, mansum, stay^ 

remain, await, 
manesy -ium, m., departed spirits, 

souls, 
ManliuS) -I, m., Manliue, a Roman, 
manus, -lis, f., Iiand; force, band, 

(244, 1.) Manual. 
Marcellusy -i, h., Marcellua, a 

Roman general, 
mare, -is, n., sea, (149.) Marine. 
maritimus, -a, -am, adj. [mare], 

belonging to the sea, bordering on 

the sea, maritime, 
Marius (C), -i, m., Odjus Mariua, 

a famous Roman general, 
Mfirtiusy -1, M. [Mars], Marc/i, 

Often as adj. 
massa, -ae, f., mass. 
mater, -tris, f., mother. Mater- 
nal. 
materia^ -ae, f. [mater], (mother- 

stuff), materials, timber, 
matrSna, -ae, f. [mater], matron, 

wife, lady, 
mfitSrSy 1 [maturas, ripe], hasten, 
maxime, ady. [maximns], most, 

especially, greatly, (219.) 
maximusy -a, -urn, saperl. of ma- 
gnus. (208.) 
medlcusy -i, m. [medeor, cure], 

physician. Medicine. 
mecUterraneus, -a, -um, adj. [me- 

dins, terra], midland, inland, 

Mediterranean. 
medlus, -a, -am, adj., middle; 

often to be translated midst, 
Meldiy -oram, m., the Meldi, a people 

of Gaul, 
melior^ -us, comp. of bonus. 

(208.) 



mellitus 



244 



morior 



mellltiUy -a, -mn, adj. [mel, honey'], 
honey-gweet, darling. 

memory -oris, adj., mindful, (150.) 
Memorable. 

memorlay -ae, f. [memor], memory. 

mendaciumy-i, k. [mendax], lying, 
/cUsehood. 

mendaxy -acis, adj., [mentior], 
lying, deceitful. 

mens, mentis, f., mind, purpose, 
(273.) Mental. 

mensay -ae, f., to&/e. 

menslSy -is, m., month. 

mentior, 4 [mendax], lie, deceive, 

Mercuriusy -i, m., Mercury, messen- 
ger of the gods. (79.) 

merely \2, be roorthy of, deserve, 

mereor, ) merit. 

meridianus, -a, -urn, adj. [men- 
dies], of or belonging to midday, 
noon; meridian. 

MetelluSy -i, m., Metellue, a Roman 
general, 

metuQy 3, -ui, -utum [metu8],year. 
Cf . timeo. 

metusy -us, m. [metuo], /ear, dread. 
Cf. timor. 

meus, -a, -um, poss. pron. (voc. 
sing. mas. mi), my, mine, 

migrS, 1, migrate. 

iniles9-itis,M.,«oZ</ter. (105.) Mil- 
itary. 

mllley num. adj., indecl. in sing.; 
in plur. milia, -ium, thousand. 
(311, 6.) 

Hiltlades,-is,M.,Af/7//a(/e8,a Greek 
general. 

Mlnervay -ae, f., Minerva, goddess 
of wisdom. 

mhiime, ady. [minimus], hast; 
no, by no means, far from it. 

minister^ -tri, m. [minus], (an in- 
ferior), servant. (6Q.) Minister. 
Cf . magister. 



minor, 1 [minae, threats^, threaten, 

minor, -us, comp. of parvus. 

minus, ady. [minor], less. 

mIrSbilis, -e, adj. [miror, wonder 
af], to be wondered at ; wonderful, 
extraordinary. 

misellas, -a, -um, adj. [diminutiye 
of miser], poor little. 

miser, -era, -erum, adj., wretched, 
unhappy, miserable, 

miseret, 2, -itum est, impers. [mi- 
ser], it makes misercUde, it excites 
pity, (one) pities; nds miseret, ice 
pity, (415.) 

miseria, -ae, f. [miser], wretched- 
ness, misery. 

Mithridates, -is, m., Miihridates, 
king of Pontus. 

mitto, 3, misi, missum, send. Mis- 
sion. 

modestia, -ae, f. [modestus], mod- 
esty. 

modius, -1, H. [modus], measure; 
peck. 

modo, ady. [modus], ordy; modo 
. . . modo, now , , , now. 

molestus, -a, -um, adj. [moles, 
piW], troublesome. Molest. 

mollio, 4 [mollis], sofen. Moi^ 

LIFY. 

moneo, 2, -ui, -itum, remind, ad- 
vise, warn. Monitor. (112.) 

mons, montis, m., mountain, hill. 
Cf. collis. 

mSnstro, 1 [moneo], show, point 
out. Demonstrate. 

monumentum, -i, n. [mone5], 
(that which reminds), memoncU, 
monument, 

mora, -ae, f., delay. 

Morini, -orum, m., the Morini, a 
people of Gaul, 

morior, 3, mortuus [mors], (fut 
part, moriturus), die. 



mdrosus 



245 



nocta 



mOrSsuSy -a, -urn, adj. lm6B],/ret' 

ftd, cross ; morose, 
mortallB, -e, adj. [mors], (liable 

to death), mortaL 
mortuusy -a, -urn, adj. [P. of mo- 

rior], dead, 
morsy mortis, f. [morior], death, 
moSy mdris, m., manner, habit, cus- 

torn. '(1^-) Moral. 
motusy -us, M. [moveo], motion, 

movement; tumult, disturbance* 
moveo, 2, movi, motum, move, 
inoxy adv., soon, presently, 
muller, -eris, f., woman, 
miiltltad5, -inis, f. [multns], mul- 

titude. 
multuDiy ady. [multus], much. 
miiltuSy -a, -nm, adj., comp. plus, 

superl. plurimus, much, many. 
mundusy -i, m., world, universe, Cf . 

■)rbis terrarum. 
maiiiOy 4 [moenisL, Jbrt\/ications'], 

fortify, defend, 
manitiOy -onis, f. [munio], fortifi- 
cation. Munition. 
maruSf -i, m., wall, 
mfito, 1, change, alter. Mutation. 



nam, conj.,yor. Cf. enim. 
nanciscory 3, nanctus and nactus, 

get, obtain ; find, meet with, 
narro, 1, tell, relate, report, narrate. 
nSscor, 3, natus, be bom ; be found, 
Nasica, -ae, m., Naaica, surname 

of one of the Scipios, 
nata, -ae, f. [P. of nascor], 

daughter, Cf. filia. 
nStnra, -ae, f. [nascor], nature, 
nauta, -ae, m. [for nayita ; nayis], 

sailor, 
nSvicula, -ae, f. [diminutiye of 

nayis], little vessel, boat. Cf. 

cymba. 



nfivigStiSy -onis, f. [n&yigo], a 

sailing; navigation, 
navigSy 1 [nayis, ago], sail, set 

sail, 
nSvis, -is, f., ship, (154.) Naval. 
ne^ conj., that not, lest; w. hortatory 

subjunctiye, not, 
ne, interrog. ady., enclitic, (p. 10, 

N. 2.) Cf. nonne and num. 
necessSriuSy -a, -urn, adj. [ne- 

cesse], necessary, 
necessitSSy -atis, f. [necesse], ne- 

cessity, constraint, 
nec5, i, hiU, slay, Cf. interficid 

and occido. 
nect5y 8, nexul and nexi, nezum, 

bind, weave, 
negSy 1 [nS, &io, sayl, say not, deny; 

refuse, 
nemSy -inis, m. and f. [nc, homo], 

no one. For gen. and abl. use 

nuUius, nullo. 
XeptSnuSy -i, m., Neptune, god of 

the sea. 
ne-quaquam, ady., by no means, 

not at all, 
ne-que or nee, and not; neque . .. 

neque, neither , , . nor, 
ne-sciSy 4, know not, be ignorant of. 
neuter, -tra, -trum, adj., neither 

(of two), (200.) Neutral. 
niger, -gra, -grum, adj., black, Qi, 

ater. 
nihil, N., indecl., nothing, 
nimium, ady., too, too much. 
ni-si, conj., if not, unless, except. 
nix, niyis, f., snow, (167, 2.) 
nobilis, -e, adj. [nosco], well-known, 

famous; noble, 
noceo, 2, -ui, -itum, do harm to, 

hurt, injure; w. dat. Noxious. 

Cf . obsum. 
noctS, ady. [nox], by night, in iht 

night. 



II015 



246 



oetO 



n019y noUe, nolul, —— , [n6, volo], 

be unmUing, wiU not, noi wish, 

(316.) 
nOineiiy -inis, v. [ndsco], (that by 

which a thing is known), name* 

Nominal. (134.) 
nSminSy 1 [nomen], name, call, 
non, adv. [ne, unum] , not, 
ndn-noy interrog. adv., expecting 

an aflirmative answer, not t Cf . 

-ne and num. 
nSn-nolluSy -a, -um, adj. (not none), 

some, 
nSnuSy -a, -nm, num. adj. [noyem], 

ninth, 
noscOy 3, noviy notum, learn, know, 

P. notus, -a, -um, as adj. known, 
noster, -tra, -trum, poss. pron., 

our, ours. Nostri, our men. 
novusy -a, -um, adj., new, Koy- 

ELTT, • 

noxy noctis, f., night, (167. 2.) 

Nocturnal. 
nabesy -is, f., cloud, (149.) 
nollusy -a, -um, adj. [ne, tlllus], 

not any, no, none, (200.) Nul- 

LITT. 

nam, interrog. ady., expecting a 
negative answer, whether, Cf. 
nonne and -ne. 

Xuma, -ae, m., Numa (Fomptltus), 
second king of Rome, 

numerusy -I, h., number, 

nummusy -1, H., piece of money, 
coin, 

nuncy adv., now, Ct. jam. 

nunquam, adv. [ne, unquam], 
never. 

nSntio, 1 [nuntius], announce, 
report, 

nantiu8> -1, m. [nuntio], bearer of 
news, messenger, 

nusquam, adv. [ne, usquam], no- 
where. 



nlltriS, 4, Jeed, nourish, support 
Cf . aid. 

5, interj., 0, Oh t 

ob-eOy -ire, -ii, -itum, go to, reach. 

meet, 
ob-ligO, 1 [ligo, bind'\, bind, oblige, 

put under obligation, 
oblivlscor, 3, obIitus,yor^^ 
ob-ruOy 3, -ul, -utum, overwhelm, 

cover, bury, 
obses, -sidis, h. and f. [ob, sedeo], 

(one who sits or remains as a 

pledge), hostage, 
ob-sideo, 2, -sedi, -sessum [sedeo], 

(sit against), blockade, besiege, 

Cf. oppugno. 
ob-slsto, 3, -stiti, -stitum, oppose, 

withstand, obstruct; w. dat. 
ob-sum, -esse, -fui, , be against, 

opposed t ; injure; w. dat. Cf, 

noceo. 
ob-temperOy 1, comply with, yield 

to; w. dat. 
ob-viam, adv., tn the way, towards ; 

with verb of motion, meet; w. dat. 
occfisusy -us, M. [occido], (a sink" 

ing), setting, 
occidSy 3, -cidi, -casum [ob, cado^, 

fall down, fall. 
occido, 3, -cidi, -cisum [ob, caed5, 

cut"], cut down, kill, Cf . neco and 

interficid. 
occupS, 1 [ob, capio], take posses- 

sion of, seize ; occupy, Cf • potior. 
oc-currS, 8, -curri, -cursum [ob], 

run to meet; meet, fall tn with. 

Occur. 
OceanuSy -I, H., ocean, 
ocellus, -1, M. [diminutive of ocu- 

lus], little eye, 
octSvus, -a, -urn, num. adj. [octS]. 

eighth. 
octOy num. adj., indecl., eight. 



oculus 



247 



parens 



oculus, -1, M., eye, Ocuulb. 

of-fero, offere, obtuli, obl&tum 
[ob], (bring before^, present , offer, 
(321.) 

ofllcium, -1^ K. [opus, f acio], service, 
duty, office, 

Slimy adv. [oUe, old form of ille], 
(at that timely formerly, once; at 
some time or other; hereafter, Cf. 
aliquando and quondam. 

omnlSy -e, adj., whole, all, every, Cf. 
totuB. 

onusy -ens, n.> load, burden. On- 
erous. 

opera, -ae, p. [opus], labor, care, 
attention; operam dare, try ; ope- 
ra, on account of. Operate. 

oportety 2, -uit, impers. [opus], it 
is necessary, it behooves; (one^ 
must or ought, 

oppldllnusy -a, -urn, adj. [oppi- 
dum], of a town ; noun, townsman, 

oppldum, -1, N., town, 

op-pleo, 2, -evi, -etum [ob], fill 
up; cover, 

opportonus, -a, -um, adj.,^f, con- 
venient, suitable ; opportune. 

op-pSgno, 1 [ob], attack, assault, 
besiege, Cf . expugno and obsideo. 

[ops], opis, F., aid, assistance; 
plur., />ow>6r, strength, resources, 

optlmSy adv. [optimus], most ex- 
cellently, best, (219.) 

optSy 1, wish, desire, long for, Cf . 
cupio and desidero. 

opus, -eris, v., work, labor (140) ; as 
indecl. noun, need, necessity; opus 
est, it is necessary, 

9rficulum, -i, n. [oro], oracle, 

9rfiti5, -onis, p. [oro], prayer, plea ; 
speech, oration, 

Qrfitor, -oris, m. [oro], orator, am- 
bassador, 

orbls, -is, M., circU, orb; orbis ter- 



ramm, earth, world, (154.) 
orbus, -a, -um, adj., bereaved, child* 

less, 
Orcus, -1, M., Orcue, the lower world ; 

also Pluto, the god of the lower 

world, 
ordlor, 4, orsus, begin, undertake, 

Cf . incipio. 
9rd5, -inis, M., row, rank; order, 

arrangement, 
orl3n8, -entis, m. [P. of orior], 

rising; east, 
orlor, 4, ortus (pres. ind. of conj. 

3, orfiris, oritur; imp. subj. orirer 

or orirer; f ut. part, oriturus), rise, 

appear; begin, 
omSmentum, -i, n. [omo], (that 

which adorns'), ornament, jewel, 
ornS, 1, adorn, ornament, 
orS, 1 [os], pray, beg, Cf. pet5 and 

rogo. 
SSy oris, N., mouth, face. Oral. 
os-tend5, 3, -di, -cnsum [ob(8)], 

(stretch out before), show, display, 
ostium, -1, Tx, [os], entrance, door, 
ovls, -is, p., sheep, 
ovum, -i, N., egg. Oval. 



pSbulum, -1, N. [pasco], food, fod- 
der, Cf. cibus. 

paene, adv., nearly, almost, Cf. 
fere. 

paenltentla, -ae, p. [paenited], 
repentance, penitence, X^niten- 

TIART. 

pains, -udis, p., swamp, marsh, 

pSr, paris, adj., equal, 

par&tus, -a, -um, adj. [P. of paro], 

ready, prepared, 
pares, 3, perpercl (parsi), panum, 

spare; w. dat. 
parens, -entis, m. and p., parent, 

(167. 1.) 



pftred 



248 



peiHspieio 



pllreOy 2, -111, — , (comeforiht ap- 
pear), be obedient to, obey; w. dat. 

parlOy 3, peperi, i>aritiim and par- 
tum, bring forth, lay, 

pariter, ady. [par], equally, 

parSf 1, make ready, prepare, get. 

parsy partia, f., part, piece, portion, 
share, 

partior, 4 [pars], divide; part, 
share, 

Parusy -1, F., Pares, an island in the 
jEgean Sea, (11. 4.) 

parvus, -a,-um, adj. (comp. minor, 
superl. minimus), small, little, 

pfiscSy 3, paTi, pastum, fied, tend; 
pasture, 

passer, -eris, m., sparrow, 

passuSy -us, M. [pateo], (a stretch- 
ing out of the foet in walking), 
step, pace, 

pSstor, -oris, m. [paged], foeder, 
keeper; shepherd, (134.) Pabtob. 

patedy 2, -ui, , lie open, be open, 

P. patens, open, 

pater, -tris, M.,fouher, (134.) Pa* 

TERNAL. 

patlenter, ady. [patiens], patient- 

ly, with patience, 
patdor, 3, passus, bear, suffer, en- 
dure. Passion. 
patria, -ae, f. [patrius, pater; sc. 

terra], fatherland, native land, 
country, Expatbiatb. 
paucusy -a, -um, adj. (generally 

pi\iT,),few, little. Paucity. 
paulo, ady. [paulus], by a little, 

little. 
paulus, -a, -um, adj., little, 
Paullus, -1, M., surname ofjEmilius, 
pauper, -eris, ad j ., poor, (1 67. 3.) 
pax, p&cis, F. (no gen. plur.), 

peace. Pacify. 
peecStum, -i, n. [pecco], mistake, 

faulty sin. 



peccOy 1, make a mistake, commit a 

fault, sin, 
pectus, -oris, v., breast, 
pecus, -oris, n., cattle, herd. 
pedes, -itis, m. [^a], foot-eoldier, 
pejor, -us, comp. of malus. (208.) 
pellis, -is, F., skin, hide, Pblt. 
pSnsum, -1, N. [P. of i)endd], (what 

is weighed out, e.g. wool, as a task 

far spinning), task; lesson, exer- 
cise, 
per, prep, w, ace, through^ by, by 

meanfof, on o/ccofunX of. 
pera, -ae, f., bag, wallet. 
per-agr9, 1 [ager], wander through, 

pass over, traverse. 
per-do, 3, -didi, -ditum, destroy; 

lose. Cf . amitto. 
per-dQco, 3, -duzi, -ductmn, letid 

or bring through, 
per-e9, -ire, -ii, , perish, be 

ruined. (327.) 
per-fodio, 3, -fddi, -fossum, dig 

through, pierce, stab. 
per-firingS, 3, -fregi, -fractum, 

[frango], break through, break, 
per-fuglo, 3, -fugi, ,flee (far 

refage). 
pergo, 3, perrexi, perrectum [per, 

rego], go on, continue, 
periculum, -i, n. [perior, try"}, 

trial, attempt; risk, danger, peril. 
peritus, -a, -um, adj. [P. of perior, 

try'], (having tried), skilful. 
per-mitto, 3, -misi, -mlssum, allow, 

grant, suffer, permit^ Cf . sino. 
per-paucus, -a, -um, adj. (gener- 
ally plur.), veryfaw. 
Persae, -arum, m., the Persians, 
per-sequor, 3, 'CvlImb, fallow persist- 

ently, fallow up. 
per-spicio, 8^ -spexi, -spectum, 

[8pecio],see through, see into; per* 

ceive, observe, Pebsfbctiyb. 



per-std 



249 



post-eft 



|>er-stO) 1, -stitii -statnm, stand 

fast, persevere, persist, 
per-terreSy 2, -ui, -itum, thoroughly 

frighten, 
pertlnSclay -ae, f. [pertinax], per- 

severance; obstinacy, Fektinac- 

ITY. 

per-venioy 4, -reni, -yentum (come 

through to the end), arrive, Cf. 

adyenid. 
pesy pedis, u,,foot, (105.) Pedal. 
petSy Z, -iyi or -ii, -itum, seek, de- 

mand, beg. Petition. Cf. oro 

and rogo. 
PhllotimiiSy -I, M., Phifotimus, 
piger, -gra, -gram, adj., slow, lazy, 

indolent, 
pigety 2, -uit or -itum est, imper- 
sonal, it disgusts, (one") is dis- 
gusted. (416.) 
plgrltia, -ae, f. [piger], laziness, 

sloth, indolence, 
pamn, -i, v.,javdin, 
pipioy 1, chirp, 
placeoy 2, -ui, -itum [placidus], 

phase; w. dat. 
placidSy ady. [placidus], softly, 

gently, quietly. Placidly. 
placidusy -a, -nm, adj. [placeo], 

gentle, quiet, calm. Placid. 
plfinitiesy -ei, f. [planus, even, 

ievdj, (a flatness), level ground, 

plain. 
plfinusy -a, -um, adj. [planities], 

even, flat, level, plain, 
Plataeenses, -ium, m., the Platae- 

ans, inhabitants ofPlatoRa, 
plebSy plebis, f., the comfnon people, 

multitude. Plebeian. 
plSniu, -a, -um, adj. [pled, fUQ, 

ftdl. 
plenuquey -aque, -umque, adj. 

(generally plur.), very many, most, 

tA« greater part. 



plumbum^ -i, n., lead; plumbum 

album, tin. 
pins, pluris, adj., comp. of multus. 

(208.) 
PlfltOy -onis, Pluto, M., god of tht- 

lower world. 
poculum, -1, N., cup, bowl, 
poemoy -atis, v., poem. 
poena, -ae, f. [punio], quit-money, 

fine, punishment. Penal. 
Poenf y -drum, m., the Carthaginians, 
Poeniceusy -a, -um, adj. [Poeni], 

Carthaginian. See Punicus. 
poeta, -ae, h., poet. 
polliceory 2, promise, Cf. pro* 

mittd. 
Polyphemus, -I, m., PolyphemuB, 

a Cyclops. 
Pompejus, -ei, h., Pompeyt a fa- 
mous Roman general. 
pSmum, -1, IX., fruit, 
pondus, -eris, k. [pendo, weigh^, 

weight. 
pono, 3, posui, positum, put, place,, 

set. Position, 
pSns, -ntis, h., bridge, 
Popedius, •!, H., Popedius, a Latin, 
populus, -1, H., people. 
Porcius, -1, H., a Boman family 

name, 
Porsena, -ae, m., Porsena, an 

Etruscan king, 
porta, -ae, f., gate, door. Portal. 

Cf. janua. 
porto, 1, carry, bring. Cf. fero and 

veho. 
portlcus, -Us, F. [porta], portico. 
portus, -us, M., harbor, port. (247.) 
possum, posse, potui, [potis, 

able, sum], be abUy can. (292.) 
post, prep. w. ace, after, behind; 

as ady., for postea, (ifienoards, 

after, 
post-efi, ady., afterwards. 



posteriu 



250 



pr5-gredior 



posterus, -a, -amy adj. [post] 
(comp. posterior, superL postre- 
muB or poBtaxauB),/oUowinfff next, 

poBtrhECf ady., aJUr this time, here- 
after, hencrforth, 

postrfdiSy adv. [posterd die], on 
the day aJUr, the fiUowing day, 

postiilC^ 1, ask, demand, Cf. quiB- 
ro and rogd. 

potSnst -entis, adj., [P. of possum], 
abU, powerful ; potent, 

potior, 4 [potis, able'], become mas- 
ter of, get, get possession of; w. 
gen. or abl. Cf. adipiscor. 

praebeSy 2 [prae, habed], hold forth, 
offer, furnish. 

praeceps, -ipitis, adj. [prae, ca- 
put], head-foremost, headlong; rash, 
precipitate, 

praeceptoFy -oris, m. [praeceptum], 
teacher, preceptor. Cf . magister. 

praeceptum, -!, k. [praeceptor], 

maxim, precept 
praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoil, prey* 

Pkedatory. 
praecUc5» 1 [prae, dic5, -Are, make 

knoum]^ proclaim, boast, 
prae-eSy -ire, -ii, -itum, go before; 

be at the head. (827. 2.) 
praemiam, -I, v., reward, prize. 

Premium. 
praesidium, -I, n. [prae, sedeo, sit 

before"] f defence, help; troops, gar^ 

rison. 
praest&ns, -antis, adj. [P. of prae- 

sto], pre-eminent, distinguished, 
prae-stilS, 1, -stiti, -stitum (st&tum), 

stand before; surpass; fulfil, dis- 

charge, perform. 
prae-sum, -esse, -fui, , be be- 
fore, at the head of, command; w. 

dat 
praeter, prep. w. ace, beyond, be- 

sides, except. 



praeter-e9^ •ire, •ii, •itum, go fry, 
pass by, omit. (827. 2.) Psbi^ 

BHITB. 

praetSrius, -a, -um, adj. [praetor], 
(pertaining to a proetor), prato 
Han ; noun, ex-pnetor, 

prfituniy •!, K., meadow, 

prem9y 8, pressi, pressum, press; 
with Sre, bite, eat, 

[prex], precis, f. (used mostly in 
plur.), prayer, entreaty. 

primus, -a, -um, adj. [super!, with 
comp. prior, no pos.], frst, fore- 
most. Pbimb. 

princeps, -ipis, adj. [primus, ca- 
pio], (taking the first place), 
first, chief; noun, chief, leader, 
(106.) Pmncb. 

prlus-quam, conj., before that, be- 
fore, 

priv9, \, deprive; w. abL 

pr5, interj., 01 

pro, prep. w. abl., before, in behalf 
of, for; considering, 

pro-cSdS, 8, -cessi, -cessum, gofor^ 
ward, advance, proceed, Cf . pro- 
gredior. 

procul, K^Y,, far, far from, 

pr&dOy 3, -didi, -ditum, give forth; 
hand down; give up, betray, 

pr5-dac5, 3, -duxi, -ductum, lead 
forth, 

proelium, -i, n., battle, combat. Cf. 
pugna. 

proficiscor, 8, -fectus, set out, 
march, go. Cf . exeo and egredior. 

pro-fiteor, 2, -fessus [fateor], ac- 
knowledge, confess, declare. Pro- 
fess. 

pro-fligS, 1, overthrow, destroy, ruin. 
Profligate. 

profundus, -a, -um, adj., deep, 
profound. 

pro-|predlor, 8, -gressus [gradiox^ 



i 



pro-hibe5 



261 



quaeso 



step"]} go forward, advance, Pro- 

GBESS. Cf. procedo. 
pro-lilbeOy2 [habeo], (hold in front 

of), hold hackf check, hinder, pre- 

vent, prohibit. 
pro-lciOy 3, -jeci, -jectum [jacio], 

throw forward, cast away, cast. 

Project. 
pro-mitto, 3, -mlsi, -missum [let or 

send forth^, promise; let grow. 

Cf . poUiceor. 
propey prep. w. ace, and ady. 

(comp. propius, superl. proxime), 

near, near to ; nearly, almost. 
pro-pono, 3, -posui, -positum, put 

before, set forth ; make knotvn, rfe- 

clare. Propose. 
prSpositum, -i, n. [propono], pur- 
pose, design, resolution. Proposi- 
tion. 
propriuBy-a, -um, adj., (one's) own. 

Proper. 
pro-pSgno, 1 (Jight in front), rush 

out to bcUtle, make sorties, 
pro-sequor, 3, -cutus, follow, pur* 

sue. Prosecute. 
Proserpina, -ae, f., Proserpina, 

daughter of Ceres. 
pro-BtemOy 3, -strayi, -jstratum, 

overthrow, destroy; prostrate. 
pr5-Buiny prodesse, prof m, , be 

useful to, benefit; w. dat. (293.) 
pro-veho, 3, -vexi, -vectum, carry 

forward, convey; in pass., ride, 

sail. 
pro-vide5y 2, -vidi, -visum, (see 

forward), provide. 
prQvincia, -ae, f., province, 
proximusy -a, -um (superl. with 

comp. propior, no pos.), nearest, 

next. Proximity. 
pradenSy -entis, adj. [for provi- 

dens], wise, sagacious, knowing, 

prudent. (164.) 



prfidenter, ady. [prudens], wisely^ 

prudent//, 
prodentiay -ae, f. [prudens], fore- 
sight, sagacity, wisdom, prudence. 
public us, -a, -um, adj. [populus], 

(pertaining to the people), public. 
PnbliuSy -1, M., Publius, a Roman 

first name, 
pudet^ 2, puduit or puditum est,im- 

pers., it shames, (one) is ashamed. 
puella, -ae, f. [diminutiye of puer], 

girl, maiden, 
puellarisy -e, adj. [puella], girlish, 
puer, -eri, m., boy, child. Puerile. 
puerulus, -i, m. [diminutive of 

puer], little boy. 
pSgna, -ae, f. [pug^o], battle, con* 

test. Pugnacious. Cf . proelium. 
pfigno, 1 [pugna],^^^^ Cf. dimi- 

c6. 
pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj., beauti- 
ful, fair, comely, 
pulchritndo, -inis, f. [pulcher], 

beauty, 
pulvis, -eris, m., dust. Pulverize. 
Pnnicus, -a, -um, adj. [Poeni], 

Carthaginian, Punic; malum Pu- 

menm, pomegranate. See Poeni- 

ceus. 
pnnio, 4 [poena], punish, 
puto, 1, think, believe, reckon. (429.) 
Pyrenaens, -a, -um, adj., PyrO' 

naean, Pyrenees. 
Pyrrhus, -i, m., Pyrrhus, king of 

Epirus. 

quadrSgintS, num. adj., indecl. 

[quattuor], forty. 
quadringenti, -ae, -a, num. adj. 

[quattuor, centum], your hundred, 
quaerd, 3, quaesivi or -il, quaesi- 

tum, seek, ask, inquire. (382.) 
quaeso, 3, -ivi, or -ii, [old 

form of quaero], beg, pray. 



qaam 



252 



regriS 



qnaniy adr. ; interrog., how, how 

much t rel., as much, as, than ; quam 

saepisflime, as often as possible, 
quantusy -a, -um, adj. [quam], 

how great, how much; as great as, 

as much as, 
qufi-rSy ady. (on account of which 

thing), where/ore, 
qufirtus, -a, -urn, num. adj. [quat- 

tuor], ftmrth. Quakt. 
qua-sly ady., as if, 
quater, num. ady. [quattuor],/oMr 

times. 
quattuor, num. adj., indecl.,ybwr. 
quattuor-decim^ num. adj. [de- 

cem], fourteen. 
-quey conj. enclitic, and, Cf. et, 

atque, and ac. 
quercus, -us, f., oah. (11. 4.) 
qui, quae, quod, rel. and adj. pron., 

who, which, what, that. (279.) 
quia, conj., because, Cf. quod. 
quidaniy quaedam, quid(quod)- 

dam, indef. pron., certain, a cer- 
tain one, a, (279. 4.) 
quldem, ady. (neyer the first 

word), indeed, certainly, in truth; 

ne . . . quidem, not even, 
quin, conj. [qui, ne], but that, that. 
quingentiy -ae, -a, num. adj., indecl. 

[quinque, centum], five hundred. 
quinquSginta, num. adj., indecl. 

[quinque], ^y.^ 
quinque^ num. adj., indecl., five. 
quintusy -a, -um, num. adj. [quin- 
que], fifth. 
quintus decimus^ num. adj., fif 

teenth. 
quisy quae, quid, interrog. pron., 

who? which? what? (279.) 
qnisquaniy quidquam (no fem. or 

plur.), indef. pron., any, any one 

(at all). (279. 4.) 
qulsquey quaeque, quid(quod)que, 



indef. pron., each one, eachy every, 
(279. 4.) 

quOy ady., where, whither, 

quody conj., because, Cf. quia. 

quondam, ady., once, formerly, CL 
aliquando and 51im. 

qnonlamy ady. [cum (quom), 
jam], since, because. Cf. cum. 

quoque, conj. and ady. (following 
the emphatic word), also, too. 

qnoty interrog. and rel. adj., in- 
decl., how many ; as many as. 

radius, -i, m., beam, ray. 

radOy 3, rasi, rasum, shave. Razor. 

rSna, -ae, p., frog. 

rapax, -acis, adj. [rapid] , snatching, 

greedy, ravenous. Bapacious. 
rapiSy 3, -ui, -tum [rapax], seize, 

snatch, drag au?ay, Rapturb. 
rSras, -a, -um, adj., far apart, dis- 

persed, single. Rare. 
ratiSy-onis, v., plan, method; reason, 
re-cipi5, 3, -c5pi, -ceptum [capid], 

take back, get again, receive. Se 

recipere, withdraw, retreat. 
recito, 1, read aloud, recite. 
re-creo, 1 [creo, make], refresh, 

recreate. 
recte, ady. [rectus], rightly. 
red-eo, -ire, -ii, -itum [re(d)],.^o 

back, return. (327. 2.) 
reditus, -us, h. [reded], return. 
re-daco, 3, -duxi, -ductum, lead back, 

bring back. Reduce. 
re-fero, -ferre, rettuli, -latum, carry 

back, bring back. (321.) Refer. 

Cf. reports. 
re-flci5, 3, -feci, -fectum [facio], 

make again; repair, restore, re- 
build. 
reginay -ae, f. [rego], (the ruling 

one), queen. 
r^Sy -onis, f., region. 



regno 



253 



rOs 



regnoy 1 [regnum^ ^^li ^ ^'n^y 

rWe, reign. 
regnuniy -i, n. [rex], kingdom. 
regSy 8, rexi, rectum [rex], ruU, 
Beg^uSy -1, M., Regulua, a Roman 

consul. 
re-iciOy 3, -jeci, -jectum [jacio], 

throw back, drive back. Beject. 
re-linquoy 3, -liqui, -lictum [re- 

liquus], leave behind, leave. Be- 

LINQUISH. 

rellquus, -a, -um, adj. [relinquo], 

remaining, the rest. 
re-mittOy 3, -misi, -missum, send 

back. Bemit. 
remusy -i, m., oar. 
Bemus, -i, m., Remua, twin brother 

of Romulus. 
re-pello, 3, reppuli, repulsum, 

drive back, repel, repu/ae. 
re-periOy 4, repperi, repertum [pa- 

Tid, procure"], Jind, discover, ascer- 
tain. Cf. invenio. 
re-petOy 3, -petivi or -ii, -petitum, 

seek again, demand back; res re- 

petd, demand restitution. 
re-pleSy 2, -evi, -etum, (Jill again'), 

Jill up, Jill. Beplete. 
re-porto, 1, bring back, carry back. 

Cf . refero. 
re-prehendSy 3, -di, -hensum, hold 

back, restrain, reprove. Bepre- 

hensiye. 
re-putSy 1, (count over), reckon; 

think over. 
rSSy rei, f., thing, event, circumstance, 

affair (264) ; res publica, repub- 

lie, state, commonwealth, 
re-scindSy 3, -scidi, -scissum, tear 

away, break down. Bescind. 
re-sponde5y 2, -di, -sponsum, 

(promise in return), answer, reply, 

respond. 
re-stlta5y 3, •ui, -utum [statuo]. 



replace; give back, return, restore 

Bebtitution. 
re-stOy 1, restiti, , stop behind^ 

stand still, remain. 
re-tineSy 2, -tinui, -tentum [teneo], 

hdd back, restrain, retain. 
re-vertor, 3, -ti, -sum (deponent 

in pres. imp. and f ut.), turn back, 

return. Beyebt. 
re-vocOy 1, call back, recall. 
rex, regis, m. [reg5], (rtder), king. 

(106.) 
Rhea Silvia, -ae, f., Rhea Si/yia, 

mother of Romulus and Remus. 
Bhenus, -i, m., the Rhine. 
Rhodus, -1, F., Rhodes, an island 

in the jEgean Sea. 
rictus, -us, M. [ringor, open the 

mouth], jaws wide open; jaws. 
rideo, 2, risi, lisum, laugh. Cf. 

cachinnd. Dehide. 
risus, -us, M. [rided], laughter. 
rivus, -1, M., brook, stream. Biyal. 
robur, -oris, n., strength. 
Togo, 1, ask, question. Cf. inter- 

rogo. (382.) 
Roma, -ae, F., Rome. 
Romanus, -a, -um, adj. [Boma], 

Roman ; noun, a Roman. 
Romulus, -1, M., Romulus, Jirst 

king of Rome. 
rosa, -ae, f., rose. 
rostrum, -i, v. [rodo, gnaw], beak 

of a vessel. Bosthum. 
rubeo, 2 [ruber], be red. 
ruber, -bra, -brum, adj. [rubeo], 

red. BuBT. 
ruina, -ae, f. [too, fall], (a falling 

down), downfall, disaster, ruin. 
rapes, -is, p. [ru(m)p6, break], (the 

broken thing) cliff, rock. 
riirsus, adY. [re-Yorsus, reYertd] 

(turned back), back, again, 
rvLBf ruriflf v,p the country, (336.) 



rfisticus 



264 



sextus 



rSsticus, -1, M. [rus], countryman , 
peasant, Bustic. 

Bacer, -era, -cnim, adj., sacred, 
saepcy adv., often, frequently, 
sag^itta, -ae, f., arrow, 
Saguntum, -i, n., Sagunium, a 

town in Spain. 
Sallustiusy -1, M., Salluai, a Roman 

historian, 
aalfis, -utis, f., safety, welfare, 

Salutart. 
Samnis, -itis, m., a Samnite. 
aangulsy -inis, m., blood. Saitgui- 

iTART. Cf. cruor. 
saplenSy-entis, adj. [sapio, he wise'], 

wise, sensible, 
saplentery adv. [sapiens], wisely, 
satiS) adv., enough. Satisfy. 
Satumusy -i, m., Saturn, god of 

agriculture, 
saxuiUy -1, N., rock, 
scholay -ae, f., achoof, 
sclo, 4, sciYi, scltum, know, know 

how. Science. 
SciplOy -onis, m., Sc/p/'o, a frimous 

Roman general, 
scribay -ae, m. [scrlbo], (^one who 

writes) y clerk. Scribe. 
scribo, 3, scrips!, scriptum [scriba], 

write. Scribble. 
scriptory -oris, m. [scribo], writer, 

author, 
scriptum, -T, n. [scribo], umting, 

written work. Script. 
scatuiUy -1, N., shield. 
se-cedo, 8, -cessi, -cessum,^o apart, 

vnthdraw, retire; secede, 
secundusy -a, -um, adj. [sequor], 

following y next; second ; favorable, 
sed, conj., hut, (803.) 
sedeo, 2, sedi, sessum, sit. Ses- 
sion. 
sedSSy -is, f. [sedeo], seat, abode. 



semper, adv., always, ever, 

sempiternus, -a, -um, adj. [sem- 
per], everlasting, 

senator, -oris, m. [senez], senator. 

senatus, -us, m. [senex], council of 
elders, senate. 

senectus, -utis, f. [senex], old age. 

senex, senis, adj., old; noun, old 
man, (262.) Senile. 

senior, -oris, adj. [comp. of senex], 
elder, old person, 

sensiis, -us, m. [sentio], feeling, 
sense, perception. 

sententia, -ae, f. [sentio], opinion, 
purpose. Sentence. 

sentio, 4, sensi, sensum [sensns], 
feel, know (by the senses), see, per^ 
ceive, 

septem, num. adj., indecl., seven, 

September, -bris, m. [septem], Sep- 
tember. Often as adj. 

septem-declm, num. adj. [decem], 
seventeen, 

septles, num. ady. [septem], seven 
times, 

Septimus, -a, -mn, num. adj. [sep- 
tem], seventh, 

sequor, 8, secutus, follow. Se- 
quence. 

sero, 3, sevi, satum, sow, plant, 

serta, -orum, n. [sero, plait'], gar* 
lands, wreaths of flowers, 

serus, -a, -um, adj., laie, ' 

servlo, 4. [servus], be a slave to, 
serve ; w. dat. 

servitus, -utis, f. [seryus], slavery, 
servitude, 

servo, 1, save, keep; preserve. 

servus, -I, m. [servio], slave, ser- 
vant. (66.) 

sexSginta, num. adj., indecl 
[sex], sixty. 

sextus, -a, -um, num. adj. [sex], 
sixth. 



si 



255 



subeo 



siy conj., iff whether. 

siCy adv., <o, thuSy in this manner. 

Cf . ita. 
Sicca, -ae, m., Sicca, a friend of 

Cicero, 
Slclliay -ae, f., Sici/y. 
siduSy •eris, v., star, constellation. 

Sidereal. (301.) 
signuniy -i, s, mark, sign, signal, 
silva, -ae, f., wood, forest. Silvan, 
similisy -e, adj. [simul], like, re- 

semUing, similar, (207.) 
simplex, -ids, adj., simple, plain, 

artless, 
simul, adv. [similis], at the same 

time. 
sin, conj. [si-ne], but if, however, if. 
sine, prep. w. abl., without. 
sing^ully -ae, -a, num. adj., separate, 

single, one by one. (311. 8.) 
sinister, -tra, -trum, adj., left 

(hand). Sinister. 
sino, 3, 8iyi, situm, allow, permit. 

Cf . permitto. 
sinus, -us, M., bosom, lap, folds of a 

garment. 
sitis, -is, F. (ace. -im, abl. -i), thirst. 
socer, -eri, m., father-in-law. 
socius, -1, M., ally, companion. As- 
sociate. 
Socrates, -is, m., Socrates, a famous 

Greek philosopher, 
sol, solis, M., sun (no gen. plnr.). 

Solas. 
soleo, 2, solitus, be accustomed, wont. 

(p. 177, note 2.) 
Solon, -onis, m., Solon, the great lav>' 

giver of Athens, 
sSlus, -a, -um, adj., ahne, single; 

sole. (200.) 
solvo, 3, Bolvi, Bolutum, loose, loosen ; 

break; weigh anchor, set sail. 

Solve. 
somnus, -I, m., sleep. 



soror, -oris, f., sister, 

sors, -tis, F., lot, condition, Sobt. 

sortlor, 4 [sors], draw lots, obtain 

by lot, 
sparg^o, 3, -si, -sum, strew, scatter. 

Sparse. 
Spartacus, -I, m., Spartacus, a 

gladiator, 
spatium, -i, n., room, space ; period, 
spectS, 1 [specio, look"], look at, be- 
hold, witness. Spectacle. 
speculor, 1, spy out, watch, 
specus, -us, M., cave, den. 
spero, 1 [spes], hope, hope for, 
spes, spei, f. [spero], hope, ex* 

pectation, 
spolio, 1, rob, plunder, spoil, de- 

spoil. 
statlm, vAy. [sto], (standing there), 

on the spot, immediately, at once. 
statua, -ae, f. [statuo], (the thing 

set up), statue, 
statuo, 3, -ui, -utum, put, place; 

determine, think, believe, 
Stella, -ae,F.,«tor. (301.) Stellar. 
sto, 1, steti, statum, stand, 
strag;es, -is, f., slaughter, carnage. 
stringfo, 3, -nxi, striatum (draw 

tight), graze; draw, unsheath. 
studeo, 2, -ui, [studium], be 

eager, strive earnestly for; study; 

w. dat. 
studium, -i, n. [studeo], zeal, 

eagerness; study. 
stultitla, -ae, f. [stultus], folly, 
stultus, -a, -um, adj., foolish, siUy, 
suavis, -e, adj., sweet, delightful, 

Cf. dulcis. Suavity. 
suaviter, adv. [suavis], sweetly, 

delightfully. 
sub-diico, 3, -duxi, -ductum, draw 

from under, draw up, 
subeo, -vre, -ii, -itum, go under or 

up to, enter; undergo. (327.) 



subito 



266 



tenebrae 



■abitQ» ady. [subeS], sttddenljf, uH' 

txpecUdly, 
sub-moTeOy 2, -moyi, -mutum 

(move from beneath), remove, drive 

away. 
gubsldiuiiit -1, K. [subsided], aid, 

support, relief, assistance. 
gub-sillSy 4, -ui, [salio, leap"], 

jump up. Cf . desilio and transilio. 
Bub-veniSy 4, -yeni, -yentum (come 

to one*s relief), help, aid, assist. 

Cf. succurro. 
suc-ciirro^ 3, -cum, -cursum [sub], 

(pin up to), help, aid, succor. 
suf-feroy sufferre, sustuli, sublatum 

[sub], bear up under, undergo. 

Suffer. 
Buif reflex, pron., of himself (her- 
self, itself themselves). (264.) 
SQllay-ae, m., Sulla, a famous Roman 

general and statesman. 

Sumy esse, f ui, , be, exist. (72.) 

aummusy -a, -um, adj., superl. of 

superus, highest. 
samoy 3, sumpsi, siimptum, take, 

take up; assume. 
super^ prep. w. ace. and abl., over, 

above, on top of. 
BuperbCy adr. [superbus], proudly, 

haughtily, 
Buperbusy -a, -um, adj. [super], 

proud. SupEHB. 
superior, -us, adj., comp. of supe- 
rus, higher, superior. 
saperoy 1 [super], paxs over; suT" 

pass, overcome ; conquer. (186.) 
super-suniy -esse, -fui, , re- 
main over; survive, exist. 
aupremusy -a, -um, adj., sup. of 

superus, highest; last. 
snacipioy 3, -cepi, -ceptum [sub, 

capio], undertaJce, 
susrpendOy 3 -di, -pensum [sub], 

hang up, suspend, hang. 



aaapicor, 1 [suspicio, look askance 
of], mistrust, suspect, 

sustineSy 2, -tinui, -tentum [sub, 
teneo], hold up, bear, endure; sus- 
tain. 

suus, -a, -um, poss. pron. [sui], his, 
hers, her, its, theirs, their (own). 



taceOy 2, tacui, taciturn, be silent, 

be silent about. Tacit. 
taedety 2, taeduit, taesum est, im- 

pers., it disgusts, wearies ; (one) is 

disgusted, wearied. (416.) 
tSlea, -ae, f., thin bar, 
taniy ady., so; tarn . . . quam, as 

. . .as. Cf . ita and sic. 
tameiiy ady., yet, but, nevertheless. 
tandem* ady. [tarn], (Just so far), 

at length, finally. 
tangOy 8, tetigi, tactum, touch. 
tantOy ady. [tantus], by so much, so 

much the (with comparatiyes). 
tantimiy ady. [tantus], only. 
tantus, -a, -um, adj., so great. 
Tarentinus, -a, -um, adj., of To- 

rentum, Tarentine. 
Tarquinius, -i, m., Tarquin the 

Proud, seventh king of Rome. 
tectum, -1, N. [tego, cover'], cover' 

ing, shelter, roof. 
telum, -I, N., weapon. 
temerariua, -a, -um [temere], 

rash, inconsiderate. 
temere, ady., rashly, inconsiderately. 
temeritfis, -atis, f. [temere], 

chance ; rashness, temerity. 
tempestSs, -atis, f. [tempus], 

(state or condition of time), weath- 
er; stormy weather, storm, tempest. 
templum, -i, v., temple. 
tempus, -oris, k., time. Tbxfohjll. 
tenebrae, -arum, f., darkness, 

shades. 



tenebrlcosus 



^67 



tripartitd 



tenebricSsuSy -a, -um, adj. [tene- 
brae], (JuU of darkness), dark, 
gloomy, 

t«neOy 2, -vl, tentum, hold, keep, 

* have ; memoria tenere, remember, 

tenery -era, -erum, adj., sojl, deli- 
cate, tender. 

tenuis, -e, adj., thin, light, 

ter, num. adv. [tres], thrice, three 
times. 

Terentlusy -i, m., a Roman family 
name, 

terguniy -i, k., hack, 

terra» -ae, f., earth, land, Ter- 

SACE. 

terreoy 2 [terror], ^'^Af en, alarm y 

terrify, 
terror, -oris [terreo], terror, alarm. 
tertio, adv. [tertius], the third time. 
tertius, -a, -um, num. adj. [tres], 

third. 
tertius declmusy num. adj., thir- 
teenth, 
testlinonluin, -i, n. [testor, hear 

witness'], witness, evidence, testi- 
mony, 
testiidOy -inis, p. [testa, sheW], tor- 

toise; shed or covering to protect 

besiegers, 
Teutonesy -um, m., the Teutons, a 

German tribe, 
Thales, -is, m., Thales, a Greek 

philosopher. 
Tbemlstocles, -is, m., Themisto- 

cles, a famous Athenian, 
TIcinus, -1, M., the Ticinus, a river 

of Italy, 
tlg^ls, -is, or -idis, tiger, 
tlmeo, 2, -ui, [timor], year, he 

afraid of. 
Timoleon, -ontis, m., Timoleon, a 

Corinthian general, 
tlmor, -oris, m. [timeo], ^ar, dread, 

alarm, Timohous. 



tolerSy 1, bear, endure. Tolerate. 
tollOy 3, sustuli, sublatum, liftt 

raise, pick up ; weigh (anchor), 
tot, adj., indecl., so many, Cf . quot. 
totus, -a, -um, adj., whole, all, entire, 

(200.) Total. 
tracto, 1 [traho], handle, manage, 

treat. 
tra-do, 8, -didi, -ditum [trans], ^tt?6 

over, deliver; relate, recount. Tra- 
dition. 
trali9, 3, traxi, -ctum, draw, drag; 

derive, 
tra-lclOy 3, -jeci, -jectum [trans, 

jacio], throw across; pass over, 

cross, 
trajectus, -us, m. [traicio], a cross- 
ing over, passage, 
tranqulllltasy -atis, f. [tranquil- 

lus], calmness, tranquillity; a 

calm, 
trans, prep. w. ace, across, beyond, 

over. 
tran-scendo, 3, -di, -scensimi 

[scando, climb'], step or pass over; 

cross. Transcend. 
trans-eo, -ire, -ii, -itum, go over, 

cross. (372.) 
trans-flgOy 3, -fixi, -fixum, pierce 

through, pierce, stab ; transfix, 
tran-slllSy 4, -ii, and -ui, [sa- 

115, leap], leap over or across. 

Cf. desilio and subsilio. 
trecentiy -ae, -a, num. adj. [tres, 

centum], three hundred, 
tredeclniy num. adj., indecl. [tres, 

decem], thirteen. 
tres, tria, num. ad j ., three, (311.4.) 
larlbanus, -i, m. [tribus, tribe], trib' 

une, 
trIglntS, num. adj.» indecl. [tres], 

thirty. 
trlpartit5, adv. [tres, partior], in 

thrse divisions. 



tristLs 



258 



Yen&tor 



tristlay -e, adj., sad, gloomy, 

triiunplius, -i, triumph. 

tfi, pen. pron., thou. (264.) 

tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (14.) 

tueoFy 2, tuitUB, and tutos, look at ; 
watch, defend, guard. Cf . defendo. 

Tuiliay -ae, f., Tullia, Cicero's 
daughter. 

tuiUy adv., at that time, then. 

tonCy adv. [turn], at that time, then, 

turgiduluSy -a, -um, adj., swollen. 
Turgid. 

turpls, -e, adj., uglg,/oul; base, dis- 
graceful, shameful, 

turpiter, adv. [tui]^iB], foully, base- 
ly, shamefully. 

turpitlidOy -inis, f. [turpis], ugli- 
ness, baseness. 

toriis, -is, F., tower, (149.) 

tiituBy -a, -um, adj. [F. of tueor], 
safe. 

tuusy -a, -um, poss. pron., thy, thine ; 
your, yours (of only one). 

t3n*aiinus, -i, m., tyrant. 



ubiy adv., where, when. 

alius, -a, -um, adj. [for unulus, 
diminutive of unus], any, any one, 
(200.) 

olteriory -us, adj., comp. (no posi- 
tive), yurfAcr. 

altimusy -a, -um, adj. (superl. of 
ulterior), furthest, last. Ulti- 
mate. 

umerus, -I, m., shoulder. 

unde, adv., whence. 

undl-que, adv., from all parts, on 
all sides, everywhere. 

unl-versus, -a, -um, adj., (turned 
into one'), all together, 

unquaiiiy adv., at any time, ever, 

GnuSy -a,-um, num. adj., one; alone. 
(200, 311, 3.) 



urbsy -is, v., city. (163.) Sub- 
urbs. 

iirgeoy 2, ursi, , press, drive^ 

impel, urge. 

usque, adv., all the time, continucdlf. 

ut or utiy adv. and conj., how, as; 
that, in order that, so that. 

uteTy -tra, -trum, interrog. pron., 
which of two. (200.) 

uterque, utraque, utrumque, indef. 
pron., each of two, both. (200.) 

utilis, -e, adj. [iitor], useful, advan- 
tageous. 

uti-nam, adv., would that, that, 
I wish that. 

iitor, 3, usus, use, employ; w. abl. 

utruniy adv., whether; used chiefly 
in double questions. 

uva, -ae, f., grape, bunch of grapes, 

uxor, -oris, f., wife, Cf. conjunx. 



va^r, 1, go to and fro, voander. 

Vagrant. 
valeo, 2, ^ui, -itum, be strong or 

well; vale, fareufdl, good by. Cf. 

convalescd. 
valetlido, -inis, f. [valeo], state oj 

health, health. 
validus, -a, -um, adj. [valeo], 

strong, stout, sturdy. Valid. 
vallis (or valles), -is, f., yat/ey, vale, 
varius, -a, -um, adj., different, 

changeable, various, 
Varro, -onis, m., Varro, a Raman 

consul. 
vasto, 1' [vastus, waste, desolate"], 

lay waste, ravage, 
veho, 3, vexi, vectum, carry, draw, 

convey ; pass., ride, sail, 
velox, -ocis, adj., swift, fleet, quick, 

(179.) Velocity. 
venStor, -oris, m. [venor, huntit 

hunter. 



Tenenum 



259 



Zama 



venenmiiy -I» n., poison, Vbnom. 
venlay -ae, f., indulgence, mercy, 

kindness. Venial. 
veniSy 4, yen!, yentum, come, 
ventusy -1, M., wind, 
VenuSy -eris, f., Ifenus, goddess of 

love, 
"Venusiay -ae, f., Venuaia, a town 

in Apulia, 
venustusy -a, -um, adj. [Venus]| 

lovely, charming. 
ver, yens, n., spring. Vernal. 
verbum, -i, n., word. Verb. 
vereoFy 2, reverence, respect^ fear. 
verSy ady. and conj. [verus], in 

truth, in fact, but in fact. 
venmiy -i, n. [yerus], the truth, 
verusy -a, -um, adj., true, real. 
vester, -tra, -trum, poss. pron., 

youry yours (of more than one). 
veterrlmusy -a, -um, adj., superl. 

of yetus. 
vestiOy 4 [yestis, garment^, clothe. 
vetOy 1, -Hi, •itum, forbid, prevent. 

Veto. 
vetusy -eris, adj. (comp. yetustior, 

superLyeterrimus), o/c/. (141,208.) 
vetustioFy -us, adj., comp. of yetus. 
via, -ae, f., tray, road, street, 
vicinusy -a, -um, adj. [yicus], near, 

neighboring. Vicinity. 
vIctoFy -oris, M. [yi(n)c6], con' 

queror, yictor. 
victSrIay -ae, f. [victor], victory. 
vicus, -1, M., ¥illage. 
vldeOy 2, yidi, yisum, see, perceive; 

pass., be seen, seem. Vision. 
vigil, adj. [vigeo, be lively"], watch- 
ful. (151. 4.) Vigilant. 
vln^illa, -ae, f. [vi^o, yigil], a 

watching, watch, i.e., the fourth part 

of the night. 
vlgll5y 1 [yigil], vjatch. 



viglntiy num. adj., indecl., twenty, 
vinciSy 4, yinzi, yinctum, bind, 
vincOy 3, yici, yictum, conquer, d& 

feat, (136.) 
vindlcoy 1, claim; avenge, punish. 

Vindicate. 
vlnuniy -1, N., Hfine. 
viola, -ae, f., vio/et 
vlr, yiri, m., man, hero. (138, 262.) 
virgOf -inis, f., maiden, virgin. 
vlrtiiSy -utis, f. [yir], (^manliness), 

courage, bravery ; virtue, 
vISy yis, F. (gen. and dat., rare), 

strength, power, (262.) 
vita, -ae [yivo], life. Vital. 
vitisy -is, F. [yieo, twist together'], 

vine. 
vltlum, -i, N. [vitis], (a moral 

twisty, fault, blemish, vice, Cf. 

culpa. 
vito, 1, avoid, shun, 
Tltruniy -I, N., woad, a dye, 
vituperSy 1, blame, censure. Vitu- 
peration. Cf. culp5. 
vivo, 3, yixi, yictum [yiyus], live, 

(194.) 
vivusy -a, -um, adj. [viyo], alive, 

living. 
viXf adv., hardly, with difficulty. 
vol5y yelle, yolui, , wish, be 

willing, desire, intend. (316, 319.) 
voluptSSy -atis, F., pleasure, enjoy" 

ment. 
vox, yocis, F. [yoco, caU], voice. 
vulneroy 1 [yulnus], wound, hurt, 

injure. Vulnerable. 
vulnus, -eris, n. [yulnero], wound. 
vulpSSy -is, v., fox. 
vultusy -us, M., countenance, looks, 

features. 

Zama, -ae, f., Zama, a town in 
Africa. 



ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY. 



a» commonly not translated; quidam, 

quaedam, quoddam (279. 6). 
able (be), possum (292). 
abouty de, w, aU, 
absent (be), absum (297). 
accept, accipio, 8. 
accompany, comitor, 1. 
accord (oivn), ipse, -a, -um 

(270. 6). 
accuse, accuso, 1. 
across, trans, w. ace, 
act, ag5, 3. 
admire, admiror, 1. 
admonish, moneo, 2 (112). 
adorn, orno, 1. 

advance, procedd, 8 ; progredior, 8. 
advice, consilium, -i, n. 
advise, moneo, 2 (112). 
afar, longe. 

affair, res, rei, p. (254.) 
afraid (be), metuo, 8; timeo, 2. 
AfHca, Africa, -ae, f. 
after, post, to, ace, ; cum, to, subj, ; 

postquam, to, ind, 
afterivards, postea, deinde. 
again, iterum, rursus. 
against, adyersus, contr&, in, to, 

ace, 
age (old), senectus, -Qtis, f. 
agriculture, agri cultura, -ae, f. 
aid, auxilium, -i, n. 
air, aer, aeris, M. 
Alexander, Alexander, -dri, m. 
alive, yiYus, -a, -um. 



arrangement 

all, omnis, -e ; totus, -a, -um (200^ 

Alps, Alpes, -ium, f. 

alone, solus, -a, -um (200). 

aloud (read), recito, !• 

altar, &ra, -ae, f. 

alivays, semper. 

ambassador, legatus, -i, m.; oriU 
tor, -oris, m. 

among, in, to, aU. ; inter, to, ace. 

ancient, antiquus, -a, -um ; yetusi, 
-eris (141). 

and, et; atque, or &c; -que. 

Androdus, Androclus, -i, x. 

anger, Ira, -ae, f. 

angrily, cum ir& (144). 

animal, animal, -alia, n. (149). 

another, alius, -a, -ud (201); one 
, , . another, alius • • • alius. 

another's, aliSnus, -a, -um. 

ansiver, respondeo, 2, to, dot, 

any, ullus, -a, -um (200) ; aliquis, 
-qua, -quid, or -quod (279) ; quis 
(p. 211, note 16); quisquam, 
, quidquam (279. .6). 

approach, appropmqu5, 1, to, dot,, 
and ad, to, ace, 

arm, n., bracchium, -!, K. 

arm, v., armo, 1. 

arms, arma, -orum, k. 

army, exercitus, -Us, m., the general 
toord; on the march, agmen, -Inls, 
N. ; in order of battle, acies, -ei, f. 

Arpinum, Arplnum, -i, tr, 

arrangement^ ordo, -inls, x. 



arriYal 



261 



brook 



anlvaly adventus, -Us, h. 

anive, adyenio, 4; peryenio, 4. 

arro^iTy sagitta; -ae, f. 

art, ars, artis, f. 

as, nt; cu , . . CIS, tarn . . . quam ; 
same , , . as, idem . . . qui; (= 
since), cum; (= t<;A€n), cum. 

Asia, Asia, -ae, f. 

ashamed (be), pudet, 2 (416). 

ask ot, quaero, 3. 

assemble, conyenio, 4. 

at, in, w, ace. or aU.; ad, w, ace; 
apud, w, occ; in combination w, 
verbs (wonder at, etc."), see the 
verbs; w. names of towns, locative 
case (334). 

Athenian, Atheniensis, -e. 

Atheiis, Athenae, -ftrum, f. 

attentively, diligenter. 

author, auctor, -oris, m. 

away (go), abeo (827) ; discedo, 3. 

aifvay fkt>m, a or ab, w, abl.; e or 
ex, w. ahU 



back (bring or carry), refero 

(321); reports, 1. 
bad, malus, -a, -um ; improbus, -a, 

-um. 
basely, turpiter. 
battle, pugna, -ae, F.; proelium, 

-1, N. 

be, sum (73). 

bear, fefo (321); veho, 8; tolero, 

1 ; (off), aufero. 
beast, bestia, -ae, f. 
beautiAil, pulcher, -chra, •chrum. 
beauty, pulchritudo, -inis, f. 
because, quod ; quia. 
become, fid (327) ; it becomes, 

decet, 2 (416). 
beg, petd, 8; oro, 1. 
begin, incipio, 8; ordior, 4. 
believe, crSdo, 8, w, dot. 



benefit, n., beneficium, -i, n. 
benefit, v., prosum (293), w, dat. 
besiege, obsideo, 2 ; oppugno, 1. 
best, optimus, -a, -um. 
better, melior, -us, compar, of bo< 

nus (208). 
between, inter, w, ace. 
big, magnus, -a, -um. 
bind, yincid, 4. 
bird, ayis, -is, f. (154). 
black, niger, -gra, -grum; ater, 

atra, fitrum. 
blame, yitupero, 1 ; culpo, 1. 
blind, caecus, -a, -um. 
blood, sanguis, -inis, h.; cruor, 

-oris, M. 
boar, aper, apri, h. 
boat, nayicula, -ae, f. ; cymba, 

-ae, F. 
body, corpus, -oris, n. 
bold, audax, -acis. 
boldly, audicter. 
book, liber, -bri, m. 
booty, praeda, -ae, f. 
bom (be), nascor, 3. 
Boston, Bostouia, -ae, f. 
both (each of two), uterque, utra- 

que, utrumque (200) ; both . . . 

and, et • . . et. 
boy, puer, -eri, M. 
bow, arcus, -us, m. (247). 
brave, fortis, -e. 
bravely, fortiter. 
bravery, fortitfldo, -inis, f. 
break, f rango, 8 ; (through) per- 

fHng5, 8. 
breeze, ventus, -T, m. ; aura, -ae, f. 
bribe, cornimpO, 3. 
bridge, p5ns, pontis, m. 
bring, ports, 1 ; fero (321); (up), 

educo, 1. 
Britain, Britannia, -ae, r. 
broad, latus, -a, -um. 
brookj rlvuB, -^ M. 



brother 



262 



cunning 



brother, A*ater, -tris, m. 

BrutuBy Brutus, -I, M. 

build, aedifico, 1. 

burden, onus, -eris, N. 

but, at; autem; 8ed(393); (that), 

quin. 
buy, emo, 8. 
by, a, ab, to. abl. ; (denoting means 

or instrument), to. abl. alone. 



Caesar, Caesar, -aris, m. 

call, uomino, 1 ; appello, 1; voc5, 1 . 

calm, aequus, -a, -um ; placidus, -a, 

camp, castra, -orum, n. [-um. 

Campania, Campania, -ae, f. 

can, possum (292). 

care, cura, -ae, f. 

carefully, diligenter; cum cura 

(144). 
carry, porto, 1; fero (321); 

(back), refero; carry on war, 

bellum gerere. 
cart, carrus, -i, m. 
Carthage, Carthago, -inis, F. 
Cato, Cat5, -onis, m. 
certain (a), quidam, quaedam, 

quid (quod) dam (279. 4) ; sure, 

certus, -a, -um. 
chance, f ors, -tis, F. ; casus, -us, m. 
change, muto, 1. 
cherish, colo, 3. 
chief, princeps, -cipis, m. 
children, pueri, -drum, m. ; llbe- 

ri, -orum, m. (60). 
Cicero, Cicero, -onis, M. 
Cimbri, Cimbri, -orum, m. 
circumstance, res, rei, F. 
citadel, arx, arcis, f. 
citizen, civis, -is, m. and F. (154.) 
city, urbs, -is, f. 
clerk, scnba, -ae, m. 
cliff, rapes, -is, f. 
clothe, yestio, 4. 



cold, adj., frigidus, -a, -um. 

cold, n., f rigus, -oris, n. 

Collatinus, Collatinus, -i, m. 

come, venio, 4; (down), descen- 
ds, 3; (out), egredior, 3; (to- 
gether), conveni5, 4 ; (off), 
abeo (327). 

coming, n., adventus, -us, m. 

command, imperd, 1, to. dot; ju- 
beo, 2, to. ace. ; praesum, to. da;t. 

commander, imperator, -oris, m. ; 
dux, ducis, M. 

commonwealth, res ptiblica, rei 
publicae, f. 

comrade, comes, -itis, m. and F. 

companion, comes, -itis, M. and F. 

compel, cogo, 3. 

condemn, damno, 1. 

conquer, superd, 1; vinc5,8 (186). 

consul, consul, -is, M. 

consulship, consulatus, -us, m. 

contemplate, contemplor, 1. 

contented, contentus, -a, -um, to. 
abl, 

converse, colloquor, 3. 

Corinth, Corinthus, -i, F. 

Cornelia, Cornelia, -ae, f. 

correct, corrigo, 3. 

counsel, consilium, -i, n. 

country (fatherland), patria, -ae, 
F. ; (not city) , rus, rtiris, n. 

courage, virtus, -litis, f. 

covered with leaves, Arondosus, 
-a, -um.  

cowardice, ignavia, -ae, f. 

cow^ardly, ignavus, -a, -um. 

create, creo, 1. 

creator, creator, -oris, M. 

cross, tr., transcendo, 3; tr, and 
intr., transeo (327). 

cruelly, crudeliter. 

cultivate, colo, 3. 

Cumae, Cumae, -arum, f. 

cunning, n.» calliditas, -atls, f. 



cup 



263 



.Eiimias 



cup, pocolum, -1, N. 
Gyrusy Cyrus, -i, m. 



DsBdaloSy Daedalus, -i, m. 

daily, cotldie. 

danger, periculum, -i, n. 

daughter, f Ilia, -ae, f. 

day, dies, -ei, m. and f. (354). 

daybreak (at), prima luce. 

dear, carus, -a, -um. 

death, mors, -tis, f. 

deep, altus, -a, -um; proftindus, 

-a, -um. 
defeat, n., clades, -is, f. 
defeat, v., vinco, 3; supero, 1 

(186). 
defend, defendo, 3. 
defender, defensor, -oris, m. 
delay, mora, -ae, f. 
delight, delect5, 1. 
deliver, defero (321). 
demand restitution, res repeto, 3. 
Demosthenes, Demosthenes, -is. 
depart, discedo, 3; exed (327). 
deprive, privo, 1; w. abl. 
descend, descendo, 3. 
desert, deserd, 3. 
deserve, mereo, mereor, 2. 
design, consilium, -i, n. 
desire, volo (316); desidero, 1 

(319) ; cupio, 3. 
despair, despero, 1. 
despise, contemnd, 3. 
destroy, deleo, 2. 
difficult, difflcilis, -e. (207.) 
difficulty (with), vix. 
diligently, diligenter. 
discharge, fungor, 3, w. abl. 
disclose, enuntio, 1. 
disgraceful, turpis, -e. 
disgusted (be), piget, 2 (416). 
divide, divldd, 8; (sJMre), par- 

tior, 4. 



do, facio, 3; ago, 3. 

dog, canis, -is, m. and f. 

doubt, n., dubium, -i, n. 

doubt, v., dubito, 1. 

doubtful, dubius, -a, -um. 

dove, columba, -ae, f. 

down (tear), rescindo, 3 ; (come) 

descendo, 8. 
draw, traho, 3 ; (up), subduco, 3. 
drink, bibo, 3. 

drive, ago, 3 ; (off) , submoveo, 2. 
duty, offlcium, -i, N. 
dweU, habits, 1 ; vivo, 3 (194). 



each (one), quisque quaeque, 
quid(quod)que (279. 4); (of 
two), uterque utraque, utrum- 
que (200). 

eagle, aquila, -ae, f. 

earth, terra, -ae, f. 

easily, facile. 

easy, facilis, -e. (207.) 

eat, edo, 3. 

egg, ovum, -1, N. 

eight, octo. 

eighth, octavus, -a, -um. 

either . . . or, aut . . . aut. 

elegant, elegans, -antis. 

elephant, elephantus, -i, m. 

else, alius, -a, -ud (201). 

embark, c5nscendo, 3. 

employ, admove5, 2 ; utor, 3, to. 
abh 

encircle, cingo, 3. 

end, n., finis, -is, m, (164.) 

end, v.f finio, 4. 

endure, patior, 3; fer5 (321), 
tolero, 1. 

endurance, fortitudo, -inis, F. 

enemy, hostis, -is, m. and f. ; ini- 
micus, -1, M. (172). 

enjoy, fruor, 3, to. abl. 

KnniuB, Ennius, -i, M. 



enougli 



264 



frighten 



enough, satis. 

enter, ingredior, 3; ine5 (327). 

entertain the hope, veni5 in 

spem. 
entreaty, preces, -am, f. 
Eipirus, Epiras, -i, f. 
equally, pariter. 
equanimity, aequus animus, m. 
Eiurope, Eur5pa, -ae, f. 
even, etiam; ipse (270. 6). 
evident (it is), constat, 1. 
excellently, optime. 
explain, explico, 1. 
expulsion, P. o/expello. 
eye, oculus, -i, m. 

Fabricius, Fabricius, -i, m. 
fact, res, rei, F. 
foil, deflcio, 3 ; desum (297). 
fair, pulcher, -clira, -chrum. 
faithful, ndus, -a, -am ; fldelis, -e. 
faithf uUy, fideliter. 
Faliscans, Falisci, -dram, m. 
famous, Claras, -a, -urn. 
far and wide, loDge lateque. 
farmer, agricola, -ae, m. 
father, pater, -tris, m. 
father-in-law, socer, -eri, m. 
f»ult^ vitium, -1, N. ; culpa, -ae, 

F. ; find fault with, vitupero, 1 ; 

culpo, 1. 
favor, faveo, 2, to. daU 
fear, n., metus, -Qs, m. 
fear, v., timed, 2 ; metuo, S. 
few, pauci, -ae, -a. 
fidelity, fides, -ei, f. 
field, ager, agri, m. 
fierce, atrox, -ocis ; f er5x, -5cis. 
fiftieth, quinquagesimus, -a, -am. 
fifty, quinquaginta. 
fight, ptigno, 1; dimlco, 1. 
fill, impled, 2, -evi, -etum; com- 

pleo, 2. 
finally, denique. 



find, reperi5, 4 ; invenid, 4. 

finger, digitus, -i, m. 

finish, finio, 4; cdnfici5, 3. 

fire. Ignis, -is, m. 

first, primus, -a, -am. 

fit^ apto, 1. 

five, quinque. 

five hundred, qumgentl, -ae, -a. 

flee, ftigio, 3. 

fleet, classis, -is, f. (154.) 

flight, ftiga, -ae, f. 

flock, grex, gregis, f. 

flow, fluo, 3. 

flower, flos, floris, m. 

fodder, pabulum, -i, n. 

follow, sequor, 3. 

folly, stultitia, -ae, f. 

food, cibus, -1, M. 

foot, pes, pedis, m. 

foot-soldier, ppdes, -itls, m. 

for, conj.y nam ; enim {not the first 

word). 
for, sign of dative ; prep., de, pro, 

w. ahl. ; of time, space, purpose, 

in, to. ace. 
forces, c5piae, -arum, f. 
forget, obliviscor, 3. 
forgetful, oblitus, -a, -um. 
former (the), ille (276. 6). 
forth (go), exeo (327) ; egre- 

dior, 3. 
fortify, munio, 4. 
fortune, fortuna, -ae, F. 
forty, quadraginta. 
forum, forum, -i, n. 
forward (go), procedo, 3; pro- 

gredior, 3. 
foully, turpiter. 
fourteen, quattuordecim. 
fourth, qaartas, -a, -um. 
ftree, liber, -era, -erum. (71.) 
free from, llbero, 1 ; to. ahl. 
friend, amicus, -i, M. 
frighten, terreo, 2. 



frog 



265 



bugre 



frog, rana, -ae, f. 

fkt>iny de, to. abl. ; awayfrom^ a or 

ab, to. obi, ; out of, e or ex, w. 

abl,; (afar), longe. 
fruit, fructus, -us, m. 
tun, plenus, -a, -urn. 
furnish, praebeo, 2. 

Oalba, Galba, -ae, M. 

game, ludus, 4, M. 

garden, hortus, -i. 

Gaul, Gallia, -ae, f. 

Gauls, Galli, -orum, m. 

general, dux, ducis, m. and v.; 

imperator, -oris, m. 
Germans, Germaui, -orum, m. 
get, adipiscor, 8; (possession), 

potior, 4, w, abl.; (by lot), 

sortior, 4. 
gift, donuiii, -1, N. 
girl, puella, -ae, f. 
g^ve, do, 1. 
glory, gl5ria, -ae, f. 
go, eo (327) ; (forth or out), exeo; 

(off or away), abeo; discedo, 3 ; 

(do\irn), descendo, 3. 
God, Deus, -I, M. (262). 
goddess, dea, -ae, F. 
gold, aurum, -i, n. 
golden, aureus, -a, -um. 
good, bonus, -a, -um (71, 208). 
good thing, bonum, -i, n. 
grain, frumentum, -i, K. 
great, magnus, -a, -um. 
greatly, maxime. 
Greece, Graecla, -ae, f. 
Greek, Graecus, -a, -um. 
guard, n., custos, -odls, m. and f. 
guard, V,, custodl5, 4. 

hand, manus, -Gs, F. 
handsome, pulcher, -chra, -chrum. 
Hannibal, Hannibal, -alls, M. 



bappy, be&tus, -a, -nm; f<§]ix, 

-icis, 
hard, durus, -a, -um; (d^fflctUt), 

difficilis, -e. 
hasten, contendo, 8. 
haughtily, superbe. 
have, habe5, 2. 
he, is, hic (270) ; ille (276). 
head, caput, -itis, k.; be at th4 

head off praesum (297). 
headlong, praeceps, -cipitis. 
hear, audio (223). 
heart, cor, cordis, k. 
heaty calor, -oris, m. 
heaven, caelum, -i, k. 
heavy, gravis, -e. 
Hector, Hector, -oris, m. 
hero, vir, virT, m. (262). 
hesitate, dubito, 1 ; cunctor, 1. 
high, altus, -a, -um. 
hill, collis, -is, M. (164.) 
himself, see self. 
his, ejus (270); illius (276); 

(own), suus, -a, -um. 
history, historia, -ae, F. 
hold, habeo, 2 ; teneo, 2. 
home, domicilium, -i, n. ; domus, 

-Gs, F. (262). 
Homer, Homerus, -T, M. 
honor, n., houestas, -atis, F. 
honor, v., honor5, 1. 
hope, spes, -el, f. 
Horatius, Horatius, -i, M. 
horn, comu, -us, K. 
horse, equus, -i, M. 
horseback (ride), in equ5 vehl; 

equitS, 1. 
horseman, horse-soldier, eques^ 

-itis, M. 
hour, hora, -ae, F. 
house, domus, -Gs, f. (262). 
how, quam ; (many), quot. 
huge, mSgnus, -a, -um; imm&« 

nis, -e ; ingens, -entis. 



human 



266 



line of battle 



human, humauus, -a, -urn. 
hundred, centum. 
hung^er, fames, -is, F. 
hunter, venator, -oris, m. 
hurl, conicio, 8. 
hurtftil (be), noce5, 2, to. dat, 
hustle, exturb5, 1. 



I, ego (264). 

Icarus, Icarus, -T, M. 

if, si ; ^f not, nisi. 

ignorant (be), nescio, 4 ; Tgnoro. 

illustrious, clarus, -a^ -am. 

imitate, imitor, 1. 

immediately, statim. 

in, in, to. abl, 

increase, augeo, 2. 

inhabitant, incola, -ae, M. andv, 

inhabit, habito, 1 ; incol5, 3. 

injure, noceo, 2; obsum;to. dat. 

instruct, erudio, 4; doceo, 2. 

intend, in animo est ; to. dat. 

into, in, to. ace. 

invite, invito, 1. 

iron (of), ferrous, -a, -um. 

island, insula, -ae, F. 

it, is, ea, id (270). 

Italian, Italus, -i, M. 

Italy, Italia, -ae, F. 

itself, see self. 

Janus, Janus, -I, M. 

Javelin, pilum, -i, n. 

jewel, ornamentum, -i, n. 

joy, gaudium, -i, n. 

judge, judex, -icis, m. (106). 

judgment, judicium, -I, n. 

Julius, Julius, -1, M. 

Jupiter, Juppiter, Jovis, m. (262). 

justly, juste. 

keen, ftcer, acrls, Sere. 
keep of^ arceo, 2. 



kill, nec5, 1; interfici5, 3; ocd* 

do, 8. 
kind, benlgnus, -a, -um. 
king, rex, regis, M. 
kingdom, regnum, -I, k.; impe- 

rium, -1, N. 
knife, culter, -trl, m. 
know, know how, scio, 4. 
known, notus, -a,* -um. 

labor, labor, -5rls, M. 

lack, desum (297) 

liSDvinus, Laevlnus, -T, BC 

lake, lacus, -us, M. (247). 

land, ager, agri, m. ; terra, -ae, f. 

language, lingua, -ae, F. 

large, magnus, -a, -um. 

last, supremus, -a, -um. 

liatin, Latinus, -a, -um. 

latter (the), hic, haec, h5c (275. 

6). 
laugh, rideo, 2 ; (at), irndeo, 2 ; 

(aloud), cachinuo, 1. 
law, lex, legis, F. 
lazy, plger, -gra, -grum. 
lead, duco, 3 ; (out), 6dQc6, 3. 
leader, dux, ducis, M. and F. 
leaf, folium, -i, n. 
leap over, transillo, i. 
learn, disco, 3. 
leg, crus, cruris, N. 
legion, legio, -5nis, F. 
lesson, pensum, -i, n. 
let, sign of subj. or imperative. 
letter, epistula, -ae, F. ; litterae, 

-arum, f. 
levy, delectus, -Gs, m. 
life, vita, -ae, F. 
lights ac{}., levis, -e (150). 
lights n., lux, liicis, f.; lumen, 

-in is, N. 
like, am5, 1. 
likeness, imago, -Inis, F. 
line of battle^ acies, -el, f. 



lion 



267 



ocean 



lion, leo, -onis, M. (134). 
listen, aadio, 4 (223). 
literature, lltterae, -arum, f. 
little, parvus, -a, -urn. 
live, vivo, 8 ; habito, 1 (194). 
long, loDgus, -a, -um; a long 

time, diu. 
longer (no), jam, w, neg. 
look at^ specto, '1. 
lose, amitto, 3; perdo, 8. 
lot (obtAln by), sortior, 4. 
loud (laugh out), cacbinno, 1. 
love, amo, 1 (319). 
low, humilis, -e. 
luclcy, felix, -icis. 

maiden, puella, -ae, F. 

malLe, facio, 3; (trial of), expe- 
rior, 4. 

man, vir) virT, m. (262); bomo, 
-inls, M. (138). 

Manlius, Manlius, -T, m. 

manner, mos, m5ris, M. 

many, mulfi, -ae, -a. 

Marcellus, Marcellus, -i, m. 

marshal, lustruo, 3. 

master, dominus, -I, M.; magis- 
ter, -tri, M. 

may, licet; to. dat 

means (52^ means of), use abl, 

meet, obeo (327) ; go to meet, 
obviam eo, w, dat, 

memory, memoria, -ae, f. 

messenger, nuntius, -I, M. 

migrate, migro, 1. 

mind, animus, -i, M.; mens, men- 
tis, F. (273). 

mindful, memor, -oris (150). 

mine, mens, -a, -um (266). 

Minerva, Minerva, -ae, F. 

miserable, miser, -era, -erum. 

miss, desider5, 1. 

Mithridates, Mlthridates, -is, m. 

modesty, modestia, -ae, F. 



month, mensis, -is, m. 
monument, monumentum, -I, N. 
moon, luna, -ae, f. 
more, plus (208), magis. 
most, plurimus^, -a, -um (208). 
mother, mater, -tris, F. 
mountain, mons, montis, m. 
move, moveo, 2. 
much, multus, -a, -um (208). 
multitude, multittido, -inis, F. 
must, oportet, 2 ; gerundive, 
my, mens, -a, -um (266). 

name, n5men, -inis, n. 
nation, gens, gentis, f. 
native land, patria, -ae, f. 
near, propc, to. ace. 
neighboring, finitimus, -a, -um. 
Neptune, Neptunus, -i, M. 
never, nunquam. 
new, novus, -a, -um. 
night, nox, noctis, f. 
nightingale, luscinia, -ae, F. 
ninety, nonaginta. 
ninth, nonus, -a, -um. 
no, nfiUus, -a, -um (200). 
nobody, no one, nem5, -inis, m. 

and F. (286) ; that no one (neg. 

purpose), ne quis. 
no longer, jam, to. neg, 
not, non. 

nothing, nihil, indecl, 
nourish, al5, 3 ; ntitrio, 4. 
now, nunc ; jam. 
Numa, Numa, -ae, M. 
number, numerus, -i, M. 
nurture, nutrio, 4. 

oak, quercus, -Gs, f. 

obey, pareo, 2, to. dat. 

obtain, adipiscor, 3; potior, 4, to. 

abl. ; (by lot), sortior, 4. 
ocean, oceanus, -i, m. 



of 



268 



prevent 



of^ sign of genUioe^ dS, to. abh,* 
(put of),^ or ex, to. abh 

oflfer, prdpdn5, 8; offero (821); 
praebeo, 2. 

often, saepe. 

old, antlquus, -a, -um ; vetus, -erls 
(141) ; (man), senex, -is (262) ; 
(a^e), senectus, -utis, F. 

on, in, w. abh; (of time), abl, 

one, UDUS, -a, -um (200) ; one • . . 
anot?ier, alios . • • alius ; the one 
, . ,the other, alter . • . alter. 

open, adj., patens, -entis. 

open, v., aperio, 4. 

opinion^ Judicium, •!, N. 

oppose, obsisto, 3; w, dat. 

orator, 5rator, -oris, m. 

order, v., impero, 1, w, dat, ; Jubeo, 
2, w. ace, 

order (in order to), ut, w, subj. 

other, alius, -a, -ud (201); some 
, , . others, alii , . , alii; (of 
two), alter, -era, -erum. 

ouglit,debe5,2; oportet,2; gerun- 
dive, 

our, Doster, -tra, -trora. 

ourselves, see self. 

out, in combination w, verbs, see 
the verbs. 

out of, e or ex, to. abl, 

over, in combination w. verbs, see 
the verbs, 

overcome, vinco, 3; supero, 1 
(186). 

o'we, debe5, 2. 

own, proprius, -a, -um ; (his, her, 
their), suus, -a, -um ; (my), me- 
us, -a, -um; (our), noster, -tra, 
-trum; (your), vester, -tra, 
-trum ; (tiiy), tuus, -a, -um. 

pain, dolor, -oris, m. 

parent, parens, -entis, M. and F. 

part, pars, partis, F. 



pass (narrow), angnstiae, -arum, 

F. 

pass by, praetereo (327). 
patience (with), patlenter; cum 

patientla (144). 
patiently, patlenter. 
pecM^e, p&x, pads, f. 
people, populus, -i, M.; (coiife» 

mon), plebs, -is, F. 
peril, periculum, -i, N. 
perish, pere5 (327). 
Persians, Fersae, -arum, m. 
physician, medicus, -i, M. 
place, n., locus, -i, M., in plur, 

M. and K. 
place v., p5n5, 3. 
plain, planities, -ei, F. 
plan, consilium, -i, N. 
pleasant, gratus, -a, -um. 
pleasing, gratus, -a, -um. 
pleasure, voluptas, -atis, F.i 

(with), libenter. 
pledge, fides, -ei, F. 
plough, n., aratrum, -T, N. 
plough, v., aro, 1. 
poem, poema, -atis, N. 
poet, poeta, -ae, m. 
point (be on the), see 422. 
Polyphemus, Polyphemus, -i, m. 
Pompey, Pompejus, Pompei, m. 
poor, miser, -era, -erum ; pauper, 

-eris (167. 3). 
possess, habe5, 2 ; potior, 4, to. abl, 
possession (get possession of), 

potior, 4, to. abl,; adipiscor, 8. 
postpone, differo (321). 
power, imperium, -i, N. 
praise, n., laus, laudis, F. 
praise, v., laudo, 1. 
precept, praeceptum, -I, N. 
prefer, malo (316). 
present (be), adsum, to. dat, 
pretty, pulcher, -chra, -chmm. 
prevent, prohibeo, 2. 



prisoner 



269 



Samnite 



prisoner, captivus, -i, m. ; captTva, 

-ae, F. 
proceed, proced5, 3. 
proclainatlon (make), Sdico, 3. 
promise^ polliceor, 2; promit- 

t5, 3. 
property, bona, -orum, n. 
proud, superbus, -a, -una. 
province, prdviocia, -ae, f. 
prow, rostrum, -i, n, 
prudence, prOdentia, -ae, f. 
punish, pQni5, 4. 
punishment, poena, -ae, f. 
pupil, discipulus, -1, M. 
purpose (for the purpose of), ut 

or qui, w. sub},; ad, to. gerund 

or gerundive; supine. 
put (to flight), fugo, 1; (oflf), 

dilTerS (321) ; (by), depono, 3 ; 

(an end to), finio, 4. 
Psrrrhus, Pyrrhus, -T, M. 

queen, rSgina, -ae, F. 
quickly, celeriter. 

raise, tollo, 3 ; leyo, 1. 
rather (wish), maid (316). 
read, lego, 3 ; (aloud), reclto, 1. 
receive, recipi5, 3; accipio, 3; 

excipio, 3. 
recite, recit5, 1. 
recognize^ agn5sc5, 3. 
red, ruber, -bra, -brum. 
refresh, recreo, 1. 
Begulus, Regulus, •!, h. 
reign, regn5, 1. 
relate, tr&d5, 3 ; narro, 1. 
relieve, Hbero, 1 ; w, dbl, 
remain, maneo, 2 ; resto, 1. 
remember, memoria teneo. 
remove (= emigrate), demigro, 1. 
Remus, Remus, -I, m. 
render aid, aozllium fer5. 
renown^ f &ma, -ae, f. 



renowned, amplus, -a, -um; cla- 

rus, -a, -um. 
report, nuntio, 1. 
republic, res publican rei publi 

cae, F. 
respect, vereor, 2. 
respects (in all), omnibus rebus. 
rest (the), ceteri, -ae, -a. 
restitution (demand), res repe- 

t5, 3. 
restrain, coerced, 2. 
results (It), fit (327). 
retain, retineo, 2. 
retreat, se recipio, 3. 
return, redeo, (327). 
reward, praemlum, -I, N. 
Rhine, Rhenus, -i, m. 
Rhone, Rhodanus, -i, m. 
rich, dives, -itis (167. 3). 
ride, pass, of yeho, 3; equlto, 1. 
rightly, recte. 
rise, orior, 4. 
river, amnis, -is, m.; fluvius, -I, 

M. ; fltimen, -inls, n. (172). 
road, via, -ae, F. 
rob, spoils, 1 ; priv5, 1 ; to. abL 
robber, latrO, -onis, M. 
Roman, Romanus, -a, um. 
Rome, Roma, -ae, F. 
Romulus, Romulus, -i, M. 
rose, rosa, -ae, F. 
rough, asper, -era, -erura. 
ruddy, ruber, -bra, -brum. 
rule, rego, 3 (180) ; regno, 1. 

sad, tristis, -e. 
safe, ttitus, -a, -um. 
sagacious, prGdens, -entls. 
sail, pass, of veh5, 3 ; navigd, 1. 
sailor, nauta, -ae, m. 
sake (for the sake), causft, to. gen, 
Sallust, Sallustius, -I, M. 
same. Idem, eadem, idem (270). 
Samnite, Samnls, -Itis. 



Saturn 



270 



study 



Saturiiy SatumuSi -I, u. 

save, serv5, 1. 

say, died, 8; (keq;> saying), dio- 

tit5, 1. 
scare, terreo, 2. 
school, schola, -ae, f. 
Scipio, Sclpid, -onis, M. 
sea, mare, -is, x. 
see, vide5, 2; (through), per- 

spicid, 3. 
second, secundus, -a, -um. 
seek, peto, 3; quaero, 3. 
seem, videor, 2. 
seize, rapio, 8. 

self, ipse, -a, -um (270) ; sui (264). 
send, mitto, 3 ; (bcu^k) remltto, 3. 
senate, senatus, -us, m. 
September, September, -bris, M. 
servant, minister, -tri, H.; ser- 

VU8, -i, M. (66). 
set out, proficiscor, 3. 
seven, septem. 
seventh, Septimus, -a, -um. 
share, partior, 4. 
sharply, ftcriter. 
she, ea, ejus, f. 
sheep, ovis, -is, F. 
shepherd, pastor, -oris, M. 
shield, scutum, -T, k. 
ship, navis, -is, f. (154). 
shore, litus, -oris, N. 
short, brevis, -e. 
shout, clamor, -oris, M. 
Sicily, Sicilia, -ae, F. 
sick, aeger, -gra, -grum. (71.) 
side, latus, -eris, N. 
signal, siguum, -i, N. 
silent (be), taceo, 2. 
since, cum, to. subj. 
sing, cano, 3 ; cant5, 1. 
sister, soror, -5ris, F. 
sit, sede5, 2. 
sixth, sextus, -a, •mn. 
skilfiil, peritus, -a, -nm. 



slave, servus, -I, h. (66). 

slavery, servitas, -utis, f. 

slay, neco, 1; interficid, 8; oc 
cido, 3. 

'sleep, n., somnus, -i, m. 

sleep, v., dormid, 4. 

small, parvus, -a, -um. 

smith, f aber, -bri, m. 

Socrates, Socrates, -is, bc 

soldier, miles, -itis, m. 

Solon, Soloo, -onis, h. 

some one, aliquis, -qua, (quid) 
-quod (279.2); quidam, quae- 
dam, qnod(quid)dam (279. 5) 
some • . . others, alii . . . alii 
(of two parties), alter! . . . alter! 
often not expressed, 

something, aliquid. 

son, filius, -!, M. 

song, cantus, -Gs, m.; carmen, 
-inis, N. (278). 

son-in-law, gener, -eil, ic 

soon, mox. * 

soothe, mollio, 4. 

source, fons, f ontis, M. 

Spain, Hispania, -ae, f. 

spare, parco, 3 ; to. dot, 

speak, loquor, 3; died, 8; ^edk 
to, alloquor, 3. 

spear, hasta, -ae, F. 

spiritedly, acriter. 

spring, f 5ns, fontis, M. 

spy, expl5rator, -5ris, m. 

stab, transfigo, 8. 

stain, maculo, 1. 

star, Stella, -ae, f. (301). 

start (= set out), profisciseor, 8. 

state, civitas, 4ltis, f. 

statue, statua, -ae, f. 

step, gradus, -Gs, m. (245). 

story, f fibula, -ae, f. 

street, via, -ae, F. 

strong, validus, -a, -um ; f ortls, -e. 

study, n., studium, -I, k. 



study 



271 



tower 



study, v., studeo, 2, w. dot. 

sturdyy validus, -a, -um. 

successfiillyy optime ; feliciter. 

suddenly, Improviso. 

suffer, patior, 3; tolero, 1; suf- 
fers (321). 

suitable, opportunus, -a, >um. 

summer, aestas, -atis, f. 

summon, invito, 1. 

sun, sol, soils, M. 

surpass, 8uper5, 1; vliico, 3 
(186). 

surrender, dedo, 3. 

surround, cingo, 8; circumve- 
nio, 4. 

survive, supersum (297). 

swear, jur5, 1. 

sweet, dulcis, -e ; sua vis, -e. 

swift, vel6x,-ocis; celer,-eris,-ere 
(179). 

sword, gladius, -T, m. ' 



table, ragnsa, -ae, f. 

tail, Cauda, -ae, f. 

take, capio, 3; sumo, 3; take a 

walk, ambulo, 1. 
tall, altus, -a, -um. 
Tarentine, Tarentinus, -T, m. 
Tarquin, Tarqulnlus, -i, M. 
task, peosum, -i, n. 
teach, doceo, 2. 
teacher, magister, -tri, m. ; prae- 

ceptor, -oris, m. 
tear down, resciod5, 3. 
tedious, longus, -a, -um. 
teU, narro, 1 ; dico, 3. 
temple, templum, -i, n. 
tender, tener, -era, -erum. 
tenth, decimus, -a, -um. 
territy, terreo, 2. 
terror, terror, -oris, m. 
than, qnam; abl. (212). 
that, conj. (fn purpose or result 



clauses), ut; ((tfter verbs of fear' 
ing\ ne; (not), ne; {qfter ex- 
pressions of doubt), quin ; after 
verbs of saying and the like, not 
translated, 

that, pron, (determ.), is, ea, id 
(270); (demon,), ille, -a, -ud 
(275) ; iste, -a, -ud (276) ; (rel), 
qui, quae, quod (279), 

their, gen, plur, of is; (own), 
suus, -a, -um. 

themselves, see self. 

then, turn; delude. 

there, ibi; as an expletive, not 
translated, 

thing, res, -ei, F. 

think, arbltror, 1 ; puto, 1 (429). 

thirst, sltis, -is, f. {ace. -im, 
abl. -i). 

thirty, triginta. 

this, (determ,), is, ea, id (270); 
(demon.), hie, haec, hoc (275), 

thou, tu. 

though, cum, w, subj. 

thousand, mille (311. 6). 

three, tres, tria (311. 4). 

three hundred, trecenti, -ae, -a. 

thrust forth, exturbd, 1. 

through, per, w. ace, 

throw, jacio, 3 ; couicio, 3. 

time, tempus, -oris, n. 

tired, defessus, -a, -um. 

to, sign of dative; ad, in, to, ace, ; 
(expressing purpose), ut, w. 
sub}, ; ad, w, gerund or gerundr 
ive; supine, 

to-day, hodie. 

together with, cum, w. abl, 

toil, labSro, 1. 

to-morrow, eras. 

too, quoque; (much), nimium. 

touch, tango, 3. 

towards, ad, in, to. ace, 

tower> turris, -is, f. (149). 



town 



272 



wonder 



town, oppidum, -I, k. 

townsman, oppidanus, -i, M. 

train, exerceo, 2. 

tree, arbor, -oris, f. 

trial (make), experior, 4. 

true, verus, -a, -um. 

trumpet, tuba, -ae, F. 

truth, verum, -I, n. 

try, experior, 4 ; c6Dor, 1. 

turn, converts, 3 ; (from), aver- 
to, 3 ; (out), eveniS, 4. 

twenty, viginti. 

two, duo, -ae, -o (811. 4) ; (which 
of), uter, -tra, -trum ; (each of), 
uterque, utraque, atrumque. 

tyrant, tyranous, -i, M. 

uncertain, incertus, -a, -um. 
undertalce, sasclpio, 3 ; cdnor, 1. 
unwilling (be), nolo (316). 
up, in combination w. verbs, see 

the verbs, 
upon, in, fjo. ace, or abL 
use, utor, 3; w. abU 
useful, utilis, -e. 

vain (in), frtistrS. 

valley, vallls (^or valles), -Is, f. 

valor, virtus, -utis, F. 

very, superl. degree ; admodum. 

victorious, victor, -oris, M. 

victory, victoria, -ae, f. 

virtue, virtus, -utis, f. 

voice, vox, vocls, F. 

wage (war), gero, 8. 

wagon, carrus, -T, m. 

walk (= take a tmlk), ambulo, 1. 

wall, mtirus, -i, M. 

wander, vagor, 1. 

want (= wish^, volo (316) ; de- 

sTdero, 1. 
want (= lack), cared, 2. 



war> bellum, -I, n. 

warn, moueo, 2. 

watch, vlgilo, 1. 

watchfkil, vigil, -is (151. 4). 

water, aqua, -ae, f. 

way, via, -ae, f.; (= respect), 

res, rei, f. 
weapon, telum, -i, N. 
weary, def essus, -a, -unL 
weep, fleo, 2. 
welcome, excipid, 3. 
well, bene. 
well (be), valeS, 2. 
what, interrog,, quis, quae, quid 

(quod) (279); (= that which) , 

id quod. 
when, cum. 
whether, num ; utrum. 
which, qui, quae, quod (279) ; (of 

two), uter, utra, utrum (200). 
while, dum. 
white, albus, -a, -um; candidus, 

-a, -um. 
who, rel., qui, quae; interrog,, 

quis, quae (279). 
whole, totus, -a, -um (200). 
why, cur. 

wide, latus, -a, -um. 
wife, uxor, -oris, f. 
wild, f erus, -a, -um. 
wild beast, fera, -ae, f. 
wind, ventus, -i, M. 
wine, vinum, -i, N. 
"wing, &la, -ae, F. 
winter, hiems, -is, F. 
w^ise, sapiens, -entis. 
wisely, sapienter. 
wish, volo (316). 
with, cum, w. abl. / sometimes abl, 

alone. 
without, sine, to. abl. 
witness, specto, 1. 
wonder, miror, 1; (at), admi- 

ror, 1. 



wooden 



273 



zeal 



"woodeiiy lignens, -a, -um. 

'viroodsy silva, -ae, F. 

ipiroi^y verbum, -i, n. 

\¥ork, n,, labor, -oris, M.; opus, 

-eris, N. 
\¥ork, V.J laboro, 1. 
\¥orld, mandus, -i, m. 
"worthy, dignus, -a, -nm. 
ipirould rather, malo (816). 
\¥Ould that, utlDam. 
"woundy n., vuIdus, -eris, n. 
"wound, «., vulnero, 1. 
iTirretched, miser, -era, -erura. 
iTirrlte, scnbo, 8. 



writiiig, scriptum, -i, n. 
wrong, injuria, -ae, f. 

year, annus, -I, M. 

yesterday, heri. 

yonder (that), ille, -a, -ud (275. 3). 

you, sing, tG, plur, vos. 

young man, adulescens, -entis, 

M. ; juvenis, -is, m. 
your, sing, tuus, -a, -um; plur. 

vester, -tra, -trum. 

Zama, Zama, -ae, f. 
zeal, studinm, -% n. 



GLOSSARIUM GRAMMATICUK 



ablative 

ablative^ ablativus, -T, m.; {of 
instrument) instrument! ; (of 
agent) agentis ; (of manner) 
mod! ; (of specification) respec- 
tus; (of separation) separatio- 
nls; (of description) qualitatis. 

absolute, absolutus, -a, -um. 

accent, accentas, -us, m. 

accusative, accusatlvus, -i, m. 

active, activus, -a, -um. 

adjective, adjectivum, -T, n. 

adverb, adverbium, -i, n. 

agent, agens, -entis, m. 

agree, congruo, 3; w. abl.; con- 
cordo, 1. 

agreement, concordatlo, -onis, f. 

alphabet, alphabetum, -I, n. 

ans'wer, n., responsura, -I, n. 

answ^er, v., responded, 2. 

antecedent, antecedens, -entis, n. 

apposition, appositio, -onis, f. ; 
(be in) app5no, 3. 

cardinal, cardinalis, -e. 
case, casus, -us, m. 
clause, clausula, -ae, F. 
common or appellative, appella- 

tivus, -a, -um. 
comparative, comparatiyus, -a, 

-um. 
comparison, comparatio, -onis, f. 
compound, compositus, -a, -um. 
concessive, conccssivus, -a, -um. 
condition, hypothesis, -is, f. ; 

conditio, -Onis, f. 



distributive 

conditional, hjpotheticus, -a. 

•um ; conditioualls, -e. 
conjugation, coDJugatio, -onis, f. 
conjunction, conjunctlo, -onis, f. 
consonant, Httera consonans, 

-antis, or consonans, -antis, f. 
construction, constructlo,-onis, f. 
conversation, colloquium, -i, n. 
correct, adj., rectus, -a, -um. 
correct, «., corrigo, 3 ; emendo, 1. 
correctly, recte. 

dative, dativus, -T, m. 
declension, declinatio, -onis, f. 
decline, declino, 1. 
declinable, declinabilis, -e. 
defective, defectivus, -a, -um. 
degree, gradus, -us, H. 
demonstrative, demonstratlvus, 

-a, -um. 
deponent, depone us, -entis. 
derive, traho, 3. 
description (abl. of), qualitas, 

-atis, F. 
determinative, definitus, -a, -um. 
difference, discrimen, -inis, x. 
diminutive, demlnutivum, -i, n. 
diphthong, diphthoDgus, -i, m. 
direct, directus, -a, -um ; rectus, 

-a, -um. 
discourse, oratio, -onis, F. 
discuss, tracto, 1. 
dissyllable, dissyllabus, -i, m. 
distributive, distributivus, -a, 

-um. 



end 



276 



pluperfect 



end, V,, dSslnO, 8. 
Elngllshy Anglicus, -a, -nm. 
English (in)y Angllce. 
etymology, etymologia, -ae, f. 
example, exemplum, -i, n. ; (for) 

ut ; exempli causa. 
exception, exceptio, -onis, F. 

feminine, feminmas, -a, -um. 
finite, finitus, -a, -um. 
formation, formatio, -onis, F. 
future, f uturum, -i, n. 
fbture perfect, f uturum exactum. 



gender, genus, -eris, N. 
genitive, genetivus, -T, m. 
gerund, gerundinm, -T, n. 
gerundive, gerundivum, -T, n. 
govern, rego ; pass, of jungo or 

conjungo, foil, by cum w, abl. 
grammar, grammatica, -ae, F. 

imperative, modus imperativus 

or imperativus, -T, m. 
imperfect, imperfectum, -T, n. 
impersonal, impersonalis, -e. 
increase, cresco, 3. 
indicative, modus indicativus, 

-1, M., or indi'*.ativus, -I, M. 
indeclinable, indecliDabilis, -e. 
indirect, indirectus, -a, -um ; ob- 

llquus, -a, -um. 
infinitive, modus infiuilivus or 

inflnitivus, -T, m. 
instrument, instrumentum, -T, n. 
interjection, interjectio, -5nl8, F. 
interrogative, interrogativus, -a, 

-um. 
intransitive, intrausitlvus, -a, 

-um. 
Irregular, IrrSgularis, -e; an5- 

mains, -a, -um. ^ 



Ijatiiiy Lat&us, -a, -um. 
I/atin (in), Latine. 
lesson, peusum, -i, n. 
letter, Httera, -ae, F. 
limit, v.t limits, 1. 
liquid, liquidus, -a, -nm. 
locative, locatlvus, -i, M. 
long, loDgus, -a, -um; productui^ 
-a, -um. 

manner, modus, -T, M. 
masculine, masculinus, -a, -um. 
mean, signified, 1. 
meaning, significati5, -onis, F. 
mistake, n., error, -oris, m. 
mistake, v., erro, 1. 
monosyllable, monosyllabum, -I, 

N. 

mood, modus, -T, M. 
mute, mutus, -a, -um. 




object, objectum, -T, n, 
ordinal, ordinalis, -e. 

paradigm, paradigma, -atis, n. 
participle, participium, -i, x. 
particle, particula, -ae, f. 
partitive, partltivus, -a, um. 
passive, passivus, -a, -um. 
perfect, perfectum, -i, N. 
person, persona, -ae, F. 
personal, personalis, -e. 
phrase, phrasis, -is, f. 
pluperfect, plusquamperfectum, 
-1, N. 



plural 



276 



yes 



plmralf plflrfills, -e. 
posltlvey positlvTis, -a, -nm. 
prepo8itioii> praepositio, -onis, f. 
present, praesSns, -entis, k. 
principal, principfiUs, -e. 
pronoun, pr5iiomen, -Inis, k. 
proper, proprius, -a, -urn. 

quantity, quantitas, -fttis, f. 
question, ititerrogatio, -onis, f. 

reflexive, reciprocus, -a, -11111 ; re- 

flexivus, -a, -urn. 
regular, regularis, -e. 
relative, relativus, -a, -um. 
remember, memoria tened. 
review, rec5gnosc5, 3; (lesson) 

pensum recdgnoscendum. . 
root, radix, -icis, f. 
rule, regula, -ae, F. 

school, schola, -ae, F. 
sentence, sententla, -ae, F. 
separation, separatio, -onis, F. 
sequence, cdnsecutio, -onis, f. 
short, brevis, -e; correptus, -a, 

-um. 
sibilant, sibilns, -a, -um. 
singular, siogiilaris, -e. 
sound, sonus, -i, M. 
specification, respectas, -Gs, M. 
speech (part of), oratio, -onis, f. 
stem, basis, -is, f. 
study, n., studimn, -I, v. 



j study, v., 8tade5, 2. 
subject, subjectum, -T, n. 
subjunctive, modus subjancti- 
vus, -1, M., or subjonctlvus, -1, h. 
substantive, substantiyura, -1, n. 
substantively, substantive. 
superlative, superlatlvus, -a, -um. 
supine, suplnum, -i, x. 
syllable, syllaba, -ae, f. 
syntax, syntaxls, -is, f. 

teacher, praeceptor, -5rls, M.; 

magister, -tri, m.; magistra, 

-ae, F. 
tense, tempus, -oris, N. 
termination, termiuatid, -onis, f. 
transitive, transitlyus, -a, -um. 
treat (= discuss), tracto, 1. 

verb, verbum, -T, N. 
vocabulary, vScabularium, -T, n. 
vocative, vocatlvus, -1, M. 
voice, vox, vdcis, F.; genus, 

-eris, N. 
vowel, llttera v5calis, -is, F., or 

vocalis, -is, F. 

wish, optati5, -5nis, F. 
word, verbum, -f, K. ; vOcabnlum, 
-1, N.; v5x, v6cis, F. 

yes, certg, certissime; vero; its 
est, ista sunt ; verb of question 
repeated. 



INDEX. 



Thb general vocabalariea are to be need as an index to words (with some ezoep- 
tions) for which reference is needed. Fall-face figures refer to sections, not 
pages. A superior figure (e.g. 10>) indicates a foot-note. Most abbreviations 
will readily be understood: fF. a and following; imy. s imperative. 



A. 



a or ab, 61, 62. 

a- verbs, 86. 

Abbbbviations beginning letters, 
4371, 438. 

Ablative, translation of, 14^, 59^ ; 
of agent, 61, 62 ; of means or in- 
strument, 90, 91 ; of material, 92, 
II, 81; of separation, 128-130; 
of time, 135, 136; of manner, 
144, 145 ; w. comparatives, 211, 
212; of specification, 259, 260; 
w. ntor, etc., 303, 304 ; w. preps., 
333 ; of place, 335, 3 ; descriptive, 
341, p. 2228'^; absolute, 412; abl. 
sing, of vowel stems in 3d decl., 
151, 2. 

Abstbagt nouns, 168^. 

-abas, in dat. and abl. plu., 19^. 

AccBNT, 7 ; before enclitics, 7, (1). 

Accusative, direct obj., 25, 26; 
predicate, 92, 1, 62, 93, II, 7*, 171, 
II, 3^ 250, II, 4»; two aces., 131, 
I, 82, 197, II, 108; w. verbs of 
remembering and forgetting, 305, 
306; of extent, 312, 313; w. 
preps., 333, 4 ; of limit, 334, 335, 
2; w. inf., 400, 401; w. some 
impers. verbs, 415, 3, 4, 416. 

Ad, w. gerunds and gerundives, 
432,3. 



Adjectives, of Ist and 2d decls., 
44, 71; of 3d decl., 105, 134, 
141, 160, 164; irregular, 200; 
comparison of, 205 ft.; poss. adj. 
prons., 266; interrog., 279, 3; 
numeral, 311; agreement with 
nouns, 45, II, 1^, 53, 54; used as 
nouns, 117 ; of one, two, or three 
terminations, 155 ; agreement 
with understood subject, 197, 
I, 8^; order w. prep, and noun, 
64, 1, 71 ; order w. gen. and noun, 
124, 1, 6' ; method of declining, 
442. 

Advebbs, formation of, 216 ff. ; 
comparison of, 219; numeral, 
311, 8. 

Agent, abl. of, 61, 62; dat. of, 
425 (5), 426, 444«, cf . 428, n, O^. 

Aliquod as adj., 279, 2. 

Alphabet, 1. 

And, omitted, 57, II, 6^, 227, II, 1^, 
cf. p. 2208; inserted, 35, II, e*'^ 
50, II, 8*, 57, 1, 8*. 

Antecedent of rel. pron., 280 ff. ; 
omitted, 287, 1, 108, p. 221». 

Antepenult, 5, 5. 

Anything at all, quidqoam not 
aUquid, 279, 6, 440ii. 

ApposiTfON, 118, I, 2\ 157, 158, 
197, II, 8^ 

AugustuB et loins (Coll.), 9. 



278 



INDEX. 



B. 

Battlb of Canvas (for tranB."). 

339, 378. 
Battlb of Mabathon (for trans.), 

291. 

C. 

Cas8ab''s Two Invasiohs or Bri- 
tain (for trans.), 448. 

Cardinal numerals, 311. 

Cases, names of, 10; alike in form, 
16. 

Cause, expressed bj com clause, 
376; by part., 409, 7, 412, 3. 

Cbardn et Mercarias (Coll.), 187. 

Cognomen, 196, 204. 

COLLEGTIYE NOUNS, 168^. 

Colloquia, Aagostos et ItQas, 9, 
68, 80; Pater et I^olns, 95, 
222, 302 ; Frater et Sororcnla, 
111, 162, 269, 274; Praeceptor 
et Discipolns, 126, 133, 195, 
204, 234, 261 ; Magister et Dis- 
dpnlns, 139; Duo Paeri, 148; 
Father and Son, 173; Charon 
et Mercurins, 187; Jacobus et 
Augustus, 242; S5crates et 
Bhadamanthus, 290; Tityrus 
et Meliboeus, 332 ; Jdhannes et 
Jacobus, 388. 

Commands and appeals, 391. 

Comparative degree, formation 
of, 206, (1),219; with and with- 
out quam, 211, 212; trans, by 
too, p. 220^. 

Comparison of adjs., 205 ff. ; of 
adys., 219. 

Compound tenses, 97. 

Concession, expressed by cum 
clause, 372, 375, p. 219^1; by 
part., 409, 4, 412, 3. 

Conditions, 383 ff . ; expressed by 
part., 409, 5, 412, 3, p. 214^. 



Conjugations : Ist, 86 ff., 361 ff. ; 
2d, 112 ff., 351 ff.; review of 1st 
dud 2d, 127 ff. ; 3d, 180 ff., 367 ff. ; 
review of 1st, 2d, and 3d, 196, 
197 ; 4th, 223 ff ., 357 ff . ; 3d in -lo, 
235 ff ., 367 ff. ; review of the four 
conJB., 240, 241; periphrastic, 
422 ff. 

Consonants, 3 ; sounds of, 4. 

Consonant stems, 104, 134, 140. 

Cum, conj., temporal, causal, and 
concessive, 372 ff. 

Cum, prep., with me, te, etc., 266, 3 ; 
w. abl. of manner, 144, 146. 

Customs and Habits of ths 
Britons (for trans.), 449. 

D. 

Dative of possessor, 32; tndtreci 
obj\ 31, 1, 7, 8, 9, II, 2, 6, 10, 33, 
34; w. comps. of sum, 296 ; of 
service, 291^, 296, n, 7^, 344 ; w. 
certain verbs, 342, 343; douMe 
dative, 344 ; w. intransitives, 417, 
418; of agent, 426,426; not to 
be taken for abl., 184, 6. 

Death of the Pet Sparrow (for 
trans.), 421. 

Declension, paradigms of: 1st 
14 ; 2d in -us and -tim, 38 ; in -er^ 
69, 65; adjs. of Ist and 2d, 71 
8d, mute stems, 105 ; liquid stems, 
134 ; sibilant stems, 140, 141 
t stems, 149, 150 ; mixed stems, 
163-165 ; comparatives, 209 
4th, 245 ; 5th, 254; special, 262 
prons., 264, 270, 275, 279; duo 
and tres, 311, 4. 

Definitions, sometimes not given 
in vocabs., 67, 1, 1^. 

Demonstrative pronouns, 276. 

Deponent verbs, 1st and 2d con js., 
298 ff. ; 8d and 4th conjs., 303 ff. 

Dbbivation, 346. 



IKDEX. 



279 



Desgriptitb abl. and gen., 341; 

abl., p. 222«.*. 
Dbtebminatiye pronouns, 270; 

used like adjs., 270, 1. 
TCc, imy. of dico, p. 150^. 
Diphthongs, 4 ; quantity of, 6, 2. 

DlSTBIBUTIYE NUMERALS, 311, 8. 

•do, nouns in, 168. 

Double consonants, 3. 

Double dative, 344. 

Due, imv. of duco, p. IW. 

DuM with pres. ind., 26318, 44210. 

Duo Pueri (Coll.), 148. 

E. 
e-yerbs, 112. 
e- verbs, 180, 235. 
English method of pronunciation, 

8. 
Enclitics, 7, (1). 
-er, nouns and adjs. of 2d decl. in, 

67; compar. of adjs. in, 206, 

(1). (3). 
-evi, perfects in, 119^. 

Extent, accusatiye of, 312, 313. 

F. 

Fables (tor trans.), 441-447. 
Fac, imv. of facio, p. 150^ 
Fatheb and Son (Coll.), 173. 
Feminine gender, 11, 2, 4 ; in 1st 

decl., 13; in 3d decl., 168, 2 ; in 

4th decl., 244, 1 ; in 6th decl., 

253. 
Fer, imv. of fero, p. 150^. 
Fero, compoimds of, 322. 
Fifth decl., 252 ff. 
First conj., 86 ff., 351 ff. ; first 

X)eriphra8tic conj., 422. 
First decl., 12 ff., 52 £f. 
Fourth conj., 223 fif., 357 fif. 
Fourth decl., 243 ff. 
Frater et Sordrcula (Coll.), Ill, 

162, 269, 274. 



Future translated bj Eng. pres., 
116, 1, 18, 385, 31 ; fut. imv., 391, 
(3) ; equivalent to imv., 488^8^ 

G. 

Gender, general rules of, 11 ; in 
Ist decl., 13; in 2d decl., 37; 
in 3d decl., 168; in 4th decl., 
244; in 5th decl., 253. Agree- 
ment in, 45, II, 11, 53, 54, 281. 

Genitive, like Eng. possessive, 30, 
I, 61 ; of nouns in -ius and -turn, 
79; with verbs of remembering 
and forgetting, 305, 306 ; parti- 
tive, 340, 43817, 4395^ 44912 ; de- 
scriptive, 341 ; with certain im- 
pers. verbs, 415, 3, 4, 416 ; order 
w. adj. and noun, 124, 1, 68. 

Gerund, 430-432; nom. of sup- 
plied by inf., 431, 1. 

Gerundive, p. 34^; 423, 432; diff. 
between gerund and gerundive 
construction, 432. 

-go, nouns in, 168. 

H. 

Hie, demon, of 1st pers., 275, 1 ; 

in contrast with ille, 275, 5. 
Historical tenses, 347; pres. 4448. 
Hortatory subjunctive, 390, 391. 

1. 

i-stems, 149 ff. 

1- verbs, 223. 

Ille, demon, of 3d pers., 275, 3 ; in 

contrast with hlc, 275, 5. 
Imperfect, denoting continuance, 

115, 1, 52; of customary action, 

44512. 
Imperative, 389 ff. ; not common 

in prohibitions, 391, (2)8. 
Impersonal verbs and verbs used 

impersonally, 415 £f., 425, (4). 
In not always to be translated by 



280 



INDBX. 



in, 146, I, 2\ 185, U, 7, 296, 

II, W. 
In omitted, 291'. 
IircBBAflB in the gen., 152, 1^. 
Invbfinitb pronouns, 279. 
Indioatitb in cond. sentences, 385. 
Indirect discourse, 399 ft. 
Indirect object 31, I, 7, 8, 9, II, 

2, 6, 10, 33, 34. 
Indirect questions, 379 ff. 
Intinitiye as in Eng., 395 k, ; w. 

sub. ace, 399 ff. ; tenses of, 402- 

403; fut. pass., 402^ 405, 1, 2\ 
Instrument, abl. of, 90, 91. 
Interrooatiyb pronoun, 279 ; adj ., 

279, 3 i advs., 380, 1. 
Intransitive verbs used impersoR- 

allj in the passive, 417, 418. 
-i5| nouns in, 168; verbs in, of 3d 

conj., 235. 
Ipse, distinguished from se, 270, 4, 

5 ; how translated, 270, 6. 
Irrbgular adjs., 200 ff. ; verbs, 

72 ff., 292 ff., 316 ff. 
Is as pers. pron., 270, 2; this or 

that, 275, 6. 
Islands, names of, 334^. 
It, expletive, 85, 1, 1^, 56, 1, 7*. 
-iom in gen. plu., 151, 3. 
-ins in gen. sing, of adjs., 200. 
-ins and -ium, gen. of nouns in, 

79; voc. of noUns in -ins, 79. 
-ivi, perfs. in, often drop v, 231, 1, 

912, 337, 2. 

J. 
Jaeobus et AugustuB (Coll.), 242. 
Jdhannes et Jacobus (Coll.), 388. 

L. 

Letters (for trans.), 437-440. 

Limit, ace. of, 335, 2^. 

Liquids, 3. 

Liquid stems, 184 ff. 

'lifl, superlative of adjs. in, 207. 



Locative, 10, 3, 334, 335, 1 ; in 1st 
decl., 14, 2; in 2d decL, 40; in 
3d decl., 175. 

M. 

Magiflter ei Diacipnlns (Coll.), 

139. 
Manner, how expressed, 144, 145. 
MfircuB Porcins Cato, Puer (for 

trans.), 394. 
Masculine gender, 11, 1, 3 ; in 2d 

decl., 37 ; in 3d decl., 168, 1 ; in 

4th decl., 244; in 6th decl., 253. 
Material, how expressed, 92, II, 8^. 
Means, abl. of, 90, 91. 
Mixed stems, 163 ff. 
Motion, verbs of, foil, by ace. with 

and without prep., 333-385. 
Mutes, 3. 
Mute stems, 105 ff. 

N. 

Narrative sentences, 372, (3). 
Nasica and EnniuB (for trans.), 

407. 
Ne, encUtic, 7, (1), 28, l^, 51, 3», 

588. 
Ne, 358, 369, 391, (1); emitted 

after cave, p. 178*. 
Neuter gender, 11, 5 ; in 2d decl., 

37 ; in 3d decl., 168, 3. 
Noll in prohibitions, 391 (1)^. 
Nomen, 195, 204. 
Nominative, subj., 24; pred., 46, 

47, 92, 1, 68, 93, H, C*. 
Nonne, 51, 38. 
-ns, nouns in, 167, 1. 
Numeral adjs., 311 ; advs., 311, 8. 

O. 

0, w. vec, 56, II, 1*. 
Object, direct, 25, 26; indirect, 
31, 1, 7, 8, 9, II, 2, 6, 10, 33, 34. 



INDEX. 



281 



Of = because of, 330, U, 2K 
Omission of my, thy, his, etc., 100 ; 

of ut, 438», 44611; of in, 29r; 

of ne, p. 178^ ; of fore in trans., 

428, 1, 4*. 
Obdbb of words in sentence, 23; 

36,1; 66,1,108; 64, I, 7i; 69, 

1, 101; 77,1,56; 93, i, 92. 124, 

I, 6»; 202, I, 66; 216"; qnia- 

qne, 287, 1, 62 ; fere, 329, 1, 6I ; 

386, I, 3>; 404; 410, II, 9^; 

43810; 44010; 446^; p. 2168; p. 

217» ; p. 21918. 
Obdinal numbbals, 311. 
OuoHT, of past time, 419, 1, 88. 

P. 

Pabtigiples, 408 ff. ; in principal 
parts, 861; ^ecl. of pres. act., 
166, 408, 1, of perf. and fut., 
406, 2; perf. in comp. tenses 
as adj., 192, I, 71, 404, I, 41 ; 
part, and verb trans, bj two co- 
ordinate verbs, 409, 2, 410, I, 5^, 
412, 4; abl. absolute, 412, 413; 
Eng. perf. act. part., how ren- 
dered, 412, 6, 7 ; used as nouns, 
2918. 

Fassiye to be distinguished from 
progressive form in Eng., 69, II, 
86, 1^3, II, 31. 

Pater et fHiolos (Coll.), 95, 222, 
302. 

Fabtitivb gen., 340, 438i^ 439^, 
44012. 

Penult, 6, 5. 

Psbfbgt, sometimes distinguished 
from pres. bj long penult, 119^, 
191, 1, 21, 232, 1, 11 ; definite and 
ind^nite, 347 ; perf. subj. in pro- 
hibitions, 391, (2) ; perf. part, 
trans, by pres., 4421*, p. 2178 ; w. 
nbi, nt, etc., 444^; perf. subj. 
really fut. perf., 391, (2)K 



Pbbifhbastic conjugations : act., 
422 ; pass., 423 ; paradigms, 424. 

Personal peonouns, 264, 265; 
when nom. of is expressed, 266, 2. 

Place, expressions of, 334 ff. 

Possessive adj. pbons., 266; when 
omitted, 100. 

P0SSE88OB, dat. of, 32 ; cf . 441^. 

Praeceptor et Discipulus (Coll.), 
126, 133, 195, 204, 234, 261. 

Praenomen, 195, 204. 

Predicate nom., 46, 47, 92, 1, 68, 
93, II, 68; ace, 92, 1, 62, 93, II, 
7*, 171, II, 31. 

Prepositions, 333; order w. adj. 
and noun, 64, 1, 71. 

Present, translation of, 43i; de- 
noting continuance, 116, I, 52; 
Eng. pres. for Lat. fut., 116, I, 
18, 386, 31 ; for Lat. fut. perf., 
413, II, 102; sometimes distin* 
guished from perf. by short pe- 
nult, 1196, 191, I, 21 ; w. dum, 
26318, 44210; historical, 444^; pres. 
subj. trans, as fut., 369, 1, 4. 

Primary tenses, 347. 

Principal parts of verbs, 86I. 

Pbincipal tenses, 347. 

Prohibitions, 391, (1), (2). 

Progressive form in Eng. to be 
distinguished from passive, 69, 
II, 86, 123, II, 31. 

Pronunciation, Roman method, 
4 ; English method, 8. 

Prdaerpina (for trans.), 199, 216, 
263. 

PubtLus Cometius Scipid (for 
trans.), 188. 

Purpose, expressed by nt w. subj., 
362, 353; qui w. subj., 364; 
fut. part., 410, I, 96; ad w. 
gerundive, 432, 3; supine, 433, 
434 ; causa w. gen. of gerund or 
gerundive, 436, 1, 3, p. 2216. 



282 



XSDTSSi. 



Q. 

Quantity of vowels and diph- 
thongs, 6, 1, 2 ; of syllables, 6, 
3, 4, 6. 

Quin, w. subj., 349, 350. 

Qois, indef. pron. w. si, etc., 362, 
I, 6», 43816. 

B. 

r, as sign of passive, 87^ ; for s, 
731-8*, 142. 

Reflexive pronoun, 264, 265. 

Relative pronoun, 279; agree- 
ment, 280 ff. ; in purpose clause, 
364. 

Best, verbs of, foil, by abl., 333- 
335. 

Result, w. ut, 368 ff. ; to be dis- 
tinguished from purpose^ 352, 
368, 4471^. 

BoMAN METHOD of prouun., 4. 

•rs, nouns in, 167, 1. 

S. 

-B, monosyllables in, 167, 2. 

Secondary tenses, 347. 

Second conj., 112 ff., 351 ff. Sec- 
ond periphrastic conj., 423. 

Second decl., in -us and -um, 36 ff., 
52 ff., in -er, 69 ff. 

Semi-deponents, p. l??^. 

Separation, how expressed, 128 ff. 

Sequence of tenses, 347 ff. 

Service, dat. of, 291i, 296, II, 7^ 
344. 

Sibilant, 3. 

Sibilant stems, 140 ff. 

Socrates et Bhadamanthus (Coll.), 
290. 

Sounds of letters, 4. 

Specification, abl. of, 259, 260, p. 
2186. 

Stem, 12^; in 2d decl., 36, 42; in 



verbs, 86^; in 3d decl., 103, 
104, 107, 151, 1, 152, 166, 167 ; 
in 4th decl., 243 ; in 6th decl., 
252. Perf. stem w. long vowel, 
1196. 

Subject nom., 24 ; ace. 401 ; 
omitted, 50, 1, 9^. 

Subjunctive of purpose, 352, 353, 
364 ; of result, 368 ; w. cum, 372 ; 
in ind. questions, 379 ff. ; in wishes 
and conditionsy 383 ff. ; hortatory, 
390 ; perf. really f ut. perf., 391, 
(2)2; fut. tense of, 425 (1). 
Meanings not given in paradigms, 
p. 261. 

Superlative degree, formation of, 
206, (2), (3) ; strengthened by 
quam, 437^. 

Supine, 433, 434. 

S. V. B. E. v., 4371. 

Syllables, 5; quantity of, 6, 3, 
4,6. 

Synonymous Words, pueri, liberi, 
60; magister, dominus, 66; min- 
ister, servus, 66; homo, vir, 138; 
amnis, flumen, fluvins, 172 ; hos- 
tis, inimicus, 172 ; celer, velox, 
179; super6,vinc5, 186; babito, 
vivo, 194 ; animus, mens, 273 ; 
cantus, carmen, 278 ; Eudos, stel- 
la, 301 ; amo, diligd, volo, de- 
sidero, 319;' interrogo, rogo, 
quaero, 382 ; at, sed, autem, 393 ; 
judic5, censeo, existimd, arbi- 
tror, puto, opinor, 429. 

T. 

Terminations, 15. 

There, expletive, 35, I, 2^; 66, 1, 

72 ; 220, 1, 12. 
Third conj., 180 ff., 357 ff. ; verbs 

in -10, 235 ff., 357 ff. 
Third decl., mute stems, 105 ff. ; 

liquid stems, 134 ff. ; sibilant 



INDEX. 



288 



stems, 140 ff. ; i-stems, 149 ff. ; 
mixed stems, 163 ff. 

Time when or within which, 135, 
136; how long, 312, 313; ex- 
pressed by cum clause, 372, 373, 
by part., 409, 1, 2, 8, 412 ; rela- 
tiye time in tenses of inf., 402, 
403, 405, II, 86, of part., 409. 

Tltyrus et Meliboeus (Coll.), 332. 

Towns, names of, 334, 335. 

Tbanslation, passages for, Ptiblius 
Gomelins Scipio, 188; Pr5ser- 
pina, 199, 215, 263 ; Battle of 
Marathon, 291 ; Maxims, 320 ; 
Battle of Cannae, 339, 378 ; Mar- 
ciLB Porcins Cato, Puer, 394 ; Na- 
nca and Ennius, 407 ; Death of 
the Pet Sparrow, 421 ; Letters, 
437-440 ; Fables, 441-447 ; Cae- 
sar's Two Invasions of Britain, 
448; Customs and Habits of 
the Britons, 449. 

U. 

•ubns in dat. and abl. of 4th decl., 
247. 



Ultima, 5, 5. 

Ut, of purpose, 352 ft. ; of result, 

367 £f.; w. ind., 437*, 4392; 

omitted, 438^ 446-^. 

V. 

V, sometimes dropped, 231, 1, 9^'^, 

327, 2, 4216. 
Vocative, 10, 2 ; in 2d decl., 39 ; 

of f nius, etc., 79. 
Vocabularies following exercises, 

75,2. 
Vowels, how marked, 2; sounds 

of, 4 ; quantity of, 6, 1, 2. 

W. 

Wishes, 383 ff. 

With not always to be translated 
by cum, 185, II, 52. 

X. 

-X, monosyllables in, 167, 2. 

Y. 
You, sing, or plu., 73^. 



40 



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